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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Adam D. Gale

The purpose of this paper is to discuss state securities legend requirements for private offerings made pursuant to Rule 506 of Regulation D, with a particular focus on…

233

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss state securities legend requirements for private offerings made pursuant to Rule 506 of Regulation D, with a particular focus on hedge fund and private equity fund issuers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explains relevant federal and state securities registration laws, including the National Securities Market Improvement Act of 1956 (“NSMIA”), which creates a category of “covered securities” that are partially preempted from certain state securities regulations. Explains that offerings under Rule 506 of Regulation D are “covered securities” under NSMIA, but that an issuer that offers its securities may be considered a broker‐dealer under some state broker‐dealer laws; those state broker‐dealer registration laws may require a state securities legend on offering documents in order to meet a state exemption from registering as a broker‐dealer in the state. It also explains state legend requirements under state broker‐dealer laws in general and then provides detail on four states whose legends practitioners often include in private placement memos: Florida, Georgia, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania.

Findings

The paper finds that state securities legends, other than Florida's legend, will never be required for a Rule 506 offering, and the inclusion of unnecessary legends, even as a precaution, can result in confusion or possibly claims that the issuer has violated state securities laws or included misleading information.

Originality/value

The paper provides practical advice from an experienced securities lawyer.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

Daniel Krier and William J. Swart

Capital increasingly takes the form of intangible assets, especially trademarked corporate brands. Further, contemporary capitalism increasingly accumulates through…

Abstract

Purpose

Capital increasingly takes the form of intangible assets, especially trademarked corporate brands. Further, contemporary capitalism increasingly accumulates through commodification of iconic cultural images and legendary narratives constituting a “second enclosure movement” (Boyle, 2008). This paper develops a critical theory of brands, branding, and brand management within economies of spectacle.

Methodology/approach

A case study of the consumer culture surrounding large displacement motorcycling is used to critique the central premise of consumer culture theory (marketing professionals create brands that become valuable icons) and develop an alternative view using concepts from critical theory, especially spectacle (Debord, 1967) and culture industry (Adorno, 1991).

Findings

After initial enclosure, legends were managed by Crossmarketing Licensing Networks (CMLN), coalitions of corporate and state actors, each possessing a piece of the legendary pie. The Sturgis CMLN was organized into two political divisions, rally profiteers and civic leaders, with overlapping but differentiated interests and approaches to the management of the Sturgis legend. The CMLN intervened in the cultural commons to overcome legendary degradations (banality, incoherence, undesirability) surrounding the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.

Originality/value

Brands are capitalized culture created by enclosures, a form of primitive accumulation. Under current conditions of immaterial production, CMLN’s engage in ongoing cultural production to maintain the capitalized value of their brands. Brands are not only hunted in the wilds of culture, but also increasingly domesticated and fattened when herded through legendary commons.

Details

Globalization, Critique and Social Theory: Diagnoses and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-247-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

D. Todd Donavan, John C. Mowen and Goutam Chakraborty

In this research urban legends are viewed as diffusing through the consumer environment as part of a resource exchange process. Using the 3M model to develop categories of…

1095

Abstract

In this research urban legends are viewed as diffusing through the consumer environment as part of a resource exchange process. Using the 3M model to develop categories of analysis, a content analysis of 100 urban legends was conducted. Three categories of variables were coded: the resource types depicted as exchanged in the stories; whether the resources were gained or lost; and whether the resources were gained or lost before or after the ironic twist. Results of this descriptive study supported the research question of a three‐way interaction among the variables. Results are discussed from the perspective of identifying the motivational factors that influence consumers to communicate urban legends, rumors, and product information.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Guoquan Chen, Jingyi Wang, Wei Liu, Fen Xu and Qiong Wu

This paper aims to theoretically investigate a knowledge management model from the combined perspective of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application and its effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theoretically investigate a knowledge management model from the combined perspective of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application and its effect on organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews prior research on knowledge acquisition and knowledge application, puts forward the concepts of “the extensiveness of knowledge acquisition” and “the concentration of knowledge application” and more importantly proposes an integrated model by combining these two dimensions. Four case examples of enterprises are subsequently described and analyzed to illustrate the sources of knowledge acquisition, the objects of knowledge application and their influences on organizational performance.

Findings

Four knowledge management modes and their impacts are confirmed in this study. Specifically, the organization of the turbojet engine mode (high extensiveness of knowledge acquisition and high concentration of knowledge application) can achieve good performance. The pipeline mode (high extensiveness of knowledge acquisition and low concentration of knowledge application) is the second, which has limited influence on good organizational performance. Organizations with the flashlight mode (low extensiveness of knowledge acquisition and high concentration of knowledge application) can achieve limited performance under the appropriate environment. The candle mode (low extensiveness of knowledge acquisition and low concentration of knowledge application) is the worst, performance of which is poor due to the break of the knowledge chain.

Practical implications

This paper holds that organizations should actively use the turbojet engine mode, adopt the pipeline mode and the flashlight mode cautiously, and avoid falling into the candle mode.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to propose the concepts of “the extensiveness of knowledge acquisition” and “the concentration of knowledge application,” and provides a combined model for analyzing differences in organizational performance from the perspective of knowledge.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Chris Frost

Newsworthy stories have several common criteria that help news‐gatherers define them. One of these is that the story should be interesting for or of interest to the…

1759

Abstract

Newsworthy stories have several common criteria that help news‐gatherers define them. One of these is that the story should be interesting for or of interest to the audience. This means that there are elements of a newsworthy story that are common to gossip, rumours, urban legends and hoaxes that explain why all of these are so attractive to readers and make those stories likely to be published in a profit‐led, entertainment‐driven market. Rumour, hoax and urban legend often offer information where the only criteria that sets them apart from news is whether they can be sourced as being true. But is the most important concern of the news‐gatherer that the story should be true? Many of the stories we are told are “urban legends”. These purport to be true stories but are usually fiction, or are at least only very lightly rooted in the truth, yet people often believe them. Tracking whether people have heard a well‐known urban legend and determining whether they believed it and why, should offer some insight into how discerning people are about the credibility of their information sources. The data collected suggests that people are not particularly sceptical about what they are told and often believe stories that sound fantastic to others. It seems that a “least harm” test is applied when judging whether something is true which means we might pass the story on if this causes the least harm. This leads to an unequal balance of truth‐testing between those telling stories and those receiving them, with both having some expectation that the other will test for truth.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Susan Jones and Katie Chapman

Non-dominant voices have been further marginalised in the most recent national curriculum in England (DfE, 2014), and those working across the English teaching profession…

Abstract

Purpose

Non-dominant voices have been further marginalised in the most recent national curriculum in England (DfE, 2014), and those working across the English teaching profession often find the subject framed according to narrow, assessment-driven models and prescribed skill sets. This paper aims to bring together two perspectives on the importance of literacy education that remains rooted in young people’s everyday experiences of place.

Design/methodology/approach

Chapman is a newly qualified secondary English teacher. She will share examples taken from her own classroom practice of the ways in which she has responded to stories told by young people about the places in which they live.

Findings

Jones is a tutor of initial teacher education (ITE). She suggests that Chapman’s approach provides persuasive exemplification of how engagement with alternatives to a dominant view of literacy should remain a key objective for those working with beginning teachers of English.

Originality/value

For Chapman’s students, urban legends are powerful texts which offer the means to explore what we do when we tell stories, both inside and outside the English classroom. As will be shown, such stories are telling examples of the resources young people can bring to critical literacy learning in current classrooms. In the context of the dominance of a narrow, mandated experience of English as a subject, the imperative becomes even greater to recognise stories such as those shared by Chapman’s students as opportunities for authentic, creative and critical engagement with text.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

John J. Doherty

This bibliography is intended as a guide for librarians, scholars, students, and interested amateurs. It suggests what books or media would be an invaluable starting…

Abstract

This bibliography is intended as a guide for librarians, scholars, students, and interested amateurs. It suggests what books or media would be an invaluable starting collection to understanding the Arthurian legend, which has been over a millennium in the making.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Kim Clay, Ian Gardner, Eric Bresler, Mike Seal and Stuart Speakman

The industry standard for applying the identification nomenclature to Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) is silkscreen legend printing, using white ink. This multi‐step process…

1442

Abstract

The industry standard for applying the identification nomenclature to Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) is silkscreen legend printing, using white ink. This multi‐step process has minimal flexibility for applying unique legends e.g. serialization numbers to individual boards. This paper describes a new, alternative single step direct legend printing system which uses piezoelectric inkjet technology, the leading digital imaging method for a variety of industrial applications. The advantages that this, inherently clean and efficient, drop‐on‐demand, printing process brings to legend printing include increased flexibility, shorter process times, good legend definition, accurate placement, small footprint equipment and reduced labour and material usage.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Jeremiah Morelock

Tribalism is at the forefront of public discussion across the political spectrum in America today. Zombie stories have also risen to unprecedented popularity. Amid…

Abstract

Tribalism is at the forefront of public discussion across the political spectrum in America today. Zombie stories have also risen to unprecedented popularity. Amid present-day racial, political, and otherwise tribal tensions, the story I Am Legend has particular resonance. As the original inspiration behind the modern zombie trope, it was published as a novella in 1954 and has been remade as a film multiple times, in 1964, 1971, and 2007. Using grounded theory, I explore each film regarding what moral attitudes are portrayed concerning confrontation between rival milieus. My findings center on four themes: identification, compassion, ambivalence, and condemnation. Overall, in chronological order, the different renditions of the story exhibit decreasing compassion for the other and decreasing ambivalence about relations with the other. The most dramatic change is between the 1971 and 2007 remakes. Implications for what the changes in the morals presented in the story might reflect in terms of social changes in America are discussed.

Details

The M in CITAMS@30
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-669-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Robert J. Vandenberg

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to present a subset of seven statistical and methodological myths and urban legends (SMMULs). When present, SMMULs degrade the…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to present a subset of seven statistical and methodological myths and urban legends (SMMULs). When present, SMMULs degrade the overall research process and make manuscript evaluation problematic during the review process. SMMULs covered here included those pertaining to accepting the theoretical model, conventional cutoff values, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, moderation analysis, Baron and Kenny's four-step mediation test, and permitting correlated item residuals.

Design/Methodology – Given that the details underlying the SMMULs have already been published, the present chapter was a summary of each. The summaries presented the urban legend and sources for it. Subsequently, the kernel of truth underlying the SMMUL was presented, and how this truth may have been lost and distorted. Each summary ends with the recommended “good” practices as presented by the original authors.

Findings/Implications – The implication for researchers is to modify their current practices to strengthen their research and to make better inferences. And for editors and reviewers, the implication is to develop accurate decision rules to strengthen the review process.

Originality/Value – The overall value of the chapter is to improve the research process in general.

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