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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Leila Hamzaoui-Essoussi and Alia El Banna

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and…

2476

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and contrasts the well-established literature on decision-making and location choice in FDI with studies in the nascent field of nation branding, with a view to developing directions for future research that result from the identification of research gaps at the intersection point between the two areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a systematic and integrative review of several streams within the relevant literatures, from the theory of decision-making in FDI to the similarities and differences between advertising, promotion, branding and marketing for investment on the part of nations and sub- or supra-national places.

Findings

Each of the two areas is characterized by lack of consensus as to the principal factors that affect investor and nation decisions and actions, resulting in several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by new research along the lines suggested in the study.

Research limitations/implications

A large number of avenues for potential future research are identified, from assessing the importance of target country image in location choice to the adverse effects arising from the emphasis on “promotion” rather than “marketing” on the part of places engaged in nation branding efforts.

Practical implications

The study examines several problems that affect the practice of nation branding for FDI and points to alternative approaches that may enhance place marketers’ effectiveness in their efforts to attract foreign capital.

Originality/value

Notwithstanding the global growth of FDI in volume and importance, and the omnipresence of nation branding campaigns to promote exports or attract tourism and investment, there has been virtually no research to date on the core issue, nation branding for FDI. The study uses a strategic perspective that highlights key nation branding issues related to FDI, and FDI issues related to nation branding, and suggests a comprehensive agenda for research in the future.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi and Jonathan D. Linton

This paper aims to consider the price premium that consumers state they are willing to pay for products with reused or recycled content. It also aims to address the effect…

9192

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider the price premium that consumers state they are willing to pay for products with reused or recycled content. It also aims to address the effect of the impact of product category on consumers' willingness to pay premium prices.

Design/approach/methodology

Willingness to pay was studied for seven different product categories (n=49).

Findings

Perceived functional risk is an important determinant of the price that consumers are willing to pay for products that have recycled or reused content. It was also found that consumers will switch from a recycled product to a new product within a smaller range of price for products with high functional risk.

Research limitations/implications

The study is exploratory, while it serves its purpose by raising initial questions and finding that this is a complex area that is worth studying. Additional work is clearly required to consider the wide range of potentially relevant variables and a sampling plan that ensures an understanding of the generalisability of findings across the population within a region and across regions.

Practical implications

A technique for understanding consumer willingness‐to‐pay (WTP) is provided and insights into differences are offered between products in terms of WTP for greener products. Practitioners can use this technique to determine the price range and indirectly the profitability of a version of their product based on recycled or reused content.

Originality/value

An understanding of WTP for products with recycled or reused content is developed. This is important as legislation in many countries aims at diverting disposed product from waste dumps to consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi and Mehdi Zahaf

Substantial changes in the organic food sector and recent studies on the Canadian organic food market are showing promising trends. However, community organic food markets…

10999

Abstract

Purpose

Substantial changes in the organic food sector and recent studies on the Canadian organic food market are showing promising trends. However, community organic food markets are different from organic food mainstream markets. In a domain growing in theoretical and practical importance, the main objective of this paper is to develop an understanding and analysis of “community organic food market”.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus groups were conducted and data collected were analyzed using content analysis.

Findings

Five main themes emerged and brought contributions in terms of: organic food definition and recognition, organic food consumers' motivations, trust with regard to organic food, labeling and certification process, organic food distribution channels, and the proposition of a conceptual model of decision making with regard to organic food consumers in small communities.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection was conducted in only one small community location and should be extended to other small communities as well as urban city centers.

Practical implications

This study provides some insights to managers in terms of the market mix and target marketing of organic food niche markets.

Originality/value

The paper explores the difference between an organic food mainstream market and an organic food niche/community market using a consumer behaviour perspective.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi and Dwight Merunka

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on…

10767

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on consumers' perceptions of bi‐national products. A comprehensive model broadens country‐of‐origin literature by incorporating brand image and the concepts of fit and congruity borrowed from brand extension research. Perceptual (in) coherences that might exist among COD, COM, and the brand are incorporated.

Design/methodology/approach

Tunisia is the emerging market studied. A total of 389 respondents evaluated different product combinations (COD/COM/brand) in two categories. Relationships between constructs are tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

Consumers are sensitive to the COD (more so for public than for private goods) and also value the COM of branded products. The transfer of the COD image to brand image is significant. It is very high for one product category (cars). Brand/COM congruity is also important since product evaluations decrease when consumers perceive incoherence in a manufacturing location.

Research limitations/implications

The paper used limited informational cues for products' descriptions and concentrate on fairly complex durable goods. Research design should be expanded.

Practical implications

Perceived COD competencies can benefit brand image through strong COD‐brand associations. In emerging markets, COD (through brand image) and COM effects are important for understanding consumers' perceptions of publicly versus privately used branded products.

Originality/value

The major contribution consists of a simultaneous examination of the effects of COD, COM, brand, and of their inter‐relationships. Investigating bi‐national products and related consumer behaviour in emerging markets is of particular interest as it corresponds to the reality of these markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi and Mehdi Zahaf

Although consumption of organic food (OF) shows promising trends in Canada, there is no clear understanding of the barriers that still prevent a larger demand for OF. The…

6171

Abstract

Purpose

Although consumption of organic food (OF) shows promising trends in Canada, there is no clear understanding of the barriers that still prevent a larger demand for OF. The main objectives of this paper are to understand what, how, where, and why Canadian consumers buy OF by exploring consumers' motivations and decision‐making process, and digging into consumers' trust orientations with regards to OF.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews are conducted and data collected are analyzed using content analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that Canadian typical organic product consumers have a defined purchase scheme in terms of retail stores selection and price, as well as values and trust orientations. They identify health, the environment, and support for local farmers as their primary motivators for organic consumption. In particular, health motivation is mainly based on avoidance from chemical residues, antibiotics, hormones, genetically modified organisms, and diseases. Results also show that distribution, certification, country of origin, and labeling are all related to consumers' level of trust when consuming OF.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection was conducted in only one Canadian city and should be extended to other cities across the country.

Originality/value

This paper entails an exploration of consumer's decision‐making process and their underlying motivations and trust orientations but also an investigation of the marketing mix related to OF.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Martine Spence and Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi

The purpose of this paper is to assess brand identity, equity and brand management in SMEs.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess brand identity, equity and brand management in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the analysis of four site cases of consumer goods SMEs through in‐depth interviews and related documents.

Findings

Results showed that the founders' value and beliefs set the tone for the core competencies to be developed and transmitted through brand identity. A bundle of marketing innovations, including coherent marketing programs and the use of the country of origin image, support the brands. Brand diversification strategies contribute to SMEs' growth.

Research limitations/implications

Results need to be expanded and confirmed with other international SMEs that are not as well established and that do not use the country of origin in their brand image.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs need to be aware that their public image may reflect consumers' perception of their firms. Consequently, this image should be carefully nurtured. Because of resource constraints, a limited number of product or service features that complement the entrepreneur's core values should be selected to enhance brand equity. Among those, features linked to the firm's capabilities and to the country of origin would be the most cost‐efficient and effective. Moreover, a number of brand diversification strategies can be used by SMEs to spur their growth.

Originality/value

The study emphasizes the use of strong brand associations by SMEs, primary and secondary, a focused and integrated communication strategy to enhance the brands as well as a creative approach to brand strategies to contribute to their growth.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Len Tiu Wright

353

Abstract

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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