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In this chapter, we look critically at the discourses of expertise as a lens for examining our experiences as teacher educators. We explain why we think that current…
In this chapter, we look critically at the discourses of expertise as a lens for examining our experiences as teacher educators. We explain why we think that current notions of early childhood teacher training contradict the ideals of equity, liberation, and the development of human potential – our goals for education – and use two of the authors’ stories of their work with teachers of young children to provide a window into some of the contradictions, challenges, and borders we perceive. Building on the stories and our analyses of them, we posit some possible avenues to help us cross borders.
Most of the chapters in this book depict local attempts to transform practices in early childhood education. They represent endeavors to problematize the complexities and challenges facing the field and the ways in which moves are being made in everyday classroom practice, policy, teacher education, and professional development to build a knowledge base that is grounded in empirical data and that reflects the diversity characteristic of a globalized society.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the processes that influence the evolution of a modern sport. It focusses on the case of international skateboarding: the sport…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the processes that influence the evolution of a modern sport. It focusses on the case of international skateboarding: the sport that was recently included into the Olympic Games.
An inductive research strategy was informed by the notions of evolution of modern sport, prolympism and new institutionalism. The primary data were collected through a series of interviews and supplemented by the analysis of documents, press and social media.
The paper analysed how the organisation of international skateboarding has changed to date and identified three major determinants of its evolution: values of the activity, commercial interests and the Olympic movement. The following recurring discussion themes emerged: the link between commercialism and legitimisation of sport; bureaucratisation under the Olympic movement; and tensions between prolympism and values of skateboarding.
A limitation of the case study method is that any conclusions refer to this particular sport and their applicability to other sports lies within analytical generalisation. Still sport governing bodies and policy makers can learn from the evolution of international skateboarding and analyse potential issues and consequences for other emerging sports. In terms of theoretical implications, the study highlights legitimisation as one the key characteristics of evolution of modern sport, which should be considered along with previously established criteria, such as bureaucratisation, commercialisation and professionalisation.
The study extends the existing research on evolution of modern sports by examining a very rich contemporary case of skateboarding, the internationally growing sport with unique organisational arrangements. It contributes to knowledge of the evolution towards legitimisation of emerging sports, but also towards sportification of popular culture and society.
On 26th November, with the help of a speech by Robin Leigh‐Pemberton, the Governor of the Bank of England, Investors in Industry launched a new book by G M J Richardson Understanding industry today (David and Charles, 1984. Paper £4; Hardback £7.95. ISBN 0 7153 8663 8). It is based on a course of eight lectures which have for the last five years been successfully delivered to over 23,000 sixth‐form pupils under an ‘Understanding Industry’ scheme devised by Investors in Industry. The book goes further than the course and provides a clear, readily understandable account of what goes on in industry and its immense importance to the life of the community. Ignorance of industry is by no means confined to sixth form pupils and though the book is especially useful, in a library context, for school libraries and children's libraries, it would undoubtedly also be an excellent acquisition in public libraries for adult readers. It defines many terms used in industry, debunks mystique, clears up common misconceptions, and I wish I had had it available when I was an industrial information officer to put into the hands of my company's new recruits.
In years past, when life seemed simpler and the Law much less complicated, jurists were fond of quoting the age‐old saying: “All men are equal before the Law.” It was never completely true; there were important exemptions when strict legal enforcement would have been against the public interests. A classic example was Crown immunity, evolved from the historical principle that “The King can do no wrong”. With the growth of government, the multiplicity of government agencies and the enormous amount of secondary legislation, the statutes being merely enabling Acts, this immunity revealed itself as being used largely against public interests. Statutory instruments were being drafted within Ministerial departments largely by as many as 300 officers of those departments authorized to sign such measures, affecting the rights of the people without any real Parliamentary control. Those who suffered and lost in their enforcement had no remedy; Crown immunity protected all those acting as servants of the Crown and the principle came to be an officials' charter with no connection whatever with the Crown. Parliament, custodian of the national conscience, removed much of this socially unacceptable privilege in the Crown Proceedings Act, 1947, which enabled injured parties within limit to sue central departments and their officers. The more recent system of Commissioners—Parliamentary, Local Authority, Health Service—with power to enquire into allegations of injustice, maladministration, malpractice to individuals extra‐legally, has extended the rights of the suffering citizen.