Search results

1 – 10 of over 85000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2010

Kajal Lahiri

Since the transportation sector plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of business cycles, in previous chapters we developed output [transportation…

Abstract

Since the transportation sector plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of business cycles, in previous chapters we developed output [transportation services output (TSI)] and other indicators to construct an index of coincident indicators for the U.S. transportation sector to identify its current state. We defined the reference cycle, including both business and growth cycles for this sector beginning in 1979 using both the conventional National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) method and modern time series models. A one-to-one correspondence between cycles in the transportation sector and those in the aggregate economy was found; however, both business and growth cycles of transportation often start earlier and end later than those of the overall economy. Although the knowledge and inference based on coincident indicators can serve as an important reference for planning and other decision-making processes, these indicators are also subject to substantial lag due to data collection, processing and revision, underscoring the need to develop a system of leading indicators for the industry. Thus, in this chapter, we construct an index of leading indicators for the transportation sector as a forecasting tool using rigorous statistical procedures.

Details

Transportation Indicators and Business Cycles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-148-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2018

David Oswald, Rita Peihua Zhang, Helen Lingard, Payam Pirzadeh and Tiendung Le

The purpose of this paper is to present a critical review of the use of safety performance indicators in the construction industry. The authors consider the strengths…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a critical review of the use of safety performance indicators in the construction industry. The authors consider the strengths, limitations and managerial consequences associated with commonly used indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors combine two separate data sets in this critical review. These include 32 semi-structured interviews with construction industry representatives involved in the collection and reporting of safety indicators, as well as a multi-level safety climate survey that was conducted at 12 construction sites across Australia.

Findings

The analysis provides new evidence that, in their current use, commonly used H&S indicators are subject to manipulation and misinterpretation. Their usefulness as tools to support safety management activities in construction projects and organisations needs to be understood in the context of their limitations. In particular, safety indicators do not reflect the full set of factors that affect workplace safety and there will always be disagreement about what should be counted and how.

Originality/value

As a result of the substantial shortcomings of safety indicators, great care needs to be taken when using them to determine or evaluate organisational safety policy and practices.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

John R. Sparkes

Cyclical fluctuations in the level and rate of growth of economic activity have long been a feature of the British economy. The ability to forecast “turning points” (peaks…

Abstract

Cyclical fluctuations in the level and rate of growth of economic activity have long been a feature of the British economy. The ability to forecast “turning points” (peaks and troughs) in business activity is of crucial importance for changes in companies' stockholding policy, hiring policy, capital budgeting, and many other aspects of corporate appraisal.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political…

Abstract

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political problems. The devastating impact of the 1982 and 1994–1995 Mexican crises, the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian crisis, and the ongoing financial crisis of 2008–2009 suggests that maintaining financial sector stability through reduction in vulnerability is highly crucial. The world is now witnessing an unprecedented systemic financial crisis originated from the USA in September 2008 together with a deep worldwide economic recession, particularly in developed countries of Europe and North America. This calls for devising and using on a regular basis an appropriate and effective monitoring and policy formulation system for detecting and addressing vulnerabilities leading to crisis. This chapter proposes a macroprudential/financial soundness monitoring, analysis, and remedial policy formulation system that can be used by most developing countries with or without crisis experience as well as with limited data. It also discusses a process for identifying and compiling a set of leading macroprudential/financial soundness indicators. An empirical illustration using Philippines data is presented. There is an urgent need for increased coordination, collaboration, and partnership among central banks, banking and financial market supervision agencies, and ministries of finance, economic, and planning for proper macroprudential monitoring. A high-level national financial stability committee under the auspices of the head of the state as well as a ‘‘regional financial stability board’’ needs to be established to complement and support the activities of an “international stability board.”

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Seyed Sajad Mousavi, Reza Khani Jazani, Elizabeth A. Cudney and Paolo Trucco

This study aims to quantify the multifaceted relationship between lean implementation and occupational health and safety (OHS) performance. Hypotheses based on a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to quantify the multifaceted relationship between lean implementation and occupational health and safety (OHS) performance. Hypotheses based on a set of antecedents (mediating factors) are built and quantitatively tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an international survey with responses from more than 20 countries. Partial least square-based structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical framework derived from literature. Leading indicators (formative indices) were used to evaluate the four antecedents of OHS performance (mediating factors).

Findings

All the identified antecedents show a significant mediating role. Antecedents related to the working environment and organizational factors have the strongest mediating effect. Results support the importance of using OHS leading indicators to appropriately measure the impact of lean implementation on workers’ health and safety.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed OHS leading indicators connecting lean practices to OHS performance antecedents are only explored in this study. Therefore, to establish a comprehensive, validated and practically usable set of leading indicators, further research is needed.

Practical implications

As there are some synergistic and trade-off relationships between lean and safety, the findings of this study will enable managers and organizations to leverage the positive effects of lean implementation on workers’ health and safety and mitigate the negative effects.

Originality/value

Several prior studies investigated the multifaceted link between lean and OHS; however, this is the first study that tested direct and mediated influence by defining a coherent set of antecedents. The results justify and strongly support the adoption of OHS leading indicators to measure the impact of lean implementation on OHS performance.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Helen Lingard, Ron Wakefield and Patrick Cashin

This paper seeks to examine a hierarchical measurement model for occupational health and safety (OHS) performance developed for use in the Australian construction industry…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine a hierarchical measurement model for occupational health and safety (OHS) performance developed for use in the Australian construction industry and tested over the life of one case study construction project. The model was intended to provide a more sensitive and informative measure of project OHS performance than traditional injury frequency rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Two measurement tools were tested. The tools, a monthly weighted safety index and a quarterly safety climate survey, were used to measure OHS performance and performance data are presented.

Findings

The data suggest convergent validity, indicated by consistent results between the two measures. Results also indicated that a combination of measurement techniques provides more comprehensive data pertaining to project OHS performance and enables the diagnosis of OHS issues that would be undetected with reliance exclusively on traditional measures, such as lost time injury frequency rates.

Research limitations/implications

The implications for future research lie in the demonstrated need to carefully evaluate the validity of the safety index and safety climate survey in future construction projects, and in the broader construction context. The results were limited to an evaluation of the measurement model in a single case study construction project and future testing is needed to determine the generalisability of the model.

Practical implications

The implications for practice are that multiple measures of OHS performance, including leading indicators and surveys of workers' attitudes and perceptions of project OHS, provide a more useful basis for the development of targeted OHS improvement strategies.

Originality/value

The paper develops a theoretical framework for the measurement of OHS using positive performance indicators and safety climate surveys. The evidence for convergent validity suggests that, in combination with traditional lost time injury rates, these measures provide a more robust method for the early detection and rectification of OHS issues in construction projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2020

Aziz Yousif Shaikh, Robert Osei‐Kyei and Mary Hardie

Safety performance indicators are a major research concern globally in the construction sector, so this study aims to systematically analyse construction safety…

Abstract

Purpose

Safety performance indicators are a major research concern globally in the construction sector, so this study aims to systematically analyse construction safety performance indicators from some top research publications from 2000 to 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic review was performed using Scopus search engine and relevant publications were compiled. Visual and far reaching search in all publications were performed. Final analysis was done to evaluate selected attributes.

Findings

The outcome of the analysis showed growing interest in research on construction safety performance indicators since 2000. From the review, 48 safety performance indicators are identified from 41 selected publications. The most reported safety performance indicators were safety climate, safety orientation, management commitment to safety, near-miss and job site audits. It was noted further that USA, Australia, Canada and China have been international locations of attention for most research on construction safety performance indicators. The 48 safety indicators are classified into six categories, namely people indicators, culture indicators, processes indicators, infrastructure indicators, metrics indicators and technology indicators

Practical implications

The findings identified provide researchers and practitioners a summary of the safety indicators in the construction sector through a vision to streamline future applications and increase the safety performance in the construction sector.

Originality/value

A safety performance indicators' list has been established for the adoption of future empirical research. The findings will make a significant contribution to current but limited knowledge on safety performance indicators in construction industry.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Wann-Yih Wu and Ying-Kai Liao

This study purposed an integrated DEA-BSC model to evaluate the operational efficiency of airlines. To adapt this model, 38 major airlines in the world were selected to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study purposed an integrated DEA-BSC model to evaluate the operational efficiency of airlines. To adapt this model, 38 major airlines in the world were selected to assess their relative performance.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study is employed using a cross-sectional research design. The operational and financial data of 38 leading airlines companies were collected from annual reports and business reports. Specifically, this study integrated the concepts of balanced scorecard (BSC) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) and incorporated seven leading variables and four lagging variables from BSC to implement DEA.

Findings

By using the leading and lagging variables to implement DEA, this study not only assessed the efficiency frontiers, input slack, output slacks, and benchmarking learning partners of 38 airlines, but also illustrated how leading indicators are related and influence lagging indicators. In particular, the study results indicated that airlines with excellent performance in the efficient frontiers tended to perform better in energy, capital, and other operating costs.

Research limitations/implications

This study presented a DEA-BSC model to integrate the concepts of BSC into DEA. The empirical results showed that the model is more advanced than the capabilities of individual DEA and BSC. This model could also eliminate the faults of each one. Due to the cross-sectional research design of this research, future research should develop the longitudinal study to identify the time series of the influences of leading factors on lagging factors.

Practical implications

This study offered an integrated model that incorporated the concepts of BSC and DEA. The leading and lagging factors of BSC were adopted to the evaluation of operational performance of airlines along with DEA. Therefore, BSC has served as the compliment of DEA. Using the DEA-BSC results, such as the efficiency frontiers, the amount of slacks, and benchmark learning partners, business executives could develop their improvement strategies.

Originality/value

Since none of previous studies have integrated BSC and DEA to assess the operational efficiency of the airline industry, the results of this study could serve as a baseline for further academic validations, the results could also be very useful for the executives of airline companies to allocate their resources for further improvement.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 114 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Priscilla Cheng Geahigan

All enterprises, whether multimillion‐dollar corporations or small mom and pop businesses, have their ups and downs over the course of time. In the event of a single…

Abstract

All enterprises, whether multimillion‐dollar corporations or small mom and pop businesses, have their ups and downs over the course of time. In the event of a single business failure, the effect on the local economy would likely be minimal. In the unfortunate event of multiple business failures or a recession, however, the negative effects on the local economy could be severe. To forecast and predict business fluctuations such as recessions, economists employ economic or cyclical indicators. These are trends based upon statistical data collected regularly on various aspects of the economy (e.g., employment, income, prices, industrial production, and manufacturing inventory).

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Uday Kumar, Diego Galar, Aditya Parida, Christer Stenström and Luis Berges

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of research and development in the measurement of maintenance performance. It considers the problems of various…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of research and development in the measurement of maintenance performance. It considers the problems of various measuring parameters and comments on the lack of structure in and references for the measurement of maintenance performance. The main focus is to determine how value can be created for organizations by measuring maintenance performance, examining such maintenance strategies as condition‐based maintenance, reliability‐centred maintenance, e‐maintenance, etc. In other words, the objectives are to find frameworks or models that can be used to evaluate different maintenance strategies and determine the value of these frameworks for an organization.

Design/methodology/approach

A state‐of‐the‐art literature review has been carried out to answer the following two research questions. First, what approaches and techniques are used for maintenance performance measurement (MPM) and which MPM techniques are optimal for evaluating maintenance strategies? Second, in general, how can MPM create value for organizations and, more specifically, which system of measurement is best for which maintenance strategy?

Findings

The body of knowledge on maintenance performance is both quantitatively and qualitatively based. Quantitative approaches include economic and technical ratios, value‐based and balanced scorecards, system audits, composite formulations, and statistical and partial maintenance productivity indices. Qualitative approaches include human factors, amongst other aspects. Qualitatively based approaches are adopted because of the inherent limitations of effectively measuring a complex function such as maintenance through quantitative models. Maintenance decision makers often come to the best conclusion using heuristics, backed up by qualitative assessment, supported by quantitative measures. Both maintenance performance perspectives are included in this overview.

Originality/value

A comprehensive review of maintenance performance metrics is offered, aiming to give, in a condensed form, an extensive introduction to MPM and a presentation of the state of the art in this field.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 85000