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Article

Lee Bosher, Dowon Kim, Takeyuki Okubo, Ksenia Chmutina and Rohit Jigyasu

Cultural heritage (CH) sites are not only important components of a country’s identity but can also be important drivers of tourism. However, an increasing number of…

Abstract

Purpose

Cultural heritage (CH) sites are not only important components of a country’s identity but can also be important drivers of tourism. However, an increasing number of extreme events associated with the impacts of climate change, natural hazards and human-induced threats are posing significant problems in conserving and managing CH worldwide. Consequently, improved climate change adaptation and enhanced hazard/threat mitigation strategies have become critical (but to-date under-researched) considerations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key hazards and threats to CH sites, the most common types of risks to CH and the strategies being adopted to mitigate or even eradicate those risks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews 80 CH case studies from around the world, which have been presented at a UNESCO International Training Course between 2006 and 2016. The case studies cover 45 different countries and provide practical insights into the key challenges being encountered in a variety of “at risk” locations.

Findings

The analysis assesses the key natural hazards and human-induced threats to the sites, an overview of the typical impacts to the tangible components of heritage and identifies the types of strategies being adopted to mitigate the risks, some of which could be transferred across cultural and geographical contexts.

Originality/value

The paper provides a wealth of useful information related to how challenges faced by CH sites might be addressed in the future.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Ksenia Chmutina, Peter Fussey, Andrew Dainty and Lee Bosher

A number of severe weather events have influenced a shift in UK policy concerning how climate-induced hazards are managed. Whist this shift has encouraged improvements in…

Abstract

Purpose

A number of severe weather events have influenced a shift in UK policy concerning how climate-induced hazards are managed. Whist this shift has encouraged improvements in emergency management and preparedness, the risk of climate change is increasingly becoming securitised within policy discourses, and enmeshed with broader agendas traditionally associated with human-induced threats. Climate change is seen as a security risk because it can impede development of a nation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution of the securitisation of climate change, and interrogates how such framings influence a range of conceptual and policy focused approaches towards both security and climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon the UK context, the paper uses a novel methodological approach combining critical discourse analysis and focus groups with security experts and policymakers.

Findings

The resulting policy landscape appears inexorably skewed towards short-term decision cycles that do little to mitigate longer-term threats to the nation’s assets. Whilst a prominent political action on a global level is required in order to mitigate the root causes (i.e. GHG emissions), national level efforts focus on adaptation (preparedness to the impacts of climate-induced hazards), and are forming part of the security agenda.

Originality/value

These issues are not restricted to the UK: understanding the role of security and its relationship to climate change becomes more pressing and urgent, as it informs the consequences of securitising climate change risks for development-disaster risk system.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Lee Bosher, Andrew Dainty, Patricia Carrillo, Jacqueline Glass and Andrew Price

There is a need to proactively address strategic weaknesses in protecting the built environment from a range of hazards. This paper seeks to focus on the mitigation for…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a need to proactively address strategic weaknesses in protecting the built environment from a range of hazards. This paper seeks to focus on the mitigation for flood hazards in the UK; particularly in understanding the extent of the problem, collating key guidance and legislation related to flood hazard mitigation, identifying who the key construction decision makers are and the most opportune stages of the Design‐Construction‐Operation Process when they need to make their key decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A pluralistic research design was adopted for the study, which included a UK‐wide questionnaire survey and a set of semi‐structured interviews involving a range of professionals from construction, planning, insurance, emergency management and local/national government agencies was undertaken.

Findings

Despite the publication of a range of guidance on flood hazard mitigation in the UK there is still insufficient evidence that key construction stakeholders are playing an active role in mitigating flood risk. The pre‐construction phase of a building's life cycle is identified as is the most critical stage when key stakeholders need to adopt flood hazard mitigation strategies. The socio‐institutional constraints to the proactive attainment of built‐in resilience are highlighted as are recommendations as to how these constraints can be addressed.

Research limitations/implications

The paper reports on the provisional findings of an ongoing project but these findings nonetheless provide essential foundations for the latter development of the PRE‐EMPT toolkit and also raise some important considerations about flood resilience in the UK.

Originality/value

The findings presented reveal how stakeholders should be better involved, and what issues they need to address, regarding the integration of built‐in resilience into construction decision making.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Lee Bosher

The paper seeks to assess the influence and effectiveness of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) in targeting and aiding “communities” to reduce their socio‐economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to assess the influence and effectiveness of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) in targeting and aiding “communities” to reduce their socio‐economic vulnerability to infrequent large‐scale and common everyday crises in coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection included 342 questionnaires with village inhabitants, local and regional government officials and personnel managing and working for local NGOs. To add qualitative detail to the quantitative data that were collected, 308 “everyday” sociograms, 294 “crisis” sociograms, and 34 semi‐structured interviews were also conducted.

Findings

The research identifies that NGOs in the study areas do not operate in multi‐caste villages, apparently because they prefer to operate in relatively homogeneous single‐caste villages. The implications are that some of the most vulnerable members of society, such as the marginalised “communities” that partially constitute multi‐caste villages, do not receive the support they need.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on a specific region of Andhra Pradesh with the consequence that the findings are potentially very context‐specific. Nonetheless, the findings highlight a fundamental flaw in the way many NGOs operate in this region, through the targeting of perceived “easy cases”, and this is a matter that development agencies should consider and further investigate.

Originality/value

This paper will be of value to researchers and practitioners seeking to gain a better understanding of NGOs and the way some of them operate. The paper recommends a number of ways that the observed inefficiencies could be addressed.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Lee Bosher, Andrew Dainty, Patricia Carrillo and Jacqueline Glass

Professions involved with the construction industry need to become more aware of disaster risk management (DRM) activities if lessons are to be learned from the past and a…

Abstract

Purpose

Professions involved with the construction industry need to become more aware of disaster risk management (DRM) activities if lessons are to be learned from the past and a resilient built environment attained in the future. This study aims to focus on identifying which construction‐associated stakeholders should be involved with DRM initiatives in the UK, and when these stakeholders should be involved. This research is thereby unique and a key step in the longer‐term aim of identifying how stakeholders should be involved and what issues they need to address regarding the integration of DRM into construction decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the findings of a UK‐wide questionnaire survey, semi‐structured interviews and a validation exercise involving a range of professionals from construction, planning, insurance, emergency management and local/national government agencies.

Findings

This research identifies the key construction stakeholders that should be responsible for ensuring that resilience issues become integrated and ensuring the key stages of the design‐construction‐operation process where their inputs are required.

Originality/value

The finding presented are an important and logical step in the longer term aim of identifying how stakeholders should be better involved and what issues they need to address regarding the integration of DRM into construction decision making.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Ksenia Chmutina and Lee Bosher

Employing a case study of Barbados, the purpose of this paper is to highlight key stakeholders involved in the construction sector, discusses the roles of construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Employing a case study of Barbados, the purpose of this paper is to highlight key stakeholders involved in the construction sector, discusses the roles of construction stakeholders in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and the key stages of the construction process where proactive DRR inputs could be made, The following objectives are addressed: to describe the main natural hazards in Barbados; to reveal key stakeholders involved in the decision making during the design, construction and operation process (DCOP) and DRR process; to discuss the roles of construction stakeholders in DRR and the key stages of the DCOP where proactive DRR inputs could be made; to emphasise the main barriers to the implementation of DRR in the Barbados’ construction sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study methodology, that includes semi-structured interviews with construction stakeholders in Barbados, a critical review of relevant literature and media coverage of natural hazards, and construction site visits.

Findings

The key construction stakeholders that should be responsible for DRR integration in construction process are identified. The main barriers to the implementation of DRR in the Barbados’ construction sector are also discussed; these include the absence of an enforced building code and complacency towards natural hazards from the general population as well as construction stakeholders.

Originality/value

Whilst some attempts have been made in mainstreaming DRR into construction projects in Barbados, many of the measures are not effectively implemented due to various constraints. In addition, little research has been done on the state of the construction sector and its use of DRR in the Caribbean. This paper aims to fill this research gap.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Haorui Wu and Chaoping Hou

The protection of traditional grassroots place-making knowledge and skills that comprise valuable intangible heritage has not been attracting enough attention in the field…

Abstract

Purpose

The protection of traditional grassroots place-making knowledge and skills that comprise valuable intangible heritage has not been attracting enough attention in the field of post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. Based on the Guchengping Village’s reconstruction that followed the Lushan earthquake (Sichuan, China), the purpose of this paper is to identify the benefits of a co-design approach for post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, in order to ascertain various stakeholders’ contributions toward the protection of community-based intangible place-making heritage.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative method was employed to assist the professional designers in facilitating the co-design approach by bridging governments closer together with local communities. At the governmental level, focus groups and personal interviews were conducted to discover the government’s role in preserving the communities’ intangible heritage. At the community level, community-based workshops and family-based design partnerships engaged various community stakeholders to decipher their roles and contributions toward advancing the heritage age.

Findings

As the advocates of intangible heritage, all levels of government guaranteed that intangible heritage would be safeguarded in the government strategic plans. At the community level, local residents played a fundamental role as the grassroots protectors. Professional designers utilized cutting edge technologies to improve weaknesses found in the traditional knowledge and skills, by performing the protection in practice. Community-based service agencies promoted the value of heritage to address societal issues.

Originality/value

The co-design approach offered a new method of intangible heritage protection in post-disaster reconstruction and recovery by engaging different stakeholders, in order to effectively transfer the governmental strategic plans into community-based action plans, and in turn, enabled the grassroots voice to inform the government policies.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Shanshan Zhou, Massimo Battaglia and Marco Frey

Analyzing how and what the local multi-utility AIMAG learned through the 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes, the purpose of this paper is to “normalize” the organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

Analyzing how and what the local multi-utility AIMAG learned through the 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes, the purpose of this paper is to “normalize” the organizational learning (OL) triggered by disasters.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven managers who experienced the earthquakes were interviewed. The collected data are supplemented by archival materials. The analysis was conducted based on the 4I model (Crossan et al., 1999), using the qualitative data analysis tool “NVivo.”

Findings

The earthquakes audited AIMAG’s knowledge repositories, revealing its weakness and strength. When the earthquakes struck, individuals intuited the situations based on their previous experience, interpreting the need to respond to the interruptions and begin recovery immediately. The collective interpretation formed the basis for joint actions, which integrated the group learning at the organizational level. The effective cognition and behavior were instituted to the organization, and the new knowledge was absorbed into the organization’s knowledge repositories awaiting the next audit.

Originality/value

The concept of “learning through disasters” is advocated. By perceiving disasters as a series of interruptions that may have happened before and may re-occur, the learning is connected to organizations’ past and future through knowledge repositories. In addition, by analyzing data based on the multi-level OL model, the learning triggered by disasters was observed to occur throughout the organization at individual, group and organizational levels, in which routines played a critical linking role.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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