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This chapter proposes semiparametric estimation of the relationship between growth rate of GDP per capita, growth rates of physical and human capital, labor as well as…
This chapter proposes semiparametric estimation of the relationship between growth rate of GDP per capita, growth rates of physical and human capital, labor as well as other covariates and common trends for a panel of 23 OECD countries observed over the period 1971–2015. The observed differentiated behaviors by country reveal strong heterogeneity. This is the motivation behind using a mixed fixed- and random coefficients model to estimate this relationship. In particular, this chapter uses a semiparametric specification with random intercepts and slopes coefficients. Motivated by Lee and Wand (2016), the authors estimate a mean field variational Bayes semiparametric model with random coefficients for this panel of countries. Results reveal nonparametric specifications for the common trends. The use of this flexible methodology may enrich the empirical growth literature underlining a large diversity of responses across variables and countries.
The deposition of particles onto a substrate during the cold spraying (CS) process relies on severe plastic deformation, so there are various micro-defects induced by…
The deposition of particles onto a substrate during the cold spraying (CS) process relies on severe plastic deformation, so there are various micro-defects induced by insufficient deformation and severe crushing. To solve the problems, many post-treat techniques have been used to improving the quality by eliminating the micro-defects. This paper aims to help scholars and engineers in this field a better and systematic understand of CS technology by summarizing the post-treatment technologies that have been investigated recently years.
This review summarizes the types of micro-defects and introduces the effect of micro-defects on the properties of CS coating/additive manufactured, illustrates the post-treatment technologies and its effect on the microstructure and performances, and finally outlooks the future development trends of post-treatments for CS.
There are significant discoveries in post-treatment technology to change the performance of cold spray deposits. There are also many limitations for post-treatment methods, including improved performance and limitations of use. Thus, there is still a strong requirement for further improvement. Hybrid post-treatment may be a more ideal method, as it can eliminate more defects than a single method. The proposed ultrasonic impact treatment could be an alternative method, as it can densify and flatten the CS deposits.
It is the first time to reveal the influence factors on the performances of CS deposits from the perspective of microdefects, and proposed corresponding well targeted post-treatment methods, which is more instructive for improving the performances of CS deposits.
Some researchers have found that disasters may have a “blessing in disguise effect” that some disaster sites transformed into more popular tourism destinations; however…
Some researchers have found that disasters may have a “blessing in disguise effect” that some disaster sites transformed into more popular tourism destinations; however, no studies have analyzed the heterogeneity of the “blessing in disguise effect”. This paper aims to explore and determine the effect of cultural distance on international inbound tourist arrivals to a post-disaster tourist destination that could explain this heterogeneous phenomenon.
This study used a threshold regression model and a differences-in-differences (DID) approach to analyze 2000–2016 international tourist arrival data from 13 main origin countries to Sichuan Province before and after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China.
The effect of cultural distance on post-disaster inbound arrivals from the various origin countries followed a non-linear U-shaped “double-edged sword” pattern rather than displaying a simple linear relationship. Most notably, the disaster appeared to have a more positive effect on arrivals from countries with larger cultural distances, while the effect on arrivals from countries with shorter cultural distances was negative.
This study found that cultural distance could explain the heterogeneous “blessing in disguise” phenomenon, and it had both positive and negative impacts on tourism destination recovery; that is, a definite “double-edged sword effect” of cultural distance was found, which could help destination marketing organizations and management departments to design appropriately targeted marketing for post-disaster tourism destination recovery.
些研究人员发现, 灾难可能会产生“因祸得福效应”, 即一些灾难现场变成了更受欢迎的旅游目的地。然而, 目前还没有研究分析这种“因祸得福效应”的异质性。本研究旨在探讨文化距离对灾后旅游目的地的国际入境旅游流的影响, 从而解释这种异质性现象。
文化距离对灾后客源国的入境旅游人数的影响呈现非线性的U型“双刃剑”模式, 而不是简单的线性关系。最值得注意的是, 灾难似乎对来自文化距离较大的客源国的游客人数产生了更积极的影响, 而对来自文化距离较短的客源国的游客人数产生了消极的影响。
本研究发现, 文化距离可以解释异质性的“因祸得福”现象, 文化距离对旅游目的地恢复既有积极影响, 也有消极影响, 即文化距离具有明确的“双刃剑效应”。这可以帮助旅游目的地的灾后恢复设计合理的、有针对性的营销策略和恢复政策。
Algunos investigadores han encontrado que los desastres pueden tener la “bendición del efecto disfraz” de que algunos sitios de desastre se transformen en destinos turísticos más populares;Sin embargo, ningún estudio ha analizado la heterogeneidel “efecto de bendición disfrazado”.El objetivo de este estudio es explorar y determinar el efecto de la distancia cultural en los flujos turísticos internacionales hacia un destino turístico después del desastre, lo que podría explicar este fenómeno heterogéneo.
se empleun modelo de regresión de umbral y un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias (DID) para analizar los datos de llegada de turistas internacionales de 2000–2016 de trece países de origen principal A la provincia de Sichuan antes y después del terremoto de Wenchuan de 2008 en China.
el efecto de la distancia cultural en las llegde los diversos países de origen después del desastre siguió un patrón de “espada de doble filo” no lineal en forma de u, en lugar de mostrar una relación lineal simple.Más notablemente, el desastre pareció tener un efecto más positivo en las llegde países con distancias culturales más grandes, mientras que el efecto en las llegde países con distancias culturales más cortas fue negativo.
este estudio encontró que la distancia cultural podría explicar el heterogéneo fenómeno de la “bendición disfrazada” y que tenía impactos tanto positivos como negativos en la recuperación de un destino turístico;Es decir, se encontró un “efecto de doble filo” de la distancia cultural, que podría ayudar a las organizaciones de comercialización de destinos turísticos y a los departamentos de administración a diseñar estrategias de comercialización dirigidas adecuadamente para la recuperación de destinos turísticos después del desastre.
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research and developments relating to the use of Web 2.0 technologies in education. As opposed to early educational uses of the Internet involving publication of static information on web pages, Web 2.0 tools offer a host of opportunities for educators to provide more interactive, collaborative, and creative online learning experiences for students. The chapter starts by defining Web 2.0 tools in terms of their ability to facilitate online creation, editing, and sharing of web content. A typology of Web 2.0 technologies is presented to illustrate the wide variety of tools at teachers’ disposal. Educational uses of Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, blogs, and microblogging are explored, in order to showcase the variety of designs that can be utilized. Based on a review of the research literature the educational benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies are outlined, including their ability to facilitate communication, collaborative knowledge building, student-centered activity, and vicarious learning. Similarly, issues surrounding the use of Web 2.0 tools are distilled from the literature and discussed, such as the possibility of technical problems, collaboration difficulties, and plagiarism. Two case studies involving the use Web 2.0 tools to support personalized learning and small group collaboration are detailed to exemplify design possibilities in greater detail. Finally, design recommendations for learning and teaching using Web 2.0 are presented, again based on findings from the research literature.
This chapter seeks to analyse neighbouring in times of rapid change in the Chinese metropolis of Shanghai. Using the local neighbourhood of Tianzifang as a case study…
This chapter seeks to analyse neighbouring in times of rapid change in the Chinese metropolis of Shanghai. Using the local neighbourhood of Tianzifang as a case study, this chapter shows how the pace of change in Shanghai since the 1950s has reshaped the social fabric of the area, including traditional neighbour relations. As Tianzifang has shifted from an unknown neighbourhood comprised of traditional lilong dwellings, where social relations played out in private communal settings, to one of Shanghai’s most famous tourist spots, the relationships between residents, as well as with ‘outsiders’ and the familiar local environment, have also changed. Traditional neighbourly ties have been broken, rebuilt and transformed again through waves of new residents coming into the area and the displacement of others who can no longer afford to live there. For those who remain, the question of who is, and thus who is not, a ‘real’ neighbour has been narrowed to include only ‘insiders’ with a deep sense of belonging and connection to the area – i.e. the urban working class who have always lived in Tianzifang and own rather than rent their homes. Yet even this is no longer sufficient. The disruption that Tianzifang’s physical and social transformation has brought to residents’ lives has also imposed new social norms about how neighbours should behave in this new, intermediary space of public and private. ‘Real’ neighbours are those who conform to changing social norms while neighbours who breach them can be ostracised and excluded by others who once saw them as an insider.
Rapid development of IT and communication technologies resulted in the “Smart” concept, which of late has become quite popular. The smart concept signifies the integration…
Rapid development of IT and communication technologies resulted in the “Smart” concept, which of late has become quite popular. The smart concept signifies the integration of organizational networks and smart features that enrich the ecosystem, facilitate daily activities for all stakeholders, and for automatization. Smart concept was discussed as a complicated technological infrastructure in urban areas intended to promote economic, social and environmental welfare. The latest technological developments gave rise to the concepts of smart planet, smart city and smart destination that have become important in recent years. Technological innovations have had a big influence on the development of the tourism industry. Smart concept is conceptualized as smart tourism for tourism sector. Smart Tourism generally has a positive effect on the rapid change of information and technology and on the tourism sector, tourism activities and increase in customer satisfaction. In this chapter, the concept of Smart and its smart technologies are explained and information about its reflections on the tourism sector and smart tourism destinations are discussed.
The extant literature provides much-needed support to understand marketing accountability and how marketing actions are related to financial performance (FP). However, we…
The extant literature provides much-needed support to understand marketing accountability and how marketing actions are related to financial performance (FP). However, we have limited understanding of the relationships between marketing actions and firms' social performance (SP) and environmental performance (EP). Understanding these links is critical to enhancing sustainable FP, SP, and EP. Moreover, the literature provides limited understanding of the measures by which SP and EP may be operationalized, or the data necessary to reach a conclusion. This study bridges these gaps by extensively reviewing the extant literature to offer a set of measures and data sources to operationalize SP and EP, and empirically show their relationships with marketing actions. We find that greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, environmental disclosure score, waste reduction, energy consumption, and recycling are prominent measures of EP, and that social disclosure score, philanthropy or community spending, and diversity of gender and race are prominent measures of SP. The KLD, ASSET4, and Bloomberg are prominent sources of data that can be used to operationalize SP, to which CDP may be added for EP. We also show that marketing actions positively affect EP and SP. This study contributes to the extant literature on SP and EP by identifying measures and data sources and linking marketing actions to both performance types. It contributes to policy development by identifying the importance of EP and SP and how marketing actions can help achieve such performance.
Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…
Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.
Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.
TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.
The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.
This study traces the growth of Dragon Boat racing from humble beginnings in 1976 as part of a local tourism strategy by the Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA) to…
This study traces the growth of Dragon Boat racing from humble beginnings in 1976 as part of a local tourism strategy by the Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA) to position Hong Kong as more distinctive than a destination for shopping or with British colonial history appeal. Dragon Boat racing is now a recognized world sport requiring a global strategy of co-operative alliances and is close to becoming an official sport in the Olympic Games. Emergent strategy and symbolic authenticity of intangible cultural heritage are key concerns for integrating special events as a central tourism experience.
This chapter presents three trends emerging from a review of the literature: concern with balancing authenticity and profit-chasing; the phenomenal fast growth of the sport and the challenge to develop and maintain international control and governance; and seeking evidence of health and well-being benefits of Dragon Boat racing for breast cancer survivors.
Survivors and élite athletes represent a symbolic authenticity connected to ancient Chinese intangible cultural heritage. Chasing profits by including cultural heritage as part of a particular tourism strategy has strengthened and protected the legacy of that heritage in unexpected ways. There are lessons for those charged with designing quality events and tourism experiences linked with intangible culture.
Based on literature review only, but sets a framework for research in several directions.
Demonstrates the blurring of boundaries between tourism, events and sports, and how managers must be adept to shift strategy according to changing unexpected dynamics of threats and opportunities, yet still can adhere to symbolic authenticity to maintain integrity of intangible cultural heritage as a tourism experience.
This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.
This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.
Following a brief introduction of titanium (Ti) alloys, this paper considers the near-α group of Ti alloys, which are the most popular high-temperature Ti alloys developed for a high-temperature application, particularly in compressor disc and blades in aero-engines. The paper is relied on literature within the past decade to discuss phase stability and microstructural effect of alloying elements, plastic deformation and reinforcements used in the development of these alloys.
The near-a Ti alloys show high potential for high-temperature applications, and many researchers have explored the incorporation of TiC, TiB SiC, Y2O3, La2O3 and Al2O3 reinforcements for improved mechanical properties. Rolling, extrusion, forging and some severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, as well as heat treatment methods, have also been explored extensively. There is, however, a paucity of information on SiC, Y2O3 and carbon nanotube reinforcements and their combinations for improved mechanical properties. Information on some SPD techniques such as cyclic extrusion compression, multiaxial compression/forging and repeated corrugation and straightening for this class of alloys is also limited.
This paper provides a topical, technical insight into developments in near-a Ti alloys using literature from within the past decade. It also outlines the future developments of this class of Ti alloys.