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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Irina A. Morozova, Alina V. Chesnokova, Olga V. Fetisova and Liudmila S. Maksimenko

Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the characteristics of leadership and to determine its value in the process of decision making in modern business systems, as…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the work is to study the characteristics of leadership and to determine its value in the process of decision making in modern business systems, as well as to determine the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of this process through changing the characteristics of leadership.

Methodology: Target study of the influence of leadership on the process of decision making in modern business systems on the basis of the methodology of the systemic approach is performed, and two additional characteristics of leadership are determined, apart from management style, in the aspect of making of managerial decisions: contradiction of leaders in business system and authority of a formal leader (business manager) in business system and his competence as to involvement of employees into the process of making of managerial decisions, which includes capabilities. Depending on combination of these characteristics, classification of leadership in modern business systems as to criterion of decision making is offered.

Conclusions: It is substantiated that the most preferable type of leadership in a modern business system as to criterion of decision making is highly effective involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions. Capabilities of increasing the effectiveness of the process of making of managerial decisions in a modern system through changing the characteristics of leadership are connected to transition to this type of leadership through overcoming the contradiction of leaders in a business system and increase of competence of the formal leader (business manager) in a business system as to involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions through his training.

Originality/value: It is substantiated that leadership in business system determines only certain characteristics of the process of making of managerial decisions, and no type of leadership can guarantee optimal decisions. With highly effective involvement of employees in the process of making of managerial decisions, the probability of optimal decisions is the highest, so this type of leadership is the most perspective for modern business systems.

Details

Specifics of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-692-7

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Yinying Wang

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to a type of algorithms or computerized systems that resemble human mental processes of decision-making. This position paper looks…

Abstract

Purpose

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to a type of algorithms or computerized systems that resemble human mental processes of decision-making. This position paper looks beyond the sensational hyperbole of AI in teaching and learning. Instead, this paper aims to explore the role of AI in educational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the role of AI in educational leadership, I synthesized the literature that intersects AI, decision-making, and educational leadership from multiple disciplines such as computer science, educational leadership, administrative science, judgment and decision-making and neuroscience. Grounded in the intellectual interrelationships between AI and educational leadership since the 1950s, this paper starts with conceptualizing decision-making, including both individual decision-making and organizational decision-making, as the foundation of educational leadership. Next, I elaborated on the symbiotic role of human-AI decision-making.

Findings

With its efficiency in collecting, processing, analyzing data and providing real-time or near real-time results, AI can bring in analytical efficiency to assist educational leaders in making data-driven, evidence-informed decisions. However, AI-assisted data-driven decision-making may run against value-based moral decision-making. Taken together, both leaders' individual decision-making and organizational decision-making are best handled by using a blend of data-driven, evidence-informed decision-making and value-based moral decision-making. AI can function as an extended brain in making data-driven, evidence-informed decisions. The shortcomings of AI-assisted data-driven decision-making can be overcome by human judgment guided by moral values.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with two recommendations for educational leadership practitioners' decision-making and future scholarly inquiry: keeping a watchful eye on biases and minding ethically-compromised decisions.

Originality/value

This paper brings together two fields of educational leadership and AI that have been growing up together since the 1950s and mostly growing apart till the late 2010s. To explore the role of AI in educational leadership, this paper starts with the foundation of leadershipdecision-making, both leaders' individual decisions and collective organizational decisions. The paper then synthesizes the literature that intersects AI, decision-making and educational leadership from multiple disciplines to delineate the role of AI in educational leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Richard J. Eberlin and B. Charles Tatum

The purpose of this paper is to show that participants read vignettes in which managers were assigned different roles. The vignettes depicted managers with two leadership

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8983

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that participants read vignettes in which managers were assigned different roles. The vignettes depicted managers with two leadership styles (transformational/transactional) and two decisionmaking approaches (comprehensive/restrictive). The managers were then rated on patterns of organizational justice (social/ structural). Leadership and decisionmaking styles affected different forms of justice.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants rated performance‐evaluation vignettes depicting leadership style, decisionmaking approach, and organizational justice patterns on the part of hypothetical managers/leaders.

Findings

Managers portrayed as transformational leaders were rated high on social justice, whereas leaders rated as transactional were high on structural justice. Managers portrayed as restricted in their decisionmaking approach were rated lower on social justice compared with managers who used a more comprehensive decision style. Justice ratings were significantly influenced by leadership style and decision

Practical implications

It is suggested that an increased awareness regarding organizational justice is imperative for all decision and leadership styles, and that social justice can occur in brief but powerful encounters that can be executed by any manager or leader.

Originality/value

If organizations, managers, and leaders attend to justice issues, they will foster healthier and more productive workplace environments that extend beyond immediate performance indicators (e.g. budget, quarterly profits, sales and revenue). A focus on organizational justice will create long‐term performance cultures (by fostering employee development, extending genuine regard for employee contributions and wellbeing, and leveraging employee commitment), and lead companies to sustainability.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2012

Jiajun Gu, Qingxiong Weng and Fenghua Xie

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership style, top management teams' (TMTs') behavioral integration, and strategic decisionmaking speed…

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1187

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership style, top management teams' (TMTs') behavioral integration, and strategic decisionmaking speed. It reveals how leadership impacts on team progress and strategic decisionmaking speed.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was collected from more than ten provinces/cities in China. Factor analysis and structural equation model (SEM) were used to conduct the data.

Findings

The empirical study found that leadership style has a direct positive impact on the speed of strategic decision making, and an indirect positive impact on the speed of strategic decision making through the team behavior integration. The results of SEM show both leadership style and team behavior integration have a significant impact on strategic decisionmaking speed. It demonstrates that transformational leadership and transactional leadership have both direct and indirect impact on the speed of strategic decisions. Moreover, transformational leadership has a greater impact than transactional leadership on team behavior integration and strategic decisionmaking speed.

Originality/value

The study enriches the empirical test on the relationship between leadership, team and decision speed, therefore helping us further understand how to improve the speed of strategic decisionmaking.

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Francis C. Uzonwanne

The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by investigating the relationship between age and other demographics on decision-making and leadership styles of executives in…

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1550

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by investigating the relationship between age and other demographics on decision-making and leadership styles of executives in the non-profit sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a quantitative research using correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The quantitative approach establishes facts, makes predictions and tests stated hypothesis and used the Pearson correlation coefficient, the ANOVA and the two-way analysis of variance. This study used surveys to collect data.

Findings

H1 states that there will be no significant difference in the decision-making models used among non-profit organizational leaders (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous and avoidant) based on demographic variables: gender and age. H2 states that there will be no significant difference in the leadership style used among non-profit organizational executives (selling, telling, delegating and participating) and different dimensions of demographic variables: gender and age.

Research limitations/implications

This study explored the relationship between the demographics, age and gender and the decision-making models (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous and avoidant) and leadership styles (selling, telling, delegating and participating) of executives in non-profit organizations. The age of the executives also showed to be important factors that influenced executive’s leadership styles and decision-making models as well.

Practical implications

Rational decision-making as reflected to in this study has been used by older, possibly more experienced non-profit executives. This model is favorable towards making decisions on complicated issues. The final choice rational decision-makers select will maximize the outcome; it is assumed that the decision-maker will choose the alternative that rates the highest and get the maximum benefits (Robbins and Decenzo, 2003, pp. 141-142). The researcher suggests that non-profit executives, especially the younger executives, should attend management and leadership conferences that focus on rational decision-making models as concerns business strategies and making the best choices based on possible alternatives.

Social implications

Rational decision-making as reflected to in this study has been used by older, possibly more experienced non-profit executives. This model is favorable towards making decisions on complicated issues. The final choice rational decision-makers select will maximize the outcome; it is assumed that the decision-maker will choose the alternative that rates the highest and get the maximum benefits (Robbins and Decenzo, 2003, pp. 141-142). The researcher suggests that non-profit executives, especially the younger executives, should attend management and leadership conferences that focus on rational decision-making models as concerns business strategies and making the best choices based on possible alternatives.

Originality/value

This is an original piece of research that contributes to the literature on leadership style.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Patricia M. Riddell

In the last 10 to 15 years, research studies have focused on the effects of differences across generations that result in differences in cultural expectations within the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last 10 to 15 years, research studies have focused on the effects of differences across generations that result in differences in cultural expectations within the workplace (e.g. Arsenault, 2004). Different generations create shared attitudes to work and preferences for types of work which result in differences in their perception of, for instance, what makes a good leader or even the value of leadership within an organisation. While these generational differences are real, these analyses do not take into account differences that might result from the age, and therefore developmental stage, of the populations being assessed. The neuroscience literature clearly shows that there are maturational differences in the brain which are not complete until late teens to early 20s. It is therefore possible that some of the generational differences result from differences in processing ability resulting from structural immaturities in the brain. In particular, there are differences in the rate of maturation of areas of the brain related to reward sensitivity, threat sensitivity and regulation of behaviour which result in substantial differences in behaviour from adolescence through into adulthood. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effect of maturational changes in the brain on behaviours related to leadership and to outline ways in which these changes can be addressed in order to encourage young people to develop as leaders. This will include providing suitable experiences of leadership to encourage the faster development of the neural structures which underlie these capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent advances in neural imaging have resulted in a substantial increase in research investigating the development of the brain during adolescence. A literature review was conducted to find adolescent research that investigated decision making and risk taking. The data obtained were integrated and implications for leadership were drawn from an analysis of the resulting theoretical framework.

Findings

The research into decision-making processes in adolescents and younger adults points to a number of ways in which these differ from mature decision making. Younger people: (find it harder to inhibit behaviours) are more responsive to immediate reward; are more optimistic about the outcome of risky decisions; and are more responsive to social rewards (Jones et al., 2014). They also lack the experiences that adults use to distil the gist of a situation and therefore are more dependent on conscious, cost-benefit analysis of the outcome of decisions.

Practical implications

An understanding of the differences between adult and adolescent decision making points to the role of experience as a key factor in mature decision making. If adolescents are to make mature decisions, they have to be offered suitable challenges in safe environments from which they can gain expertise in leadership decision making. These can be designed to account for differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment in this group. In addition, young adults would benefit from learning the gist interpretations that have been extracted from situations by experienced leaders. This suggests that adolescents and adults would benefit from simulated leadership experiences and leadership mentoring.

Social implications

The Baby Boomer generation who currently hold many of the leadership positions in organisations are coming close to requirement. They will have to be replaced by members of Generation X and the Millennial Generation resulting in potentially younger leaders. In addition, flatter organisational structures that are currently being implemented in many organisations will require leadership at many more levels. Thus, we need to be able to develop leadership skills in a more diverse and younger section of society. Understanding how the brain develops can help us to design appropriate leadership experiences and training for this upcoming generation of young leaders.

Originality/value

Recent advances in neuroscience of adolescence provide a unique opportunity to bring new evidence to bear on our understanding of decision making in young adults. This provides practical implications for how to develop leadership within this group and to support them as they gain experience in this domain. The evidence also points to a benefit for the increased risk taking seen in adolescence since this leads to greater motivation to try new, and potentially risky, ventures. Through a better understanding of the differences in decision making, we can both help adolescents to develop more mature decision making faster while benefitting from the optimism of youth.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Felix Maringe

The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and…

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1542

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decisionmaking teams and groups and the extent to which decisionmaking processes meet Tatum et al.'s criteria for fair and just organisational decision making

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilises data from the Integrating Diversity in Leadership Project sponsored by the Centre for Excellence in Leadership. It draws on responses made by 67 staff in five FE colleges in the UK to a series of qualitative questions in individual interviews. The paper also draws on observations of the level and quality of interaction and contribution made by 147 staff in 15 leadership decisionmaking groups. The paper only draws on those responses that have relevance to the questions of leadership decision making, the quality of decision making and the perceptions of staff regarding their involvement in decision making at various levels.

Findings

The data suggest that inclusiveness in decision making decreases with the hierarchy of decisionmaking groups, with the most senior groups being seen as the most exclusive, least transformed, closely guarded and offering restricted entry. Similarly, decisionmaking teams at different levels are associated with different levels of justice and fairness related to the balance made between competing dilemmas of people versus process.

Originality/value

There is limited research conducted in this area. The study brings together aspects of social justice and inclusive decision making to bear on the structures and processes of leadership decision making in educational settings and uncovers a range of barriers that stand in the way of inclusive and fair decision making. These findings could indeed be a seedbed for an emerging theory of leadership decision making in educational establishments.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

A.G. Sheard and A.P. Kakabadse

This monograph seeks to summarise the key influences of a role‐based perspective on leadership when making decisions as to how organisational resources can best be deployed.

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6241

Abstract

Purpose

This monograph seeks to summarise the key influences of a role‐based perspective on leadership when making decisions as to how organisational resources can best be deployed.

Design/methodology/approach

Application of new frameworks provides insight into the leadership roles executives can adopt when part of formal, informal and temporary groups within the organisation's senior management team and those parts of the organisation for which they are responsible. The methodology adopted is qualitative, focusing on application of previously developed frameworks.

Findings

Adoption of an appropriate leadership role, and the timely switch from one role to another as circumstances change, are found to facilitate improvement in the ability of executives to mobilise organisational resources, and in so doing effectively address those challenges with which the organisation is faced.

Research limitations/implications

A one‐organisation intensive case study of a multinational engineering company engaged in the design, development and manufacture of rotating turbomachinery provides the platform for the research. The research intent is to validate two frameworks in a different organisation of a similar demographic profile to those in which the frameworks were developed. The frameworks will require validating in organisations of different demographic profiles.

Practical implications

The concepts advanced, and implications discussed, provide an insight into the role‐based nature of leadership. The practical steps individual executives can take to develop their ability to adopt different leadership roles are highlighted.

Originality/value

This monograph is an investigation into, and study of the contribution of theory that provides insight into, the process by which executives effectively mobilise organisational resources. This differs from the original contributions to theory, which focused on methodology, data gathering and validation in contrast with the current study that is focused on practical application.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

M.D. Haque, Lu Liu and Angela TitiAmayah

The purpose of this paper is to address the gap in the literature by providing a precise conceptualization of the concept of patience in the context of leadership.

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1365

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the gap in the literature by providing a precise conceptualization of the concept of patience in the context of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study was conducted using a qualitative approach as it aimed to explore leaders’ perceptions and experiences with patience and eventually build a theoretical model in relation to the role of patience in leadership. Because the aim of the study was to obtain insight into the experiences of the participants in their own words, this study adopted a grounded theory research design.

Findings

The grounded theory study resulted in an emergent theoretical model for understanding the decision-making process of leaders who exhibit patience as a character strength and how those leaders promote organizational success. Through an inductive approach, this grounded theory study identified the behaviors that participating leaders viewed as patient, as well as the outcomes and the contextual conditions for the effectiveness of such behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

A major contribution of this study is that leaders epitomized by patience are guided by a decision-making framework that can contribute to more favorable decision making outcomes.

Practical implications

The proposed model for patience leadership has implications for developing the leadership capacity.

Originality/value

Patience, as a leadership quality, has been overlooked virtue in the social and psychological sciences. In order to explore the potential nexus between patience and leadership, the study has offered an emergent theoretical model and indicated the specific ways in which leaders may effectively practice patience.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Shelley D. Dionne and Peter J. Dionne

Previous literature has compared the effectiveness of different styles of leadership, yet most of this research has not compared different levels of analyses regarding…

Abstract

Previous literature has compared the effectiveness of different styles of leadership, yet most of this research has not compared different levels of analyses regarding leader styles or behaviors. This shortcoming often limits our understanding of how leadership acts on a phenomenon of interest to a single level of analysis. This article develops a computational model and describes a levels-based comparison of four types of leadership that represent three different levels: individual, dyad, and group. When examined across a dynamic group decision-making optimization scenario, group-based leadership is found to produce decisions that are closer to optimal than dyadic-based and individual-based leadership. An alternative computational model varying individual cognitive and experience-based components among group members also indicates that group-based leadership produces more optimal decisions. First published in Leadership Quarterly (Dionne, S. D., & Dionne, P. J. (2008). Levels-based leadership and hierarchical group decision optimization: A simulation. Leadership Quarterly, 19, 212–234), this version offers an updated introduction discussing simulation as a theoretical development tool and supplies additional evidence regarding the growth of simulation methods in leadership research.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-503-7

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