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Article

Anil Mathur, Elaine Sherman and Leon G. Schiffman

Based on Schiffman and Sherman’s conceptual model of the new‐age elderly this article constructs a measure that identifies this segment of elderly in terms of their value…

Abstract

Based on Schiffman and Sherman’s conceptual model of the new‐age elderly this article constructs a measure that identifies this segment of elderly in terms of their value orientation. The findings show that older consumers’ value orientations are an effective segmentation approach; one that is superior for partitioning the market for services like leisure travel than the traditional age‐based segmentation approach. Marketing strategy implications of the findings are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Mary M. Long and Leon G. Schiffman

Because consumers can vary greatly in the nature of their relationship with a service provider, it is reasonable to expect that a wide range of different values may…

Abstract

Because consumers can vary greatly in the nature of their relationship with a service provider, it is reasonable to expect that a wide range of different values may influence consumption behavior. Additionally, consumers’ values composition may predispose them to interpret their relationships with service providers differently and those service providers’ marketing communications. The present study explores the range of values which motivate business consumers’ reactions to service providers, specifically airlines’ frequent flyer programs. As part of this process, consumers are segmented in terms of their values and relationships with airlines in order to better understand the motives and behavior that drive choice of service providers. Based on the results, specific communications strategies are offered for each of the identified segments that address the desired benefits sought by each value segment.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Nejdet Delener

Reports on a study designed to explore the effects of religion andreligiosity on perceived risk in purchase decisions. Asserts thatreligious values represent the most…

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to explore the effects of religion and religiosity on perceived risk in purchase decisions. Asserts that religious values represent the most basic element of a consumer′s cognitive world, and can be meaningfully related to lifestyles. Concludes that religious individuals tend to perceive higher risks in their purchase decisions.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Michael Callow and Leon G. Schiffman

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of using standardized visual images in global print advertising campaigns. In particular, it examines how visual…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of using standardized visual images in global print advertising campaigns. In particular, it examines how visual images depicting social (in)activity are interpreted among students from the USA, Spain, and the Philippines. Hall's contextual typology and Brewer's social identity theory are used to conceptually explain variations in consumers’ implicature development. The results of the quasi‐experimental study suggest that high‐context audiences are more inclined than low‐context audiences to over‐read into the meaning of the visual, and that the types of weak implicatures created are positively related to the audience's perceived social identity.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Benny Barak, Anil Mathur, Yong Zhang, Keun Lee and Emmanuel Erondu

Field survey studies undertaken in Nigeria, Korea, China and India explored the way inner‐age satisfaction is experienced in those culturally diverse societies…

Abstract

Field survey studies undertaken in Nigeria, Korea, China and India explored the way inner‐age satisfaction is experienced in those culturally diverse societies. Chronologically 20 to 59 year old respondents’ inner‐age satisfaction was gauged as the average difference between feel, look, do, and interest cognitive (self‐perceived) and desired (ideal) inner‐age dimensions. Analyses of covariance (with chronological age factored out) across the four nations showed Nigeria to differ significantly in terms of inner‐age satisfaction from each Asian population, contrary to the Asian societies where no differences were found across samples (except between Korea and India where inner‐age satisfaction differed at a p .05). High levels of satisfaction with inner‐age (coming about when cognitive and desired ages are equal) commonly transpired: 31.4 per cent of Indian, 36.9 per cent of Nigerian, 44.3 per cent of Chinese, and 44.9 per cent of Korean respondents. Age dissatisfaction in an elder direction (ideal age older than self‐perceived age) was atypical and happened most often among Nigerian (23.4 per cent) and least among Korean subjects (10.7 per cent). In contrast, wishing for a younger innerage was a commonplace phenomenon in India (50.6 per cent of the sample), as well as in China where it occurred the least (36.6 per cent). The study’s findings imply the universal nature of the way human beings (irrespective of culture) perceive and feel about inner‐age, as well as the potential of an inner‐age satisfaction psychographic as a relevant consumer behavior segmentation trait for marketing planners of age‐sensitive products and services who seek to standardize their global branding and distribution.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 15 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Richard Fox and Warren A. French

Senior citizens adjust to retirement living in distinctly different manners. These adjustment mannerisms could be used as a basis for market segmentation. Although some of…

Abstract

Senior citizens adjust to retirement living in distinctly different manners. These adjustment mannerisms could be used as a basis for market segmentation. Although some of the potential segments might be alienated by appeals aimed solely to the elderly, others might be successfully approached by appeals positioned specifically toward their needs.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Blaise J. Bergiel and Christine Trosclair

When modern‐day students of marketing turned from the economic explanation of consumer behavior, learning theory was one of the first resources in which they sought more…

Abstract

When modern‐day students of marketing turned from the economic explanation of consumer behavior, learning theory was one of the first resources in which they sought more useful alternative concepts. This was a logical move for two reasons: because of the abundance of research conducted in psychology and social psychology; and because learning is close to the central interest of many of those concerned with consumer behavior. However, marketing scholars have given little consideration to one of the most influential perspectives developed in psychology‐the instrumental‐learning approach stimulated by the work of B. F. Skinner. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of instrumental learning and demonstrate its application in a marketing situation.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Alan J. Greco

For decades, organizations have based their marketing efforts to the 65 and older market on traditional stereotypes. This is surprising given the size, growth, and…

Abstract

For decades, organizations have based their marketing efforts to the 65 and older market on traditional stereotypes. This is surprising given the size, growth, and spending power of this market. It is also inconsistent with the marketing concept. This article identifies a number of dimensions which highlight the diversity of the so‐called senior citizen market. The diversity of this market involves a complex set of factors involving age, health, income, education, retirement, information processing, the self‐concept, reference groups, and cohort membership. The marketing implications of these dimensions are illustrated through examples of current marketing practice.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Benny Barak and Barbara Stern

This article examines what women consumers mean when they define themselves as either “young” or “middle‐aged.” A survey of women 30 to 69 shows that they consider it…

Abstract

This article examines what women consumers mean when they define themselves as either “young” or “middle‐aged.” A survey of women 30 to 69 shows that they consider it acceptable to be young at any chronological age. This article provides evidence debunking five common fables about women and negative age stereotypes. The reality, supported by this survey, is that women deny their chronological age, consider themselves young well beyond forty, and typically identify with a state of ageless youth. The marketing implications involve product development embodying youthful images and advertising campaigns using mature models, rather than teenagers, to appeal to mature women who define themselves as young at heart.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Ana M. González, Carmen Rodríguez, Mauro R. Miranda and Miguel Cervantes

The purpose of this paper is to gain a broader knowledge of the concept of cognitive age and its use as a variable when segmenting the market of people aged over 55.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain a broader knowledge of the concept of cognitive age and its use as a variable when segmenting the market of people aged over 55.

Design/methodology/approach

A proposal for measuring this variable was developed, the dimensions used being: actions, interests, feelings, health, thinking and expectations. A personal survey of 400 individuals aged over 55 who had been involved in some tourist travel in the last year was undertaken.

Findings

A principal component analysis resulted in the extraction of a single factor labeled “cognitive age”. The outcome of the cluster analysis undertaken was the establishment of two segments, i.e. active livers and stable passives. The technique of multiple correspondence analysis reflected differences both in motivations for tourism and in the behavior as tourists of the two segments.

Research limitations/implications

It should be pointed out that there were insufficient repetitions of the methodology to indicate reliably whether it is consistent and that difficulties were encountered in gathering information from the group investigated.

Practical implications

The results obtained permit it to be stated that cognitive age enriches knowledge about senior tourists; hence, it seems to be of interest to take it into consideration when establishing marketing strategies directed towards this group.

Originality/value

After its overview of the various methodologies relating to cognitive age, this investigation is one of the few applications of this criterion to segmentation of senior citizen tourists undertaking journeys of longer duration. Furthermore, it is the sole piece of research so far undertaken to investigate its usefulness in an individualized manner.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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