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Book part

Huub J. M. Ruël and Robin Visser

In a globalized world where emerging markets are more important than ever, there is an increasing pressure on international businesses and governments to work together…

Abstract

Purpose

In a globalized world where emerging markets are more important than ever, there is an increasing pressure on international businesses and governments to work together. The set of facilities known as commercial diplomacy combines the interests of both by highlighting new markets and investment opportunities.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, we present a literature review based on 56 relevant publications to assess what we currently know of this important activity.

Findings

The results indicate that research on commercial diplomacy consists of many subtopics, resulting in a patchy understanding of the topic as a whole.

Research limitations/implications

We discuss why integrative research focusing on the business–government relationship and the organization and the value of commercial diplomacy are needed from an international business perspective.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Abstract

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Making Trade Missions Work: A Best Practice Guide to International Business and Commercial Diplomacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-471-6

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Book part

Shirin Reuvers and Huub Ruël

In an ongoing process of globalization and technology improvements and due to an increase in worldwide actors in the economic sector, commercial diplomacy is an important…

Abstract

In an ongoing process of globalization and technology improvements and due to an increase in worldwide actors in the economic sector, commercial diplomacy is an important tool for countries to support their business community during the internationalization process and afterwards. Nevertheless, commercial diplomacy literature is still in its infancy. Therefore, this chapter reviews existing research on the topic and develops a framework, which integrates the topics examined so far and provides the reader with a more complete picture of the topic at hand.

By means of a literature review, this chapter shows that the body of literature involving research of both disciplines, International Relations and International Management, is still rather limited. As a consequence, we determine a future research agenda and call for more empirical studies, especially in the field of (political) economy.

Details

Commercial Diplomacy and International Business: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-674-4

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Article

Yunxi Chen and Weng Si (Clara) Lei

With the increasing importance of social media in promoting events, understanding the relationship between event followers' motivations and their behaviors on an event's…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing importance of social media in promoting events, understanding the relationship between event followers' motivations and their behaviors on an event's social media platform becomes a key success factor to attract event-goers. Previous studies on exploring the relationship between social media and event attendees have concentrated mostly on a Western context social media, for example, Facebook, and Western festivals; studies concerning the East or China are scant. This study uses the Strawberry Music Festival in China as a case study and researches its two official social media platforms: WeChat and Weibo.

Design/methodology/approach

The research explores the hedonic and utilitarian motivation of social media followers and investigates followers' browsing and participation behaviors as well as the influence of their usage behaviors on intentions to attend an event. A total of 190 valid responses were collected through an online questionnaire from social media followers of the music festival.

Findings

The findings reveal that both utilitarian and hedonic motivation have significant effects on browsing and participation behaviors. More importantly, browsing and participation behaviors also affect the intentions to attend an event and the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) effect.

Practical implications

The research results provide practical insights for event organizers regarding potential event-goers' usage patterns on social media platforms and their intention to visit events.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the authors’ understanding of the relationship between event attendance and social media behavior, in particular of the East.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article

Benjamin Gbolahan Ekemode

This study reinvestigates the short-run and long-run inflation-hedging attributes of residential property assets in the Nigerian property market, based on variations in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study reinvestigates the short-run and long-run inflation-hedging attributes of residential property assets in the Nigerian property market, based on variations in property types and location.

Design/methodology/approach

Data used for this study comprised the holding period returns of three residential property types, namely bungalow, block of flats and detached house during 1999–2018. These were obtained from property practitioners in Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt, respectively. The inflation values obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics were split into actual, expected and unexpected components. Fama and Schwert’s (1977) ordered least square (OLS) regression was used to assess the short-term inflation hedging efficacy. Afterwards, the long-run link between residential property and inflation was examined using the Johansen and Juselius cointegration test.

Findings

The results showed that despite the variations in hedging behaviour across property types in the three locations, residential property assets significantly provided protection over actual, expected and unexpected inflation in the short run based on the OLS regression analysis. The result of the Johansen and Juselius cointegration test also established a long-term link between the residential property assets and actual inflation. However, mixed results were found on the link between residential property and expected and unexpected inflation, as some of the assets did not effectively hedge these inflation components in the long run.

Practical implications

The study implied that the differences in property types and geographic locations are crucial in establishing the short-run and long-run inflation-hedging attributes of residential property assets and should be factored into consideration.

Originality/value

The paper complements the existing body of knowledge on the inflation-hedging attributes of residential property in emerging markets by determining the effects of variation in house types and geographic differences on the analysis.

Details

Property Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Book part

Lennart Zuidema and Huub Ruël

The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of…

Abstract

The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their international trade and to stimulate their national economies. Foreign posts play a crucial role in offering effective diplomatic support for international business. But what are the factors that can explain commercial diplomacy effectiveness at the foreign post level? This chapter presents the results of a survey that was conducted among commercial diplomats stationed at foreign posts. It appears that the amount of experience that commercial diplomats acquired at these foreign posts, combined with their established business network, form two of the most important factors which have a positive impact on the quality of commercial diplomacy. This extends further to include the importance of the client (business) preparedness in terms of knowledge and skills as well. Furthermore, the results indicate that the less favourable a cognitive institutional environment in a host country is, for instance in terms of information availability, the more relevance commercial diplomacy will have. The results of this study promote the understanding of how commercial diplomacy works and show how the debate on the future of commercial diplomacy can be taken a step further. This study should also be seen as a starting point for a holistic framework of commercial diplomacy effectiveness.

Details

Commercial Diplomacy and International Business: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-674-4

Keywords

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Book part

Lauren W. Collins and Lysandra Cook

The use of verbal reinforcement has longstanding support in encouraging desired student responses. For students with learning and behavioral disabilities, the use of…

Abstract

The use of verbal reinforcement has longstanding support in encouraging desired student responses. For students with learning and behavioral disabilities, the use of verbal reinforcement through behavior specific praise (BSP) and feedback are promising practices for improving academic and behavioral outcomes. While these strategies are relatively straightforward to implement, they are often applied inappropriately. Thus, specific guidelines should be followed to ensure that BSP and feedback are used effectively. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of BSP and feedback related specifically to students with learning and behavioral disabilities, provide theoretical and empirical support for these practices, offer research-based recommendations for implementation, and identify common errors to avoid.

Details

Instructional Practices with and without Empirical Validity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-125-8

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Article

Jianhong Zhang, Jiangang Jiang and Chaohong Zhou

– The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of diplomatic activities on outward foreign direct investment (OFDI).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of diplomatic activities on outward foreign direct investment (OFDI).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first develops a set of hypotheses drawing insights from politics, international business and institutional theory. It then tests these hypotheses by estimation of Panel Corrected Standard Error models, using the data of Chinese OFDI flow to 131 countries over the period of 2003-2010.

Findings

The main findings are: friendly bilateral diplomatic activities help OFDI in general; bilateral diplomatic activities provide effective support to some sensitive and important investments; and bilateral diplomatic activities play an important role in host countries where institutions are absent or poor in quality.

Practical implications

Friendly bilateral diplomatic activities provide strong support to multinationals investing abroad.

Originality/value

The paper incorporates a neglected but important factor, diplomacy, into a model to analyze its influences on OFDI. It investigates not only the direct impact of diplomatic activities on OFDI but also their moderating effect on other OFDI determinants, such as economic and institutional factors.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Benjamin Dreer

To support student teachers' well-being and ensure that they flourish during teacher education, it is necessary to examine the relationship between student teachers and…

Abstract

Purpose

To support student teachers' well-being and ensure that they flourish during teacher education, it is necessary to examine the relationship between student teachers and their mentors during field experiences. Previous research has identified a connection between the quality of the mentor–mentee relationship and facets of student teachers' well-being. However, to date, this link has been insufficiently corroborated using longitudinal empirical data. This study aims to investigate the impact of mentor–mentee relationship quality on the well-being and flourishing of student teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-lagged panel design with two intervals (six weeks apart) was applied during a 15-week field experience with a sample of 125 German student teachers. Well-being and flourishing were captured using the positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) framework. Relationship quality was assessed by adapting a questionnaire from the field of mentoring in medicine.

Findings

Relationship quality at the outset significantly predicted all five PERMA dimensions at the end of the assessment period. The impact of relationship quality was especially strong on the dimensions of relationships (R) and meaning (M). Conversely, the PERMA dimensions (except achievement) did not significantly impact relationship quality.

Originality/value

These results provide longitudinal empirical evidence underlining the beneficial effects of a healthy relationship between mentor and mentee in the field of teacher education. The findings clearly suggest that the relationship quality significantly influences student teachers' well-being and capacity to flourish during practical phases.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

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