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Article

Therese Grohnert, Roger H.G. Meuwissen and Wim H. Gijselaers

This study aims to investigate how organisations can discourage covering up and instead encourage learning from errors through a supportive learning from error climate. In…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how organisations can discourage covering up and instead encourage learning from errors through a supportive learning from error climate. In explaining professionals’ learning from error behaviour, this study distinguishes between espoused (verbally expressed) and enacted (behaviourally expressed) values with respect to learning from errors.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of mandatory training sessions, 150 early-career auditors completed an online questionnaire measuring error orientation and help-seeking behavior after making an error as attitude- and behavior-based measures, next to measuring perceived organizational learning from error climate. Multiple mediation analysis is used to explore direct and indirect effects.

Findings

Covering up errors was negatively and learning from errors positively related to an organisation’s learning from error climate. For covering up, this relationship is an indirect one – espoused and enacted values need to match. For learning from errors, this relationship is direct: espoused values positively relate to learning behaviour after errors.

Practical implications

By designing a supportive learning from error climate in which members at all hierarchical levels role-model learning from errors behaviour, organisations can actively discourage covering up and encourage learning from errors.

Originality/value

This study applies the theory of espoused versus enacted values to learning from error using a triangulation of measures in an understudied research setting: auditing.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Bin Zhao, Jürgen Seifried and Jost Sieweke

Learning from errors is important for employees, particularly at early stages of their career. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of perceived trainer…

Abstract

Purpose

Learning from errors is important for employees, particularly at early stages of their career. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of perceived trainer responses to errors on trainee learning from errors in a workplace setting. In Study 1, the authors test a model that examines the associations between perceived trainer responses to errors and trainee learning from errors, which are mediated by affective-motivational adaptivity. In Study 2, the authors further hypothesize that the link between perceived trainer responses and affective-motivational adaptivity is moderated by perceived error climate.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the hypotheses using data from 213 Swiss apprentices (Study 1) and 1,012 German apprentices (Study 2) receiving dual vocational training.

Findings

Study 1 suggests that negative trainer reaction impedes trainee learning from errors by impairing trainees’ affective-motivational adaptability. Trainer tolerance of errors and trainer support following errors were not related to trainee learning from errors. Study 2 indicates that perceived error climate is an important boundary condition that affects the relationship between trainer responses and trainee learning from errors.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research on learning from errors in three ways. First, it enriches the understanding regarding the role of trainers in enhancing learning from errors in organizations. Second, it extends research on learning from errors by investigating the interaction effects between perceived trainer responses and error climate. Third, it refines knowledge about the role of positive affect in learning from errors. Findings of this study also offer practical insights to trainers and managers regarding what they should do to encourage trainee learning from errors.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is prepared by an independent writer who adds her own impartial comments and places the studies in context.

Findings

Trainer response to errors plays an important role in trainee learning from errors. Negative trainer responses to errors reduce trainees’ abilities to learn from errors by inducing negative feelings in the trainees and reducing their motivation. Trainer response needs to be consistent with the organization’s error climate for trainees to learn from errors effectively.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article

Alberto A.P. Cattaneo and Elena Boldrini

Starting from the identification of some theoretically driven instructional principles, this paper presents a set of empirical cases based on strategies to learn from

Abstract

Purpose

Starting from the identification of some theoretically driven instructional principles, this paper presents a set of empirical cases based on strategies to learn from errors. The purpose of this paper is to provide first evidence about the feasibility and the effectiveness for learning of video-enhanced error-based strategies in vocational education and training.

Design/methodology/approach

Four different cases are presented. All of them share the same design-based research perspective, in which teachers and researchers co-designed an (iterative) intervention in the field. Two cases are preliminary investigations, while the other two profit from a quasi-experimental design with at least one experimental condition based on error treatment and a control group.

Findings

The four cases show the effectiveness of learning from error (and from error analysis). More specifically, they show the validity and flexible adoption of the specific instructional principles derived from the literature review: the use of inductive strategies and in particular, of worked-out examples; the reference to a concrete, possibly personal, experience for the analysis task; the use of prompted writing to elicit self-explanations and reflection; and the use of video for recording and annotating the situation to be analysed.

Research limitations/implications

The four cases constitute only a starting point for further research into the use of errors for procedural learning. Moreover, the cases presented are focused on learning in the domain of procedural knowledge and not in that of declarative knowledge. Further studies in the vocational education and training sector might serve this research area.

Practical implications

The paper provides concrete indications and directions to implement effective instructional strategies for procedural learning from errors, especially within vocational education.

Social implications

Errors are often identified with and attributed to (individual) failures. In both learning institutions and the workplace, this can engender an intolerant and closed climate towards mistakes, preventing real professional development and personal growth. Interventions on learning from errors in schools and workplaces can play a role in changing such a culture and in creating a tolerant and positive attitude towards them.

Originality/value

The majority of studies about learning from errors are focused on disciplinary learning in academic contexts. The present set of cases contributed to filling in the gap related to initial vocational education, because they deal with learning from errors in dual vocational training in the field of procedural knowledge development. Moreover, a specific contribution of the presented cases relies on the use of video annotation as a support that specifically enhances error analysis within working procedures.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Qingyan Ye, Duanxu Wang and Xi Li

In today’s complex and challenging work environment, employees’ learning from errors has become critical to organizations’ survival and success. While the literature has…

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s complex and challenging work environment, employees’ learning from errors has become critical to organizations’ survival and success. While the literature has highlighted the importance of inclusive leadership for learning behavior in organizations, research on how inclusive leadership promotes employees’ learning from errors has been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by developing and testing a moderated mediation model that emphasizes the key roles of positive mood and gender in the relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ learning from errors.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-time survey method was used in this study to collect data from 202 full-time employees working in China.

Findings

The hypothesized moderated mediation model in this study was supported. Inclusive leadership facilitated employees’ learning from errors through employees’ positive mood, and employees’ gender moderated both the direct relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ positive mood and the indirect relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ learning from errors through employees’ positive mood: the relationships were stronger for female employees than for male employees.

Originality/value

By incorporating the social role theory into the affective events theory framework, this study may help to open the “black box” of the relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ learning from errors by explicating the importance of positive mood and gender, thereby shedding light on the timely issues of inclusive leadership, mood, and learning from errors in the workplace.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article

Veronika Anselmann and Regina H. Mulder

The study pursues two goals: first, as a replication study, the purpose of this paper is to test a model of learning from errors in the domain of insurance industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The study pursues two goals: first, as a replication study, the purpose of this paper is to test a model of learning from errors in the domain of insurance industry. Second, to increase insights in learning from errors, the authors focussed on different types of errors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey in the insurance industry (N=206). The authors used structural equation modelling and path modelling to analyse the data. To be able to analyse different types of errors, the authors used Critical Incident Technique and asked participants to describe error situations.

Findings

Findings from the study are that the model of learning from errors could partly be replicated. The results indicate that a non-punitive orientation towards errors is an important factor to reduce the tendency of insurance agents to cover up errors when knowledge and rule-based errors happen. In situations of slips and lapses error strain has a negative influence on trust and non-punitive orientation which in turn both reduce the tendency to cover up errors.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation is the small sample size. By using Critical Incidents Technique, the authors were able to analyse authentic error situations. Implications of the results concern the importance of error-friendly climate in organisations.

Originality/value

Replication studies are important to generalise results to different domains. To increase the insight in learning from errors, the authors analysed influencing factors with regard to different types of errors.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Andreas Rausch, Jürgen Seifried and Christian Harteis

This paper aims to investigate the complex relationship between emotions, coping approaches and learning in error situations in the workplace. The study also examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the complex relationship between emotions, coping approaches and learning in error situations in the workplace. The study also examines the influence of individual error orientation, as well as psychological safety, and team learning behaviour as contextual factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure emotions, coping and learning from errors in situ, a semi-standardised error diary was administered. Individual and contextual factors were measured by standard questionnaires. Totally, 22 young employees participated in the study and recorded n = 99 error situations in a three-week diary period.

Findings

Errors typically provoked negative emotions, particularly in cases of “public” errors. Negative emotions provoked emotion-focused coping. However, there was no direct effect of emotions on learning. Learning seems to depend primarily on the in-depth analysis of the error, no matter whether the original coping intention is aimed at problem-solving, self-protection or emotion regulation. A quick error correction does not necessarily result in learning. Furthermore, plausible influences of individual and contextual factors were found, but must be interpreted cautiously.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size, particularly in person-level analyses, is a major shortcoming of the study.

Originality/value

To overcome shortcomings of common retrospective self-reports such as interviews or questionnaires, this study uses the diary method as an innovative approach to investigate processes in situ.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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Article

Veronika Leicher and Regina H. Mulder

The purpose of this replication study is to identify relevant individual and contextual factors influencing learning from errors at work and to determine if the predictors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this replication study is to identify relevant individual and contextual factors influencing learning from errors at work and to determine if the predictors for learning activities are the same for the domains of nursing and retail banking.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional replication study was carried out in retail banking departments of a German bank. In a pre-study, interviews were conducted with experts (N = 4) of retail banking. The pre-study was necessary to develop vignettes describing authentic examples of error situations which were part of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled out by 178 employees.

Findings

Results indicate that the estimation of an error as relevant for learning positively predicts bankers’ engagement in social learning activities. The tendency to cover up an error predicts bankers’ engagement negatively. There are also indirect effects of error strain and the perception of a safe social team climate on the engagement in social learning.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the generalization of results by transferring and testing a model of learning from errors in a domain different from the previous domains where this topic was investigated.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Book part

Michal Tamuz, Cynthia K. Russell and Eric J. Thomas

Hospital nurse managers are in the middle. Their supervisors expect that they will monitor and discipline nurses who commit errors, while also asking them to create a…

Abstract

Hospital nurse managers are in the middle. Their supervisors expect that they will monitor and discipline nurses who commit errors, while also asking them to create a culture that fosters reporting of errors. Their staff nurses expect the managers to support them after errors occur. Drawing on interviews with 20 nurse managers from three tertiary care hospitals, the study identifies key exemplars that illustrate how managers monitor nursing errors. The exemplars examine how nurse managers: (1) sent mixed messages to staff nurses about incident reporting, (2) kept two sets of books for recording errors, and (3) developed routines for classifying potentially harmful errors into non-reportable categories. These exemplars highlight two tensions: the application of bureaucratic rule-based standards to professional tasks, and maintaining accountability for errors while also learning from them. We discuss how these fundamental tensions influence organizational learning and suggest theoretical and practical research questions and a conceptual framework.

Details

Patient Safety and Health Care Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-955-5

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Article

Minna Ruoranen, Teuvo Antikainen and Anneli Eteläpelto

Within the framework of learning from errors, this study focused on how operative risks and potential errors are addressed in guidance to surgical residents during…

Abstract

Purpose

Within the framework of learning from errors, this study focused on how operative risks and potential errors are addressed in guidance to surgical residents during authentic surgical operations. The purpose of this paper is to improve patient safety and to diminish medical complications resulting from possible operating errors. Further in the process of the optimal contexts for instruction aimed at preventing risks and errors in the practical hospital environment was evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

The five authentic surgical operations were analyzed, all of which were organized as training sessions for surgical residents. The data (collected via video-recoding) were analyzed by a consultant surgeon and an education expert working together.

Findings

The results showed that the risks and potential errors in the surgical operations were rarely addressed in guidance during operations. The guidance provided mostly concerned technical issues, such as instrument handling, and exploration of critical anatomical structures. There was little guidance focusing on situation-based risks and potential errors, such as unexpected procedural challenges, teamwork and practical decision-making. The findings showed that optimal context of learning about risks and potential errors of surgical operation are not always the authentic operation context.

Originality/value

The study was conducted in an authentic surgical operation-cum-training context. The originality of the study derives from its focus on guidance related to risk and error prevention in surgical workplace learning. The findings can be used to create a meaningful learning environment – including powerful guidance – for practice-based surgical learning, maximally addressing patient safety, but giving possibilities also for other training options.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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