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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

George O. White III, Thomas A. Hemphill, Tazeeb Rajwani and Jean J. Boddewyn

The purpose of this study is to apply the institution-based view and resource dependence theory in arguing that perceived deficiencies in a legal service sector where a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to apply the institution-based view and resource dependence theory in arguing that perceived deficiencies in a legal service sector where a foreign subsidiary operates will influence the intensity of its political ties with actors in both the regulatory and legal arenas. The authors further theorized that these relationships will vary across governance environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research context for this study was multinational enterprises (MNE) wholly owned foreign subsidiaries and international joint ventures (IJVs) operating in the Philippines and Thailand. Data for most variables in this study came from primary survey data collected in 2018 from senior managers of MNE WOSs and IJVs operating in the Philippines and Thailand.

Findings

The authors’ analysis of 352 foreign subsidiaries operating in the Philippines and Thailand show that, in a flawed democracy, perceived deficient legal services enhance the intensity of foreign subsidiary political ties with government actors in both the regulatory and legal arena. However, in a hybrid regime, perceived deficient legal services enhance only the intensity of foreign subsidiary political ties with government actors in the regulatory arena. The authors’ findings also suggest that the relationship between perceived deficiencies in legal service sector and the intensity of political ties is stronger for foreign subsidiaries that operate in heavily regulated industries across both a flawed democracy and hybrid regime. Conversely, the authors do not find the market orientation of these foreign subsidiaries to play a role in this process.

Research limitations/implications

The authors’ study was unable to control for whether managerial perceptions of deficient legal services were well informed at the local or federal level. This issue raises the question of will the presence of an in-house legal department influence managerial perceptions with regard to deficiencies within a legal service sector? Based on these limitations, the authors suggest that future research can further extend political ties research by using a fine-grained analysis in investigating the antecedents of managerial perceptions of legal services within different legal jurisdictions.

Originality/value

The political ties literature has largely argued that political ties are more prevalent in environmental contexts comprising institutional voids as MNEs attempt to mitigate volatility associated with the lack of developed institutional infrastructure (e.g. Blumentritt & Nigh, 2002; Bucheli et al., 2018). However, the concept of institutional voids is very broad and still rather abstract in nature. Hence, scholars have yet to fully understand what types of institutional voids may drive MNE foreign subsidiary political tie intensity in varying governance contextsThe authors’ study attempts to contribute to this important line of research by investigating how one type of institutional void, namely, perceived deficiencies in the legal service sector, can influence the intensity of political ties in varying governance environments.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2007

Krishnendu Sen and Ritankar Sahu

Since India became a signatory to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), it has been increasingly involved in multilateral negotiations for opening up its…

Abstract

Since India became a signatory to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), it has been increasingly involved in multilateral negotiations for opening up its borders to international trade in services. The GATS was negotiated in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations in 1994, and regulates trade in all service sectors between its 149 member countries. Lawyers engaged in providing legal services in foreign countries generally act as ‘foreign legal consultants’ (FLC), providing advice on international law or other non‐domestic laws. India needs to liberalize its policy in foreign trade more in order to avail of the advantages of the globalization of trade in services. This research paper aims at understanding the setbacks to the liberalization of the Indian legal services sector and realizing the potential allowing the entry of FLCs in select areas of the sector and permitting the collaboration of Indian and foreign lawyers/law firms.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Robert C. Hauhart

The legal profession has continued to receive a substantial share of media coverage and publicity over the last several years, much of it directed at the increase in…

118

Abstract

The legal profession has continued to receive a substantial share of media coverage and publicity over the last several years, much of it directed at the increase in numbers of law graduates and the often highly publicised starting salaries of recent law graduates at prestigious New York City law firms. Recent estimates indicate that there are now in excess of 650,000 attorneys working in the United States. The New York Bar Journal reported in its April, 1987 issue at page 56 that 36,829 law students graduated from American Bar Association accredited law schools in 1985. The report was based upon a study by the National Association for Law Placement. The study confirmed that the great majority of law graduates, 60.2% in 1985, would join private firms (at an average starting salary of $29,224).

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 9 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Abstract

Details

Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-889-6

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Mary C. Lacity and Leslie P. Willcocks

Nearly all legal firms and in‐house counsels will have to consider the opportunities and risks afforded by the rapidly changing legal process outsourcing (LPO) market…

Abstract

Purpose

Nearly all legal firms and in‐house counsels will have to consider the opportunities and risks afforded by the rapidly changing legal process outsourcing (LPO) market, estimated to be worth $2.4bn globally, and growing rapidly. The purpose of this Industry Insight is to assess the current LPO provider landscape by analyzing data on 27 LPO providers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed LPO provider data collected in 2011 by Orbys, a leading sourcing and transformation advisory firm based in Europe. The 27 providers in the sample include specialist LPO providers, full service LPO providers, and global BPO providers that offer LPO services. The authors assessed LPO provider services, provider competencies, geographic location, pricing, team composition, and staff turnover rates.

Findings

The LPO providers in the sample provide a variety of services, including litigation, intellectual property, corporate, compliance, procurement, employment, property, and consulting services. LPO providers allocated most of their human resources to litigation (26 percent), intellectual property (14 percent) and corporate/compliance (12 percent) services. LPO providers balance team composition – the percentage of onshore resources located close to the client versus offshore resources in low‐cost locations – to reduce client costs while still delivering quality services. The average team composition average was 22 percent of resources onshore and 78 percent of resources offshore, mostly in India. The authors also analyzed LPO prices by skill level and location. For example, the average daily rate for a fully qualified lawyer based in India was $248. LPO provider turnover rates ranged from 3 percent to 34 percent, with an average turnover of 15 percent.

Practical implications

This research on the LPO provider landscape helps to inform potential clients about LPO services and the global LPO landscape. The authors also identify three practices to help clients achieve success with LPO engagements. First, consider overall value, not just price. Second, mediate the effects of high LPO provider turnover. Third, assess and develop client‐retained capabilities, because outsourcing legal services is not about abdicating responsibility, but about learning to manage legal services in a different way.

Originality/value

Legal process outsourcing is the next evolution in the provision of services. Because the LPO market is less mature than the information technology outsourcing (ITO) and business process outsourcing (BPO) markets, very little research has been done on LPO in general or on LPO provider capabilities specifically. This Industry Insight helps to bridge the knowledge gap.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Neil A. Morgan

Focuses on the perceptions held by organisational clients of thelegal advice provided by their primary law firms. Previous work onservice quality has been dominated by…

Abstract

Focuses on the perceptions held by organisational clients of the legal advice provided by their primary law firms. Previous work on service quality has been dominated by studies in consumer services and has been primarily outside the professional service context which is examined here. Empirical data collected from 152 corporate clients across a number of business sectors is used to examine a number of hypotheses relating client quality perceptions to key factors exhibited by both the legal service provider and the organisational client. The relationship between marketing and quality, and the marketing implications of the study for law firms are also discussed.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Legal Professions: Work, Structure and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-800-2

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Krishna Chaitanya Balthu and Ben Clegg

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how action research-based interventions can effect change in a complex and challenging professional service environment (Lewis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how action research-based interventions can effect change in a complex and challenging professional service environment (Lewis and Brown, 2012). This paper presents a successful way to do this. First, by eliciting factors for change driven by deregulation in the United Kingdom’s (UK) legal service sector (Falconer, 2005). Second, by designing and implementing context-sensitive change in a selected legal service firm.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts a participatory action research methodology involving the use of systems thinking (namely the PrOH modelling methodology) to design suitable interventions and catalyse change.

Findings

This study has generated new knowledge on three fronts–to the legal service operations, to methodology and to the intellectual framework used for abductive reasoning (Checkland and Poulter, 2006). Lessons are transferable to wider professional service operations research. Findings indicate, despite traditional challenges of delivering typical professional services, there is potential for rationalising processes and service delivery commodification, mainly in the low volume, high variety legal service typology (Silvestro et al., 1992).

Research limitations/implications

This research uses data from an in-depth study of a single organisation.

Practical implications

This research helped legal service professionals to improve overall efficiency and effectiveness and create new management tools.

Social implications

This research could help improve legal service operations and make them more accessible.

Originality/value

This research applies a novel, systems thinking based methodology for the first time in a complex professional service operations environment leading to three-fold contributions in the areas of practice, theory and methodology. The paper uses a change management framework (the Change Kaleidoscope), a soft systems methodology (PrOH modelling) and applies these to legal services.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Yolanda Patrice Jones

Librarians have been urged to emphasize social justice and human rights issues in their library mission, but they may find themselves challenged to provide additional…

Abstract

Librarians have been urged to emphasize social justice and human rights issues in their library mission, but they may find themselves challenged to provide additional services, such as access to legal information for those who cannot afford an attorney. Social justice services in libraries are seldom adequately funded and providing services in this area is labor intensive. In addition, there is an emotional intensity in library services for social justice that is often not considered in the initial enthusiasm of providing services in this area. Yet there seems to be no limit to the need. An interesting and useful perspective on how a public agency such as a library responds in circumstances of limited resources and unlimited demand can be found in the book Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service, by Michael Lipsky. In this perspective, lower level civil servants who interact directly with members of the general public exercise a level of discretion in the amount of services provided and how those services are administered. This chapter explores how this can generate tensions between more traditional library bureaucracy and social justice services, such as providing public access to justice resources in law libraries. However, the “street-level” response is evolving into a sustainability perspective as librarians embrace a more social justice–oriented outlook in library service planning.

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Rachel Hale, Melina Stewart-North and Alistair Harkness

Disasters significantly reduce the accessibility of justice particularly in rural locations. The bushfires, which ravaged three states in the south-east of Australia in…

Abstract

Disasters significantly reduce the accessibility of justice particularly in rural locations. The bushfires, which ravaged three states in the south-east of Australia in late 2019 and early 2020, have had catastrophic social and economic impacts on people, animals and places in rural areas. In the aftermath of disasters, people by necessity must inevitably avail themselves of legal advice and services: to negotiate new business contracts; re-mortgage property; access wills and testaments; attend court; and for a host of other matters. In rural communities, where access to legal services is already limited by distance and circumstance, disasters create increased demand, and access issues are accentuated. This chapter explores access to justice issues in post-disaster context and as they relate to rural, regional and remote communities. It draws upon post-disaster experiences nationally and internationally, outlining responses to improve access to legal services past and present, identifying effective responses. It argues that rurality creates additional barriers and reduces access to justice, and that disasters exacerbate existing access issues as well as creating new challenges.

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