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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Elten Briggs, Timothy D. Landry and Ivonne M. Torres

The primary goal of this study is to examine how services advertising strategy relates to the prevalence of minority portrayals in magazine advertisements.

1944

Abstract

Purpose

The primary goal of this study is to examine how services advertising strategy relates to the prevalence of minority portrayals in magazine advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a content analysis method. Over 1,000 advertisements were collected, and 455 were employed in the study. Chi‐square difference tests were used to test hypotheses. A second sample was collected to verify some initial findings.

Findings

It was found that minority models were more likely to appear in advertisements for services than in advertisements for goods. Differences were also found across types of services. Asian models were overrepresented in advertisements for technologies, a product category with a strong services influence.

Research limitations/implications

Emphasis was placed on portrayals of African‐Americans and Asians, so findings are most directly applicable to these groups. The generalizability of the results may be limited to the types of publications from which the sample was drawn.

Practical implications

Given the frequency of minority portrayals in advertisements for services, especially for particular types of services, managers must consider implementing this approach to reach these customer groups. Those already implementing portrayals of minority models must be mindful of the negative effects of stereotyping.

Originality/value

The paper considers services advertising strategy in light of changes in the make‐up of the US population. It applies the same theoretical approach to explain differences in the frequency of minority portrayals in services advertising versus goods advertising, and across different types of services.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Diane Felmlee, Paulina Inara Rodis and Sara Chari Francisco

Online aggression represents a serious, and regularly occurring, social problem. In this piece the authors consider derogatory, harmful messages on the social media…

Abstract

Online aggression represents a serious, and regularly occurring, social problem. In this piece the authors consider derogatory, harmful messages on the social media platform, Twitter, that target one of three groups of women, Asians, Blacks, and Latinx. The research focuses on messages that include one of the most common female slurs, “b!tch.” The findings of this chapter reveal that aggressive messages oriented toward women of color can be vicious and easily accessible (located in fewer than 30 seconds). Using an intersectional approach, the authors note the distinctive experiences of online harassment for women of color. The findings highlight the manner in which detrimental stereotypes are reinforced, including that of the “eroticized and obedient Asian woman,” the “angry Black woman,” and the “poor Latinx woman.” In some exceptions, women use the term “b!tch” in a positive and empowering manner, likely in an attempt to “reclaim” one of the common words used to attack females. Applying a social network perspective, we illustrate the tendency of typically hostile tweets to develop into interactive network conversations, where the original message spreads beyond the victim, and in the case of public individuals, quite widely. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the processes that lead to online harassment, including the fortification of typical norms and social dominance. Finally, the authors find that messages that use the word “b!tch” to insult Asian, Black, and Latinx women are particularly damaging in that they reinforce traditional stereotypes of women and ethno-racial minorities, and these messages possess the ability to extend to wider audiences.

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Erika L. Bocknek, Marva L. Lewis and Hasti Ashtiani Raveau

Black fathers, and specifically fathers who identify as African American, represent a group of parents who are at once not well understood and pervasively stereotyped in…

Abstract

Black fathers, and specifically fathers who identify as African American, represent a group of parents who are at once not well understood and pervasively stereotyped in negative ways. In this chapter, we describe the risks and resilience of Black fathers and their children, with a special focus on mental health and coping with stress. We emphasize a cultural practices approach that takes into account both the risks specific to Black fathers’ capacity to parent their children and a theoretical foundation for understanding the inherent strengths of Black men and their families. Finally, we address the need for early childhood educators to partner with Black fathers as a means to best support children and their families.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Prasad Oswal, Winfried Ruigrok and Narendra M. Agrawal

This study seeks to contribute to the relatively sparse literature on how emerging market firms (EMFs) acquire firm-specific advantages (FSA), how they adjust their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to contribute to the relatively sparse literature on how emerging market firms (EMFs) acquire firm-specific advantages (FSA), how they adjust their organizational structures, processes, HR policies, leadership and cultures in the internationalization process, and how they interact with their domestic institutional context.

Design/methodology/approach

We report the results of a survey sent off to the most internationalized Indian firms, measured by foreign income. Our survey includes 26 variables measuring individual aspects of organizational innovation.

Findings

Our respondents report significant changes along all 26 organizational variables over the period investigated (2003–2008). Based on self-reported assessments by top managers, our findings suggest: first, that Indian firms are rapidly transforming their organizations, second, that Indian executives are increasingly confident that they will be able to compete successfully on an international scale, and third, that Indian firms may increasingly benefit from organizational innovation complementing their low cost advantages.

Research limitations/implications

First, our sample size is relatively small at 76. Second, the ratings on the organizational variables we studied are based on self-reporting. Finally, our survey especially captures developments at the largest and most international Indian companies.

Practical implications

With its organization-wide scope of analysis, our study may guide EMF managers looking at organizational innovation in the internationalization context.

Originality/value

This paper elucidates the interplay of Indian firms’ internationalization and organizational innovation.

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Mohammad Tanvi Newaz, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Rex Davis and Manikam Pillay

Despite many studies that aim to argue, develop and position the concept of psychological contracts, few have explored how a psychological contract may be applied to…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite many studies that aim to argue, develop and position the concept of psychological contracts, few have explored how a psychological contract may be applied to safety in the construction industry. A psychological contract of safety (PCS) describes an individual's conceptualized belief that relates to mutual safety obligations, drawn from explicit or implicit promises of associated workers or its supervisor. This study investigates safety practices on construction sites through the lens of the widely applied and researched psychological contract theory emanating from a business paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

The process of validating a PCS scale within the construction industry required the collection of data from a mega-construction project in Sydney, Australia. A quantitative methodology was used to collect data from 352 construction workers through a survey instrument designed to reveal their perception of procedures, policies and practices. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to ensure data reliability and data validity of the survey findings together with goodness of fit of PCS model.

Findings

The findings showed the presence of a PCS in a construction safety setting examined. A two-factor model underlying aspects, namely employer and employee obligations was recommended since the four-factor model, including relational and transactional components of both parties' safety obligations, could not be validated due to the discriminant validity associated with the particular constructs.

Originality/value

Conceptualizing the extant PC theory as a framework from which to leverage safety management initiatives brings a new approach to construction safety studies, revealing the influential role of supervisors in interpreting safety practices. The research aimed to identify safety obligations, which are influential in the development of PSC scale, further the research provides an explanation as to how a PCS may be contextualized in the construction industry.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2018

Blaine J. Branchik and Judy Foster Davis

This paper aims to track how African-American or black male advertising models are viewed by male consumers within the context of dramatic ongoing cultural and legal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to track how African-American or black male advertising models are viewed by male consumers within the context of dramatic ongoing cultural and legal change. It provides broader implications for other ethnic minorities.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of black male advertising images culled from over 60 years of issues of two male-targeted magazines assesses these changes. The analysis contextualizes the imagery in African-American history and general media portrayals periodized into seven historical phases.

Findings

Results indicate that the number of black male advertising representations has exploded in the past 30 years from virtual invisibility to over 20 per cent of all male ad images. Roles have migrated from representations of black ad models as servants and porters to a wide range of images of black men in professional contexts. However, black males, relative to white males, are disproportionately presented in ads as athletic figures and celebrities and rarely depicted in romantic situations.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on two popular male-targeted publications, thereby limiting its scope. Relatively few black male images (relative to white male images) are to be found in print advertisements in these publications.

Practical implications

This research assists business practitioners as they create business and marketing strategies to meet the needs of an ever more diverse marketplace.

Social implications

The disproportionately large number of black male depictions as athletes and sports celebrities is indicative of remnant racism and minority stereotyping in American society.

Originality/value

This research builds upon work done by Kassarjian (1969, 1971) on black advertising images. Its originality stems from a specific focus on male models as viewed by male consumers, the addition of historic context and periodization to this history and the updating of past research by almost half a century.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2014

Calvin W. Walton and Greg Wiggan

International assessment data consistently indicate that when compared to their peers from other major developed nations, American students, irrespective of their race…

Abstract

International assessment data consistently indicate that when compared to their peers from other major developed nations, American students, irrespective of their race, underperform in reading and mathematics (Darling Hammond, 2010; NCES, 2011; PIRLS, 2011; PISA, 2009; TIMSS, 2011). Within an American context, African American males generally have the lowest reading scores as compared to their White peers (Husband, 2012; NCES, 2011; Schott Foundation, 2010; Spellings Report, 2006). Existing research indicates that these disparities in academic performance are a result of inequalities in access to quality education and differences in the treatment of students, which are deeply imbedded in historical patterns of racial, gendered, and class discrimination. However, past studies also indicate that these same students optimize their learning experiences and become high performers when they receive high quality instruction and school enrichments. Thus, this chapter examines the use of Readers Theater as an instructional model that may help to enhance the school achievement of student groups, such as African American males. The chapter documents the challenges that Black males face in schools and proposes performing arts education as a mediating mechanism and reading enhancement tool. Additionally, it includes an in-depth description of Readers Theater and examines several studies on this instructional method and its potential impact on African American males and their reading skills.

Details

African American Male Students in PreK-12 Schools: Informing Research, Policy, and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-783-2

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2018

Emmanuel Mogaji

Abstract

Details

Emotional Appeals in Advertising Banking Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-302-5

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Montira Intason, Willem Coetzee and Craig Lee

The contradiction between the purpose of the water-splashing tradition, the use of water in a water-stressed destination and overconsumption during a time of water…

Abstract

Purpose

The contradiction between the purpose of the water-splashing tradition, the use of water in a water-stressed destination and overconsumption during a time of water shortage led the researchers to question the spirit of the Songkran Festival. It is important to keep the spirit of the festival alive without interrupting the livelihoods of the community and to critically engage with opportunities and challenges related to water-saving practices during the festival. Thus, this study aims to investigate the opportunities and challenges to responsible practices of water-saving at a cultural festival, using a case study of the water-splashing practice at the Songkran Festival in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the cultural practice, namely, the water-splashing tradition at the Songkran Festival in Thailand, as a case study. The researchers conducted document analysis on local newspapers, the Bangkok Post specifically and participant observation at the Songkran Festival in the Khao San Road area in Bangkok, to gain first-hand insights to develop comprehensive results which answers the study’s objectives.

Findings

The key findings show three significant themes representing the opportunities for implementing sustainable water-saving practices; a call for a water-saving campaign, education on water saving and water-splashing restrictions. In terms of challenges to implementing water-saving practices, two key themes emerged; a lack of water stress and drought awareness and the hedonistic characteristic of water splashing. The study findings provide important implications to theory and practice for sustainable event management and provide considerations for event stakeholders to minimise water overuse in festivals.

Originality/value

Environmental degradation is a key global issue that the United Nations addresses in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) scheme (United Nations Development Program, 2016). According to Pereira et al. (2009), water scarcity can be caused by both human activities and natural causes. Factors such as unlimited water consumption, population growth and climate change are some of the contributing factors that not only affects resident's access to water but also on events hosted within communities. It is crucial that event managers critically re-think the way festivals are designed in water-stressed destinations.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Roland L Leak, Omar P Woodham and George W Stone

This paper aims to investigate the effects of minorities’ who experienced discrimination on perceptions of offensiveness tied to brand imagery that stereotypically depicts…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of minorities’ who experienced discrimination on perceptions of offensiveness tied to brand imagery that stereotypically depicts other minorities classified as out-group members.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 utilizes factor analysis to develop dependent variables, and a path analysis to model relationships between the focal independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DVs). Study 2 uses an experimental approach analyzing data with ANOVA and bootstrapping methodologies.

Findings

Minorities who report experiencing more discrimination perceive more offensiveness tied to branding containing overt stereotypical depictions of out-groups. This effect is mediated through a perceived sympathy for the out-group. However, while some minorities perceive these branded logos as relatively more offensive, minorities, as a group, do not perceive these stereotyped logos as overly offensive.

Research limitations/implications

Minorities not depicted in or alluded to in stereotypical imagery associated with a brand may be a valuable consumptive bloc that can be recruited to oppose such uses of stereotypes. This research highlights that any sympathy that these minorities report holding for depicted minority groups may be important to future targeted communications. Brand managers may need to aggressively defend the brand against negative attributions derived from non-depicted minorities’ felt sympathy. Depicted minorities fighting to remove stereotypical imagery in brands may be able to leverage non-depicted minorities’ expressed sympathy to form coalitions. Depicted minorities’ communications, however, may need to increase issue relevance to non-depicted minorities.

Originality/value

This research explores how non-affected groups perceive stereotypes infused in branding. It demonstrates that, depending on past experiences, these individuals may defend against a perceived social threat targeted at a societal out-group.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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