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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Servet Soyguder and Hasan Alli

This paper seeks to develop a novel legged robot.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a novel legged robot.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper models the legged robot using 3D computer model by intelligent inspiration of biological principles. Then, based on this model, it develops the prototype of the legged robot.

Findings

A novel motion mechanism is used and only two actuators are used for driving the system.

Originality/value

The modelled legged robot is original in terms of the developed motion mechanism.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Servet Soyguder and Hasan Alli

This study seeks to develop a novel eight‐legged robot. Additionally, this study defines design and control of an eight‐legged single actuator walking ROBOTURK SA‐2 spider…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to develop a novel eight‐legged robot. Additionally, this study defines design and control of an eight‐legged single actuator walking ROBOTURK SA‐2 spider robot based on the features of a creatural spider.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the single actuator eight‐legged tetrapod walking spider robot was modeled on solid works and then the animation of the model was realized to ensure the accurate walking patterns and more stable walking. Based on this model, the novel prototype of the single actuator eight‐legged walking spider robot was constructed.

Findings

A novel motion mechanism uses only one actuator for driving the system.

Originality/value

The modeled single actuator eight‐legged robot is original in terms of the developed motion mechanism.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Edgar A. Martínez-García, Luz Abril Torres-Méndez and Mohan Rajesh Elara

The purpose of this paper is to establish analytical and numerical solutions of a navigational law to estimate displacements of hyper-static multi-legged mobile robots

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish analytical and numerical solutions of a navigational law to estimate displacements of hyper-static multi-legged mobile robots, which combines: monocular vision (optical flow of regional invariants) and legs dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study the authors propose a Euler-Lagrange equation that control legs’ joints to control robot's displacements. Robot's rotation and translational velocities are feedback by motion features of visual invariant descriptors. A general analytical solution of a derivative navigation law is proposed for hyper-static robots. The feedback is formulated with the local speed rate obtained from optical flow of visual regional invariants. The proposed formulation includes a data association algorithm aimed to correlate visual invariant descriptors detected in sequential images through monocular vision. The navigation law is constrained by a set of three kinematic equilibrium conditions for navigational scenarios: constant acceleration, constant velocity, and instantaneous acceleration.

Findings

The proposed data association method concerns local motions of multiple invariants (enhanced MSER) by minimizing the norm of multidimensional optical flow feature vectors. Kinematic measurements are used as observable arguments in the general dynamic control equation; while the legs joints dynamics model is used to formulate the controllable arguments.

Originality/value

The given analysis does not combine sensor data of any kind, but only monocular passive vision. The approach automatically detects environmental invariant descriptors with an enhanced version of the MSER method. Only optical flow vectors and robot's multi-leg dynamics are used to formulate descriptive rotational and translational motions for self-positioning.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Antonio Gonzalez Rodriguez, Angel Gonzalez Rodriguez and Pierluigi Rea

The paper aims to present a new mechanical scheme for a leg to be included in legged vehicles that simplifies the control actuations along the stride.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present a new mechanical scheme for a leg to be included in legged vehicles that simplifies the control actuations along the stride.

Design/methodology/approach

The scheme includes three four‐bar links grouped in two mechanisms. The first one decouples the vertical and horizontal foot movements. The second one produces a constant horizontal foot velocity when the corresponding motor is given a constant speed. A hybrid robot with wheels at the end of the hind legs has been simulated and constructed to validate the leg performance.

Findings

The gait control requires only five commands for the electronic cards to control the leg. Decoupling vertical and horizontal movements allows a more adequate selection of actuators, a reduction of energy consumption, and higher load capacity and robot velocity. Additional mechanical benefits, such as improved robustness and lower inertia, are obtained. The hind legs can also be articulated, allowing the robot to overcome an obstacle and to climb up and down stairs.

Research limitations/implications

A hybrid robot offers greater stability with respect to a legged robot. This way the lateral movement is not a concern, and therefore it has not been tested yet during the walking cycle.

Originality/value

This new scheme obtains a quasi‐Cartesian behaviour for the foot movement that drastically simplifies the control of the walking cycle. Although the decoupling between movements has already been obtained in previous configurations, these follow a pantograph structure and suffer from blocking problems when they are subject to lateral forces. These schemes were suitable for crab‐like gaits. The proposed leg moves according to a mammal‐like gait.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Markus Eich, Felix Grimminger and Frank Kirchner

The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative compliance control architecture for hybrid multi‐legged robots. The approach was verified on the hybrid legged

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative compliance control architecture for hybrid multi‐legged robots. The approach was verified on the hybrid legged‐wheeled robot ASGUARD, which was inspired by quadruped animals. The adaptive compliance controller allows the system to cope with a variety of stairs, very rough terrain, and is also able to move with high velocity on flat ground without changing the control parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shows how this adaptivity results in a versatile controller for hybrid legged‐wheeled robots. For the locomotion control we use an adaptive model of motion pattern generators. The control approach takes into account the proprioceptive information of the torques, which are applied on the legs. The controller itself is embedded on a FPGA‐based, custom designed motor control board. An additional proprioceptive inclination feedback is used to make the same controller more robust in terms of stair‐climbing capabilities.

Findings

The robot is well suited for disaster mitigation as well as for urban search and rescue missions, where it is often necessary to place sensors or cameras into dangerous or inaccessible areas to get a better situation awareness for the rescue personnel, before they enter a possibly dangerous area. A rugged, waterproof and dust‐proof corpus and the ability to swim are additional features of the robot.

Originality/value

Contrary to existing approaches, a pre‐defined walking pattern for stair‐climbing was not used, but an adaptive approach based only on internal sensor information. In contrast to many other walking pattern based robots, the direct proprioceptive feedback was used in order to modify the internal control loop, thus adapting the compliance of each leg on‐line.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Michał R. Nowicki, Dominik Belter, Aleksander Kostusiak, Petr Cížek, Jan Faigl and Piotr Skrzypczyński

This paper aims to evaluate four different simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) systems in the context of localization of multi-legged walking robots equipped with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate four different simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) systems in the context of localization of multi-legged walking robots equipped with compact RGB-D sensors. This paper identifies problems related to in-motion data acquisition in a legged robot and evaluates the particular building blocks and concepts applied in contemporary SLAM systems against these problems. The SLAM systems are evaluated on two independent experimental set-ups, applying a well-established methodology and performance metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Four feature-based SLAM architectures are evaluated with respect to their suitability for localization of multi-legged walking robots. The evaluation methodology is based on the computation of the absolute trajectory error (ATE) and relative pose error (RPE), which are performance metrics well-established in the robotics community. Four sequences of RGB-D frames acquired in two independent experiments using two different six-legged walking robots are used in the evaluation process.

Findings

The experiments revealed that the predominant problem characteristics of the legged robots as platforms for SLAM are the abrupt and unpredictable sensor motions, as well as oscillations and vibrations, which corrupt the images captured in-motion. The tested adaptive gait allowed the evaluated SLAM systems to reconstruct proper trajectories. The bundle adjustment-based SLAM systems produced best results, thanks to the use of a map, which enables to establish a large number of constraints for the estimated trajectory.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation was performed using indoor mockups of terrain. Experiments in more natural and challenging environments are envisioned as part of future research.

Practical implications

The lack of accurate self-localization methods is considered as one of the most important limitations of walking robots. Thus, the evaluation of the state-of-the-art SLAM methods on legged platforms may be useful for all researchers working on walking robots’ autonomy and their use in various applications, such as search, security, agriculture and mining.

Originality/value

The main contribution lies in the integration of the state-of-the-art SLAM methods on walking robots and their thorough experimental evaluation using a well-established methodology. Moreover, a SLAM system designed especially for RGB-D sensors and real-world applications is presented in details.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Servet Soyguder and Walter Boles

This paper aims to explain the design of a novel leg mechanism for SLEGS robot. SLEGS means both “S”-shaped for the legged robot and “O”-shaped for the wheeled robot. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the design of a novel leg mechanism for SLEGS robot. SLEGS means both “S”-shaped for the legged robot and “O”-shaped for the wheeled robot. It is a reconfigurable/transformable mobile robot.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a novel robot leg is designed by inspiration from previous studies. Second, the SLEGS robot’s leg is modeled using 3D computer model, and kinematics analysis performed on the leg mechanism. Finally, the prototype of the novel leg was developed for the SLEGS robot.

Findings

The robot leg mechanism has both flexible and self-reconfigurable modular features. All legs automatically take the form of both a rotating wheel and a walking leg with a self-reconfigurable modular feature.

Originality/value

The modeled leg is original in terms of its novel locomotion mechanism in both the walking and wheeled configurations.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Giuseppe Quaglia, Luca Bruzzone, Giorgio Bozzini, Riccardo Oderio and Roberto P. Razzoli

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a robot for surveillance able to move in structured and unstructured environments and able to overcome…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a robot for surveillance able to move in structured and unstructured environments and able to overcome obstacles with high energetic efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed Epi.q‐TG hybrid robot combines wheeled and legged locomotion. It is equipped with four three‐wheeled locomotion units; traction is generated by the two forecarriage units, while the two rear ones have same geometry but are idle. Each front unit is actuated by a single motor with the interposition of an epicyclical gearing, accurately designed in order to suitably switch between wheeled and legged motion. The robot changes locomotion mode from rolling on wheels (advancing mode) to stepping on legs (automatic climbing mode) according to local friction and dynamic conditions.

Findings

The experimental results confirm the design objectives. In advancing mode, the robot behaves like a four‐wheeled vehicle, with high speed and energetic efficiency. In automatic climbing mode, the robot can walk on uneven and soft terrains and overcome steps with remarkable height with respect to its dimensions (up to 84 per cent of the locomotion unit height).

Practical implications

Besides surveillance, Epi.q‐TG can be successfully used in many tasks in which it is useful to combine the advantages of wheeled and legged locomotion, e.g. unmanned inspection of nuclear and chemical sites, minesweeping, and intervention in disaster zones.

Originality/value

The core of the project is the epicyclical mechanism of the locomotion unit, which switches between advancing mode and automatic climbing mode without control action. This solution limits the control and actuation complexity and consequently the robot cost, widening the range of possible applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Huosheng Hu and Dongbing Gu

It has been an ultimate long‐term dream in robotics and AI fields to build robotic systems with life‐like appearance, behaviours and intelligence, reflected by many…

Abstract

It has been an ultimate long‐term dream in robotics and AI fields to build robotic systems with life‐like appearance, behaviours and intelligence, reflected by many science fiction books and films. This is also an extremely challenging task. This paper introduces our current research efforts to build a multi‐agent system for cooperation and learning of multiple life‐like robots in the RoboCup domain. A behaviour‐based hierarchy is proposed for the Essex Rovers robot football team to achieve intelligent actions in real time, which includes both a neural network‐based color detection algorithm and a fuzzy logic controller. Preliminary results based on legged locomotion experiments of Sony walking robots are presented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Luca Bruzzone and Pietro Fanghella

The aim of the research is the development of a small-scale ground mobile robot for surveillance and inspection; the main design goals are mobility in indoor environments…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research is the development of a small-scale ground mobile robot for surveillance and inspection; the main design goals are mobility in indoor environments with step climbing ability, pivoting around a vertical axis and without oscillations for stable vision, mobility in unstructured environments, low mechanical and control complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed hybrid leg-wheel robot is characterized by a main body equipped with two actuated wheels and two praying Mantis rotating legs; a rear frame with two idle wheels is connected to the main body by a vertical revolute joint for steering; a second revolute joint allows the rear axle to roll. The geometrical synthesis of the robot has been performed using a nondimensional approach for generality's sake.

Findings

The experimental campaign on the first prototype confirms the fulfilment of the design objectives; the robot can efficiently walk in unstructured environments realizing a mixed wheeled-legged locomotion.

Practical implications

Thanks to the operative flexibility of Mantis in indoor and outdoor environments, the range of potential applications is wide: surveillance, inspection, monitoring of dangerous locations, intervention in case of terroristic attacks, military tasks.

Originality/value

Different from other robots of similar size, Mantis combines high speed and energetic efficiency, stable vision, capability of climbing over high steps, obstacles and unevenness.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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