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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1978

Maurice B Line

After outlining the unique functions of the Lending Division, the paper explains the interaction between it and the British Library as a whole. Policy‐making in such an…

Abstract

After outlining the unique functions of the Lending Division, the paper explains the interaction between it and the British Library as a whole. Policy‐making in such an organisation is complex and this is achieved by a series of meetings ranging from the British Library Board, which deals with major decisions for the whole Library, through senior management at the Lending Division holding regular meetings to discuss all aspects of its work to meetings between junior management with their staff, where minor and major problems can be ironed out. The staff structure of the Lending Division emphasises the low ratio of senior to junior staff. Because of its size and uniqueness the Lending Division pays particular attention to communications both within and without; internally this is achieved by meetings between various grades of staff and a Newsletter, externally by a number of publications, participation in conferences, extensive advisory machinery and the publication of its own journal.

Details

Interlending Review, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-2773

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

TieCheng Yang and Lucas Wang

The aim of this paper is to explain the details of a trial program in China to introduce margin trading and securities lending.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explain the details of a trial program in China to introduce margin trading and securities lending.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes eligibility requirements for securities companies and their clients; accounts for margin trading and securities lending to be opened by the securities company; contracts between a securities company and its client that must be entered into; collateral a client is required to provide to the securities company; a client's rights and entitlement with respect to collateral; internal rules and precautions required of the securities company; the securities company's risk control requirements; and the possible impact of the new program on foreign investors.

Findings

The paper finds that the conduct of margin trading and securities lending in China is highly regulated. There are significant requirements with respect to separate accounts, collateral, contracts, and controls. Before providing margin trading or securities lending to clients, securities companies are required to carefully assess and determine the identity, creditworthiness, assets, income, securities investment experience, investment preferences, and risk appetite of their clients. The securities company must explain how the margin trading and securities lending will be conducted and the content of the contracts to the client, and require the client to sign a transaction risk disclosure letter that specifies certain risks involved in such business. A client may only maintain margin trading facilities and securities lending business with one securities company in China.

Originality/value

The paper provides a practical guide to a new program by lawyers who are experts in Chinese securities regulations.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Eddy Junarsin, Mamduh Mahmadah Hanafi, Nofie Iman, Usman Arief, Ahmad Maulin Naufa, Linda Mahastanti and Jordan Kristanto

Innovation in digital technologies has been the main force in promoting growth and inclusion. However, the impact of such innovations remains ambiguous. Within this…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation in digital technologies has been the main force in promoting growth and inclusion. However, the impact of such innovations remains ambiguous. Within this context, this study aims to analyze the distribution of digitally empowered peer-to-peer (P2P) lending in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative approach to estimate the impact of technological innovation in promoting economic development. In particular, this study employs empirical panel data from 135 financial technology (FinTech) companies from 2015 to 2019 and use the dynamic panel threshold regression approach. This study collects secondary data to build the estimated model.

Findings

Contrary to conventional wisdom, this study’s evidence suggests that there is a delayed effect between the contribution of P2P lending by FinTech firms on economic growth in the country. While the immense growth of FinTech seems promising, the findings indicate that FinTech is far from its optimal point. This study calculates the optimal combination between productive and consumptive lending and between Java and non-Java. In view of this finding, this study proposes strategies to effectively distribute lending and bring about the expected benefit to the economy.

Practical implications

Since the contribution of P2P lending on economic development has not reached its optimum, the findings expose the limitation of current technological innovation in the financial sectors. In this sense, P2P penetration on the financing market needs encouragement. The calculations for optimal allocation between productive and consumptive and between Java and non-Java provide guidance to policymakers. This study helps practitioners to shape strategy and to begin experimenting with different approaches to distribute loans effectively.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no empirical studies that examine the impact of emerging FinTech companies in promoting economic growth and financial development. The findings close this research gap, especially in regard to innovation management literature, and provide insights for practitioners, policymakers and regulators.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu

While poverty alleviation is the first core goal of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and microfinance institutions (MFIs) are considered important instruments for…

Abstract

Purpose

While poverty alleviation is the first core goal of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and microfinance institutions (MFIs) are considered important instruments for poverty alleviation in developing countries as they provide credit access to the poor, there is surprisingly little evidence of the drivers of the lending behavior of microfinance institutions. Hence, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the credit growth of MFIs in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on unbalanced panel dataset of 130 MFIs operating across 31 countries in SSA during the period 2004–2014 constituting 546 useable observations. The study uses the Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond two-step generalized method of moments (GMM) Windmeijer bias-corrected standard errors to estimate the models.

Findings

The results confirm that while capitalization, liquidity and size are positively associated with credit growth, profitability negatively impacts credit growth; whereas, other MFI specific factors namely portfolio quality, deposit growth and nondeposit borrowing growth have little direct effects on MFI credit growth. The results also show that MFI credit growth is pro-cyclical but negatively related to GDP per capita consistent with the theory of convergence. On the other hand, inflation and employment are not important covariates in the credit growth of MFIs.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that if MFIs improve their liquidity and size by attracting more deposits and nondeposit borrowings, among others, they can increase credit access to the poor. Moreover, since the lending behavior of MFIs is not resilient to GDP shocks, different measures are needed to increase the financial stability of the microfinance industry. In this respect, since MFI capitalization is positively associated with credit growth and MFI credit growth is pro-cyclical, the findings provide useful insights to central banks/regulatory authorities and the Basel Committee as to the need for a counter-cyclical capital buffer requirement in the microfinance industry.

Originality/value

The study is the first comprehensive study to examine the drivers of MFI lending behavior as an extension to lending behavior models from the banking industry.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Daniel Cosgrove and Imran Chowdhury

In this chapter, the authors focus on the development of the peer-to-peer (P2P) lending industry in China. As a modern borrowing platform, P2P lending allows clients to…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors focus on the development of the peer-to-peer (P2P) lending industry in China. As a modern borrowing platform, P2P lending allows clients to obtain funding from peer lenders for a multitude of loan purposes, including credit consolidation, personal purchases, and the development of business ventures. However, the speed at which this industry has grown has created numerous problems for regulatory agencies, particularly in China, the largest P2P lending market in the world. This chapter examines how lenders in the Chinese context continue to function as formal institutions regulating this sector continue to grow following a series of highly publicized illegal lending activities in recent years. Additionally, the authors determine whether implemented regulatory measures are providing an overall benefit or detriment to the Chinese P2P lending industry. Finally, the authors highlight the potential for positive social change and social entrepreneurship arising from P2P lending, particularly in terms of the empowerment of traditionally disadvantaged groups by providing access to capital. The authors use the P2P lending industry in the United States, currently the second largest in the world and one operating in a highly regulated financial industry, as a comparison for the Chinese case.

Details

Entrepreneurship for Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-211-9

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Yuki Masujima

This chapter investigates a shock transmission path between a home country (a country where globalized banks’ headquarters are located) and a host country (Indonesia as…

Abstract

This chapter investigates a shock transmission path between a home country (a country where globalized banks’ headquarters are located) and a host country (Indonesia as the emerging market) through the lending channel of global banks’ local branches (i.e., the internal transfer channel). Using novel data of monthly individual foreign bank’s balance sheet in Indonesia, the author finds the evidence that shocks to a parent bank and a home economy are transmitted to a host economy through the foreign banks’ internal capital market. With the Indonesia banks’ capital injections and their difficulty in financing dollar funds without risk premiums since the 1998s crisis, the foreign banks’ dollar lending in Indonesia is a good showcase of internal capital markets. A change in a home stock market index and industrial production appears to have a negative effect on growth rates in foreign currency loans of foreign banks in the host market. On the other hand, high growth rates in the parent bank’s stock price in the home market lead to an increase in foreign banks’ US dollar lending in the host country. This effect does not appear in local currency lending because limited hedging instruments against foreign exchange risk results in immobility of bank capital in the local currency.

Details

Emerging Market Finance: New Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-058-8

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2013

Hongyi Chen, Qianying Chen and Stefan Gerlach

We analyze the impact of monetary policy instruments on interbank lending rates and retail bank lending in China using an extended version of the model developed by Porter

Abstract

We analyze the impact of monetary policy instruments on interbank lending rates and retail bank lending in China using an extended version of the model developed by Porter and Xu (2009). Unlike the central banks of advanced economies, the People’s Bank of China (PBoC) uses changes in the required reserve ratios and open market operations to influence liquidity in money markets and adjusts the regulated deposit and lending rates and loan targets to intervene in the retail deposit and lending market. These interventions prevent the interbank lending rate from signaling monetary policy stance and transmitting the effect of policy to the growth of bank loans. Since the global financial crisis, the PBoC’s monetary policy has gone through a full cycle. The combining effects of using different policy instruments simultaneously within a short period of time were quite effective in bringing the credit and money growth in line with its desired level. Most recently steps have been taken to speed up the interest rate liberalization. Effective July 2013, the PBoC removed the floors of the benchmark lending rates.

Details

Global Banking, Financial Markets and Crises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-170-0

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Central Bank Policy: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-751-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

John O’Keefe

Purpose – This chapter investigates the influence of bank loan underwriting practices on loan losses and identifies potential determinants of lending practices for five…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter investigates the influence of bank loan underwriting practices on loan losses and identifies potential determinants of lending practices for five categories of loans: business, consumer, commercial real estate, home equity, and construction and land development loans.

Methodology/approach – Using data on the riskiness of lending practices obtained from the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) bank examiner surveys from January 1996 to March 2009, I fit a two-step treatment effects model to measure the effects of underwriting practices on loan losses, controlling for the potential endogeneity of lending practices.

Findings – In the selection step, I find that for business loans, the likelihood that bank management will adopt low-risk lending practices increases with bank financial performance and management quality hierarchical complexity and decreases with market competition. Results for the selection of lending practices for consumer loans and three categories of real estate loans are similar to those found for business loans but show weaker statistical relationships to all explanatory variables. In the loss determination step, I find that lower (higher) risk underwriting practices are generally associated with lower (higher) gross loan charge-offs (as percentage of gross loans and leases) for five categories of loans: business, consumer, commercial real estate, home equity, and construction and land development loans.

Originality/value of chapter – This is the first study to model the determinants of loan underwriting practices with the practices being characterized in terms of their risk to the bank. In addition, this is the first study to consider the effects of the riskiness of lending practices on loan losses, controlling for the endogeneity of practices.

Details

International Banking in the New Era: Post-Crisis Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-913-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2008

Hirofumi Uchida, Gregory F. Udell and Nobuyoshi Yamori

This chapter empirically investigates how banks evaluate the creditworthiness of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Following SME loan underwriting literature…

Abstract

This chapter empirically investigates how banks evaluate the creditworthiness of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Following SME loan underwriting literature that distinguishes among different lending technologies, we test whether the typical SME bank loan is underwritten primarily based on just a single technology. We find that although financial statement lending is the most commonly used and serves as a kind of basic technology, it tends not to be used to the exclusion of other technologies. These findings imply that, at least in Japan, SME lending practice may be inconsistent with academic research on how banks underwrite loans elsewhere.

Details

Institutional Approach to Global Corporate Governance: Business Systems and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-320-0

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