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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Michael Leimbach

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of training. Further, this research creates an application framework for implementing the most effective solutions to increase the effectiveness of human resource development initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted meta‐analysis process, focused on research that compared training alone with training plus transfer activities, is used. “Difference scores”, representing the percentage of improvement the transfer activities created over training alone, are computed.

Findings

Results indicate that there are 11 specific learning transfer activities showing tangible impact and evidence of effectiveness. In total, 32 studies are found that made this type of comparison. While this may be too narrow to draw specific conclusions, it provides a good basis for development of a learning transfer framework.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that there is a great need for more research that directly compares training alone with training plus transfer activities.

Practical implications

Nonetheless, the research may help to simplify the complex models of learning transfer presented by others and provide a framework that is more likely to be implemented than previous frameworks and theories.

Originality/value

This is the first ever effort, according to the author, to assess the direct impact of learning transfer activities on performance improvement.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Somashekhar Krishnamani and Yasmeen Haider

The purpose of the paper is to empirically investigate transfer of learning and its relationship with the training super-system. Specifically, this paper looks at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to empirically investigate transfer of learning and its relationship with the training super-system. Specifically, this paper looks at motivation to transfer as an indicator of a transfer condition. The paper will also provide information on individual factors, work place factors and design factors of training programs that facilitate transfer of learning. This study will also attempt to recommend a procedure for design and delivery of executive education programs that will facilitate transfer of learning by identifying variables that were hitherto not identified.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a descriptive and exploratory. Sample for this study has been drawn from learners who participated in executive education programs delivered by Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai. Respondents completed a questionnaire developed on the HRD Evaluation Research and Measurement model, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Learning Transfer System Inventory model. Variables were reduced by EFA. The researcher also met a few HR and L & D practitioners for one-on-one discussion. The ideas generated were bounced with subject matter experts and with faculty who were designing/teaching executive education programs.

Findings

The research findings are consistent with earlier studies like the Holton research (1996), (2001). Discussion also brought out the role of motivation in enhancement of skills, behaviors and knowledge. Many researchers have agreed that individual motivation factors play an important role for knowledge transfer. If the learners are not motivated about the positives arising from the training program, they would lose interest which would affect their self-efficacy and thereby the transfer of learning. The primary role of motivation to transfer comes out distinctly. Additionally, the relationship between motivation to transfer and learner readiness and performance self-efficacy is established.

Research limitations/implications

The research was done with the intent of doing a pilot study on the thesis topic that the researcher has chosen for his doctorate program and hence has methodological limitations of a one-time survey questionnaire. The study has a small sample size of 30 and could have a high risk of generalization findings. Additionally, data collection is based on self-responses collected during focused group interview which is based on the “perception” of the respondents and therefore limited to self-report data. The respondents are all from executive education of a Chennai-based Institute which means that the same survey done on another set of respondents could probably throw up very different results. Participants had undergone multi-phase leadership development program in small cohort. The results could vary if participants from open-enrollment programs participated. Use of interviews and/or observation of participants could have provided more rich data.

Practical implications

In practical terms, the foundation result will help L & D managers and executive education designers to understand the factors that play an important role in transfer of learning specific to Indian context. The research paper also conceptually explains the central role of “motivation to transfer”. The recommendations provided therein will help practitioners with a structured approach toward design and delivery of executive education programs. The recommended approach to design and delivery will help practitioners to come up with training programs that will provide more buck for every dollar spent.

Social implications

Return on investment on learning has always been a contentious issue. Clear understanding of critical success factors in executive education can help focused design, post-training support to ensure better knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

The study expands the knowledge base, regarding transfer of learning specific to India, by focusing on executive education programs which are rapidly growing and receiving great attention in the workplace. This paper is an original research initiative of the research scholar done as part of a pilot study on his PhD thesis on transfer of learning.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Verónica Gabriela Silva Piovani, Ieda Parra Barbosa Rinaldi and Jorge Both

This article aims to explain the transfer of training model used in the training of human resources within organizations and its possibilities for the mandatory internship…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explain the transfer of training model used in the training of human resources within organizations and its possibilities for the mandatory internship (MI) in sport science (SS) higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

A review that argues the concept of transfer of learning, the model of factors that affect the transfer of training and its evolution was undertaken.

Findings

The possibilities and implications of thinking about the MI in the SS undergraduate courses are listed based on the transfer of learning and of training model. It is concluded that different factors such as the students' characteristics, the characteristics of the different spaces of SS professional's intervention, the evaluation, the academic and technical supervisors, the host organization and peers, as well as other elements of the transfer of training model, are important to develop the MI at the SS undergraduate courses.

Originality/value

The consideration of this model of factors could be relevant to improve the teaching and learning processes within the MI at the SS undergraduate courses.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Yoonhee Park, Doo Hun Lim and Jaeeun Lee

This study aims to examine the direct effects of job support and the indirect effects of individual career planning on the motivational process of training transfer, which…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the direct effects of job support and the indirect effects of individual career planning on the motivational process of training transfer, which consists of the structural relationship between learning goal orientation, learning motivation, transfer motivation and training transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was administered to 255 respondents in South Korea, and 252 valid responses were used for analysis. A hypothetical model was examined using a structural equation model and multi-group analysis.

Findings

This study found that the synchronous process model of training transfer was well validated in the Korean context; moreover, job support promoted employee motivations that led to their training transfer. In addition, career planning was found to have a moderating role in the relationships explored in this study. That is, when the level of career planning was high, job support directly affected the motivation to transfer, and the link between intrinsic learning orientation and motivation to learn was highly activated compared to the group with a low level of career planning.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by the single-dimensional measurement of its constructs, including job support, goal orientation and motivation to transfer. This limitation should be considered when interpreting the study’s results. In terms of implications, the study suggests that organizations should help individuals identify their career interests and establish a strategy to achieve their career goals by providing information about specific areas of interest.

Originality/value

This study proposes that the motivational mechanisms leading to training transfer are affected by trainees’ level of career planning. In addition, the study findings emphasize the importance of organizations’ role in guiding individual employees’ career planning to facilitate performance through training transfer.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Hanna Moon, Doam Ryu and Dongwon Jeon

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK, it still requires training and development of talents who work for ISCs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of training programs that are currently provided to personnel of the ISC to foster their learning systematically and to develop measures for effectiveness of the training programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluated the training program for the staff of the ISC secretariat as a tool to activate the councils’ main functions. In terms of methodology, we developed an effective training model to measure the training transfer and used it as an analytical framework for evaluation. Success case method was applied to identify the best case of training transfer that reinforces the role and function of ISC.

Findings

Learning transfer can help not only the transfer of the learning contents but also the role of the organization that the members belong to and strengthen the function of the ISC. By transferring the content matter of the learning, it can help strengthen the capacity of members to carry out the roles and functions of the ISC, and further strengthen the functions of the council and the role of key players in labor markets.

Research limitations/implications

An effective training model for the personnel of national sectoral bodies or non-profit organization can be further investigated.

Practical implications

The learning transfer evaluation model for ISC staff has unique characteristics that are different from previous studies. ISC has the characteristics of public goods that are established with government support and are active in developing human resources in each industry sector.

Originality/value

Incubating ISC in South Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of research and policy practice. The research findings in this study lay the foundations for further empirical explorations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Ellen F. Goldman, Marilyn Wesner, Margaret M. Plack, Nisha N. Manikoth and Yolanda Haywood

– This paper aims to explore the impact leadership development program graduates had on their workgroup, the nature of that impact and how that impact occurred.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact leadership development program graduates had on their workgroup, the nature of that impact and how that impact occurred.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted at three sites using a qualitative interview methodology with thematic data analysis. Techniques to ensure trustworthiness included purposive sampling, triangulation of researchers, member checks and code checking.

Findings

Analysis of the data revealed secondhand learning as specific changes in practices, behaviors and attitudes, transferred by program graduates to their peers and supervisors. The transfer of learning was described as both intentional and informal learning during episodes of varying duration, and occurred through a variety of dyadic and group interactions in a manner generally consistent with the 4I framework of organizational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to medical educators. Recommendations for supervisors and organizations to maximize training transfer are identified. These suggestions advocate for actively encouraging graduates in departmental leadership and faculty development; focusing transfer on specific practices, behaviors and attitudes; and considering both short- and long-term outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper makes an original contribution to the literature by describing the process of secondhand learning from leadership development program graduates. The paper also expands our understanding of the nuances in transfer methods and associated learning episodes in the context of an educational environment. Finally, the research illustrates how qualitative methods can be used to expose secondhand learning.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Ruth Belling, Kim James and Donna Ladkin

This paper explores how organisations can become more sophisticated at supporting transfer of learning, by identifying the perceived barriers and facilitators to transfer

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4823

Abstract

This paper explores how organisations can become more sophisticated at supporting transfer of learning, by identifying the perceived barriers and facilitators to transfer of learning, by examining a range of individual characteristics and workplace features associated with these barriers and facilitators and then relating these to the type of programme that managers undertake. The longitudinal survey methodology and programme typology used in the research are described. Findings highlight 26 perceived barriers and 17 facilitators to the transfer of learning, significant associations are shown with particular features such as mentoring and personal values. The paper goes on to identify the characteristics associated with a lack of transfer and suggests a tentative model of perceived influences on transfer of learning. Based on this research, it is concluded that it is important to take programme learning design into account when considering support for transfer of learning from management development programmes back to the workplace.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Mary Alfred, Misha Chakraborty, Michelle Johnson and Catherine A. Cherrstrom

The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training…

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2798

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee characteristics, training design and work environment on transfer of learning among the study respondents.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional online survey design was used to collect data from the study respondents, three months after CPE training. Two hundred ninety-seven trainees participated in this study. Data from 46 participants were incomplete and therefore excluded in the preliminary analysis, resulting in 251 valid responses and participants for the data analysis, 43 males (17.1 per cent), 201 females (80.1 per cent) and 7 (2.8 per cent) who did not indicate their gender. To answer the study’s research questions, factor analysis and multiple hierarchical regressions were performed.

Findings

The results of the study revealed training efficiency and relevance were critical in the transfer of learning among the study participants. The findings of the study showed combined training efficiency and training relevance enabled training participants to acquire knowledge and skills for application in the workplace and had significantly positive influence in transfer of learning. The work environment, measured by work variability (or flexibility) and work complexity, and the trainee motivation to participate, measured by learning-conducive workplace features, had a positive influence in transfer of learning.

Research limitations/implications

Because the majority of participants were females (80.1 per cent), this could be one of the limitations to this study. Research has identified that, because of the broad expectations based on sex and different family and occupational roles, men and women differ in their social network communication, participation in CPE, personality traits, gender-related occupational preferences, learning preference and methods of handling workplace conflict. The second limitation is related to the study design. The researchers did not have a control group because of practicality issues. This being a cross-sectional online survey study, all extraneous variables were not controlled such as in the case of a true randomized control study. This study is relying on the information obtained from a self-report training transfer instrument completed by the study participants. The accuracy of the obtained data is dependent on the honesty of the participants and their commitment in providing correct responses.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence pertaining to the transfer of learning among adult learners engaged in a continuing professional development training program. The study examines factors related to training design, training delivery, trainee motivation and the workplace environment and how these factors determine transfer of learning among trainee respondents who participated in the study. The findings of the study have practical implications for the design and successful delivery of continuing professional training among adult learners. The study could be replicated at a national level and in international settings.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Rita Alvelos, Aristides I Ferreira and Reid Bates

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived…

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1913

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived content validity, transfer design, the motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer, contribute to the effectiveness of training.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample used consisted of 202 employees with ages between 18 and 60 years, working for an insurance company where they had training for a period of three months.

Findings

The results show a relationship between perceived content validity and transfer design, as well as with the motivation to improve work through learning. A mediating role of social support was also evident in this relationship. Finally, the authors highlight the findings of the relationship between motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating how the role of social support can increase training effectiveness in organizations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Raquel Velada and António Caetano

The purpose of this article is to analyse the mediating effects of perception of learning between occupational satisfaction, affective reactions, utility reactions and…

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6793

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to analyse the mediating effects of perception of learning between occupational satisfaction, affective reactions, utility reactions and perceived training transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants in the study were 185 Portuguese teachers who attended a professional training programme.

Findings

The results of this study show that occupational satisfaction, affective and utility reactions are associated with perception of learning and perceived training transfer. Furthermore, the results also reveal that perception of learning fully mediates the relationship between occupational satisfaction and perceived training transfer and partially mediates the relationship between affective reactions, utility reactions and perceived training transfer.

Research limitations/implications

Results are based on self‐reported measures to evaluate training transfer.

Practical implications

Organisations interested in maximising their return on investment on training and development should regularly monitor the employees' level of satisfaction with their occupation and determine whether new actions need to be taken regarding human resources practices or the working conditions. To enhance training transfer, careful attention should be given to the training design in order to ensure that it reflects the trainees' needs previously identified and to guarantee that trainees acquire a good level of learning in the programme.

Originality/value

The present study extends the empirical literature about the predictors of training transfer, showing that learning can play a mediating role between some predictors and transfer.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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