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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Malak Tleis, Roberta Callieris and Rocco Roma

The purpose of this paper is to discover profiles of organic food consumers in Lebanon by performing a market segmentation based on lifestyle and attitude variables and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover profiles of organic food consumers in Lebanon by performing a market segmentation based on lifestyle and attitude variables and thus be able to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each market segment.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 320 organic food consumers in the capital Beirut, in February and March 2014. Descriptive analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis (k-means method) were performed upon collected data.

Findings

Four clusters were obtained and labelled based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay for the most purchased organic products. “Localist” and “Health conscious” clusters were the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus these were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies, emphasising the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. “Rational” and “Irregular” cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies.

Originality/value

This is the first study attempting to segment organic food consumers into different categories in a developing country as Lebanon.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Jana Dwaidy, Dina Cheaib, Adla Jammoul and Nada El Darra

This study aims to evaluate the safety and quality of organic food product versus conventional ones in the Lebanese market.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the safety and quality of organic food product versus conventional ones in the Lebanese market.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected organic and conventional Lemon and cucumber were assessed for the presence of pesticides residues using LC-MS/MS and GC/MS/MS, also compared at the level of total polyphenols content, flavonoids, tannins and tested for their antiradical and antibacterial activities.

Findings

The findings indicate that organic lemons were contaminated by four types of pesticide residues (33.33%), while one pesticide residue (22.22%) was detected in conventional one, which were all below the European Union Maximum Residue Limits. For cucumber, six pesticide residues (66.66%) were detected in organic samples, while in conventional, eight pesticide residues (55.55%) were detected. However, absolutely four samples (44.44%) in each of conventional and organic cucumber samples surpass the maximum residue levels. Both lemon and cucumber, regardless of the farming systems, possess potent antioxidant activity with no significant difference, except for lemon, where total polyphenol was highly significant in conventional. Additionally, this study showed that lemon of conventional origin was slightly more effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains compared to organic samples, while both cucumber types did not exert any antibacterial effect.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to assess the polyphenols, pesticide residue and biological activities of organic lemon and cucumber in Lebanese market as well as comparing conventional to organic.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Mehmet Haluk Koksal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors underlying Lebanese consumers’ food motivations and segment them based on those motivations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors underlying Lebanese consumers’ food motivations and segment them based on those motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data in the study were collected from the main shopping districts of the Lebanese capital, Beirut, through a structured questionnaire. Respondents were intercepted by employing simple random sampling. Out of 700 people approached, 411 surveys were collected, giving a response rate of 58.7 per cent. After gathering the food choice motives under main groups by employing exploratory factor analysis, the study used two step cluster analysis.

Findings

The food choice motives were grouped under eight dimensions: ecological, sensory, convenience and availability, health, weight, mood, price and religion motives. Based on the food choice motives, the study identified four dissimilar clusters, namely, careless, conscious, hedonic and health and weight conscious. The study clearly indicated that there are significant differences among clusters in terms of the food choice motives, attitudes towards healthy eating, exercising, food quality and natural organic food and socio demographic characteristics.

Originality/value

There are numerous studies on food choice motives in the literature investigating certain countries. This study is the first study investigating the subject in one of the Middle Eastern countries, Lebanon.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Christelle Bou-Mitri, Lama Khnaisser, Mira Bou Ghanem, Samar Merhi, Jessy El-Hayek Fares, Jacqueline Doumit and Antoine G. Farhat

This study aims to assess the exposure of Lebanese consumers to nutrition and health claims (NHCs) on pre-packed bread.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the exposure of Lebanese consumers to nutrition and health claims (NHCs) on pre-packed bread.

Design/methodology/approach

Bread samples (n = 354) from all the bakeries (n = 44) located in Mount Lebanon, between 2017 and 2018, were assessed. Breads with nutrition claims were analyzed using standard methods. A cross-sectional study was also conducted among 400 supermarket shoppers.

Findings

Results showed that among the collected samples of bread (n = 354), 59.6 per cent carried at least one claim, 47.2 per cent had non-nutrient claims, 32.5 per cent had nutrition claims and 15.3 per cent presented health claims. Claims related to sugar, salt and fiber content were the most commonly used (28.8 , 16.4 and 14.7 per cent, respectively). NHCs were mostly present on whole wheat bread. Breads with claims were more expensive. Half of the participants (49.8 per cent) relied on NHCs whenever purchasing bread, especially females (OR = 2.35, 95 per cent CI = 1.44-3.84, p = 0.001), those following a specific diet (OR = 4.56, 95 per cent CI = 2.02-10.25, p < 0.001) and those with the lowest household income (OR = 0.795, 95 per cent CI = 0.639-0.989, p = 0.040).

Originality/value

The overall findings showed that Lebanese consumers are highly exposed to NHCs, especially those at higher risk which could lead to serious public health issues if their use is not strictly regulated and controlled. Moreover, NHCs could be used as a tool to increase consumers’ awareness and help them make healthier choices during shopping.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Case study
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Nayla Menhem, Liliane Elias Youakim and Aliaa Khoury

This case focuses on social entrepreneurship where social externalities lie behind a commercial activity. It aims to help students understand the ins and outs of social…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case focuses on social entrepreneurship where social externalities lie behind a commercial activity. It aims to help students understand the ins and outs of social entrepreneurship concept and justify its application or not to “The Good Thymes”. It leads to an in-depth reflection in the strategic management field but within the framework of a social enterprise. It presents a good foundation to help students applying the strategic tools to this particular context. It aims to help master’s students in the business field to explain the concept of social entrepreneurship by drawing out its elements from the case study, identify and list the components of business development and management, design "The Good Thymes" business model and list its value chain and evaluate the future orientation of a company based on its characteristics.

Case overview/synopsis

Young, ambitious, in love with his native village "Kfarhouna", in Southern Lebanon, Fady Aziz, a branding specialist living in the capital Beirut, proposed in January 2016, in a friendly discussion, to the priest of the monastery of Saint-Georges to rent him an agricultural land. He aims to have a reason, at the end of the week, to go up in his village with his family. Skeptical to the idea, the priest accused him of "not understanding anything about agriculture" and challenged him to propose a valuable agricultural project likely to make him change his mind. M. Fady Aziz fought to meet this challenge which will allow him not only to reinvigorate his abandoned village but also to reconnect with his origins. He obtained the right to exploit a plot of land belonging to the Monastery of St. Georges. He had the idea of planting thyme and transformed his "hobby" into the outset of a long journey where his products crossed the borders, under a purely artisanal brand: "The Good Thymes". Today, M. Aziz is facing a new challenge: Would he be able to fulfill all these orders and remain faithful to the philosophy that led him to invest in his village without impairing the natural and artisanal aspect of his thyme?

Complexity academic level

Master in Business.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Jihad Sidawi, Carine Zaraket, Roland Habchi, Nathalie Bassil, Chafic Salame, Michel Aillerie and Jean-Pierre Charles

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dark properties as a function of reverse current induced defects. Dark characteristics of solar modules are very essential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dark properties as a function of reverse current induced defects. Dark characteristics of solar modules are very essential in the understanding the functioning of these devices.

Design/methodology/approach

Reverse currents were applied on the photovoltaic (PV) modules to create defects. At several time intervals, dark characteristics along with surface temperature were measured.

Findings

Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics furnished valuable data and threshold values for reverse currents. Maximum module surface temperatures were directly related to each of the induced reverse currents and to the amount of leakage current. Microstructural damages, in the form of hot spots and overheating, are linked to reverse current effects. Experimental evidence showed that different levels of reverse currents are a major degrading factor of the performance of solar cells and modules.

Originality/value

These results give a reliable method to predict most of the essential characteristics of a silicon solar cell or a module. Similar test could help predict the amount of degradation or even the failure of PV modules.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Tarek Ben Hassen, Hamid El Bilali, Mohammad S. Allahyari and Laurence Charbel

Right after announcing the first cases, several governments worldwide have implemented stringent measures to stop the spread of COVID-19. This disruption in individuals'…

Abstract

Purpose

Right after announcing the first cases, several governments worldwide have implemented stringent measures to stop the spread of COVID-19. This disruption in individuals' daily routines transformed food consumption habits. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on food consumption, diet and food shopping behaviors in Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon an online survey in Lebanon administered in Arabic and English through the Survey Monkey platform in the period of July 15—August 5, 2020, with 201 adults. The survey findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a paired sample t-test and a Phi correlation test.

Findings

The research underlined numerous key consumer tendencies that are currently affecting diet and food behavior in Lebanon. Indeed, the study outcomes suggested (1) a move toward healthier diets; (2) a rise in the consumption of domestic products due to food safety concerns; (3) a change in the grocery shopping behaviors (with a rise in online shopping); (4) a surge of food stockpiling; and (5) a decrease in household food wastage. Surprisingly, COVID-19 seems to generate several positive changes toward more sustainable and healthier consumption patterns in Lebanon.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the clarification and critical analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on food behaviors in Lebanon, which would have several policy implications.

Originality/value

The findings of this first study contribute to the clarification and critical analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on food behaviors in Lebanon, which would have several policy implications.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Demetris Vrontis, Sam El Nemar, Ammar Ouwaida and S.M. Riad Shams

The purpose of this study is to understand and accentuate the value of social media in international student recruitment in Lebanese higher education institutions (HEIs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand and accentuate the value of social media in international student recruitment in Lebanese higher education institutions (HEIs). This study analyses the significance of social media and the changes occurring in the means of communicating with the potential international students, with an aim to understand how the HEIs could adapt with the changes to implement a model of engagement to include social media as a fundamental constituent of the Lebanese HEIs’ international student recruitment strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers carried out a study through quantitative descriptive approach by using a probabilistic simple random sample and a self-administered questionnaire on 230 international students from several universities and colleges in Lebanon as a data collection method.

Findings

The findings demonstrated a certain level of engagement in social media networks from the part of the students during their search for college or university and course information. Research showed that international students still prefer the traditional sources, apart from social media, during their search. Among traditional media sources, friend, family and university website were the highest in ranking. Among social media sources, Facebook, Instagram, Google+ and YouTube showed the highest ranks. Most students have, indeed, contacted a friend or a university staff for university course information by using social media sites.

Practical implications

For managerial practice, this is an incentive for institutions of higher education to re-evaluate and assess the effective impact of social media on the recruitment of international students and to regulate their social media marketing strategies. For research in international education, the insights of this study are useful to explore further research avenues in the area of capacity building for business innovation, marketing and quality assurance in higher education in the cross-cultural context.

Originality/value

This study offers insights on the implications of social media for international student recruitment strategies in a particular Lebanese context of HEIs.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Francisco Sarabia-Andreu, Francisco J. Sarabia-Sanchez, María Concepción Parra-Meroño and Pablo Moreno-Albaladejo

This study aims to examine the formal and metric properties of Gil et al.’s (2000) scale of attitudes toward organic products, which is the most popular scale to measure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the formal and metric properties of Gil et al.’s (2000) scale of attitudes toward organic products, which is the most popular scale to measure these attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 4,992 household shoppers living in Hong Kong, Germany, Norway, Spain and the UK. The questionnaire was distributed using a third-party consumer panel, and the fieldwork was conducted using computer-assisted Web interviewing. The approach was based on confirmatory factor analysis and measurement of invariance, as well as format analysis using a wording-syntactic and semantic descriptive method.

Findings

The scale reflects an attitude-toward-object model approach. Its use has been heavily varied (in terms of wording, item semantics and the attributes to be measured). A two-factor structure that meets the metric conditions (reliability and validity) is found. However, the analysis of invariance shows that the scale behaves differently in different countries.

Research limitations/implications

This scale offers a good starting point for measuring attitudes toward organic products. However, it requires refinement to adapt to consumer evolution and improve its metric validity. Verification of its applicability in cross-national studies is recommended.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that assesses the format and quantitative characteristics of this scale on a cross-national level. For scholars and companies with international interests, preventing the use of scales with poor properties at the transnational level can improve the design of future studies and save money through a more informed choice of attitudinal scale.

Propósito

Este estudio examina las propiedades formales y métricas de la escala de actitudes hacia los productos orgánicos de Gil et al. (2000), que es la escala más popular para medir estas actitudes.

Metodología

La muestra incluye 4.992 compradores principales en hogares de Hong Kong, Alemania, Noruega, España y el Reino Unido. El cuestionario se distribuyó utilizando un panel de consumidores, y el trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo mediante entrevistas online asistidas por ordenador. El enfoque se basó en un análisis factorial confirmatorio y en la invariancia de las medidas, así como en un análisis del formato utilizando un método descriptivo de redacción-sintáctico-semántico.

Hallazgos

La escala refleja un enfoque de actitud basada en el objeto. Su uso ha sido muy variado (en redacción, semántica de sus redacciones y los atributos que mide). Se encuentra una estructura de dos factores que cumple con las condiciones métricas (fiabilidad y validez). Sin embargo, el análisis de invariancia muestra que la escala se comporta de manera diferente en distintos países.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Esta escala ofrece un buen punto de partida para medir las actitudes hacia los productos orgánicos, pero requiere un refinamiento para adaptarse a la evolución del consumidor y para mejorar su validez métrica. Se recomienda verificar su aplicabilidad en los estudios internacionales comparados.

Originalidad/valor

Este es el primer estudio que evalúa el formato y las características cuantitativas de esta escala a nivel internacional. Para los académicos y las empresas con intereses internacionales, evitar el uso de escalas con propiedades deficientes a nivel transnacional puede mejorar el diseño de futuros estudios y ahorrar dinero a través de una elección más informada de la escala actitudinal.

Palabras clave

Actitudes, Productos orgánicos, Estudio transnacional, Análisis factorial confirmatorio, Validación de la escala

Tipo de trabajo

Artículo de investigación.

Details

Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

Keywords

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