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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Qingxiong Weng, Kashmala Latif, Abdul Karim Khan, Hussain Tariq, Hirra Pervez Butt, Asfia Obaid and Naukhez Sarwar

This study aims to explore an interpersonal predictor of coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior – the leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC). This study…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore an interpersonal predictor of coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior – the leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC). This study integrates leader–member exchange literature with social comparison theory to hypothesize that an individual’s upward LMXSC is positively correlated with coworkers-directed knowledge hiding and that an individual’s feelings of envy are mediated by the relationship between upward LMXSC and coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior. Also, this study proposes two-way and three-way interaction patterns of goal interdependence, which can influence LMXSC–envy relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Two independent studies are conducted to test the hypothesized relationships. In Study 1, the authors collected multi-wave data from a large public sector university in China (N = 1,131). The authors then replicated the Study 1 findings by collecting multi-source and multi-wave data from a telecom company based in China (n = 379).

Findings

The authors found support across both studies for the idea that upward LMXSC is a possible interpersonal predictor of coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior. More specifically, it was found that feelings of envy ensue from upward LMXSC, resulting in further coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior. Further, this study shows that the influence of upward LMXSC on knowledge hiding behavior via feelings of envy was weaker (stronger) when employees have high (low) cooperative goal interdependence with coworkers, respectively, and when employees have low (high) competitive goal interdependence with the coworkers, respectively.

Originality/value

This study extends current knowledge management literature by introducing LMXSC as an interpersonal predictor of coworkers-directed knowledge hiding behavior. This will help practitioners to curb such counterproductive behavior.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Gul Afshan, Carolina Serrano-Archimi and Zubair Akram

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification. Moreover, LMXSC (LMXSC) moderates the direct and mediating relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multi-level (individual and group level) model, dyadic data were collected from 298 employees working under 47 group managers in the banking sector in Pakistan.

Findings

The multi-level moderated mediation model tested in Mplus and HLM software showed the full support for direct, mediating and moderating hypothesized relationships; however, the moderated mediation hypothesis was partially supported. It reveals that relative LMX standing of followers predicted in-role performance, organizational citizenship behaviour at an individual level (OCB-individual) and cynicism. Relational identification with the leader mediated the relationship. Moreover, at high LMXSC, the relationship between relative LMX and relational identification and consequently the outcomes were stronger.

Originality/value

LMX has widely been studied at dyadic level, despite the suggested high and low LMX quality relationships that exist in a workgroup. This study not only investigates the role of relative LMX on employee performance through relational identification but also reports that subjective evaluation of LMXSC plays a major role in promoting employee performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Dheeraj Sharma, Madhurima Mishra, Shivendra Kumar Pandey and Koustab Ghosh

This study aims to examine the role of leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) perceptions in triggering the instigation of uncivil behavior in the workplace…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) perceptions in triggering the instigation of uncivil behavior in the workplace. This study also explores the intervening role of envy and the buffering role of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior within the proposed relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in two phases separated by an interval of four weeks. The final sample consisted of 224 full-time white-collar employees working in five large pharmaceutical manufacturing organizations in India.

Findings

The findings indicate that employees’ subjective perceptions of being involved in poorer-quality LMX relationships than their workgroup members generate envy, which, in turn, evokes them to instigate uncivil behaviors onto those higher-LMX counterparts. The indirect effect of LMX social comparison on instigated workplace incivility through envy gets attenuated when supervisors engage in aggression-preventive behavior.

Practical implications

To protect organizations from the financial and productivity losses associated with incivility, supervisors are encouraged to exhibit aggression-preventive behavior if they form differentiated exchange relationships with the subordinates in their teams. Supervisors are further advised to avoid the altogether neglect of lower-LMX subordinates as doing so may give rise to negative emotions (envy) and behavior (incivility) among them.

Originality/value

This study expands the limited body of knowledge on the antecedents of uncivil employee behavior in the workplace. Specifically, it unveils that incivility toward coworkers may be stemming from unfavorable LMX social comparisons and ensuing negative emotions such as envy. It also offers insights on reducing uncivil behavior by highlighting that the impact of LMXSC and envy on incivility instigation gets buffered in the presence of aggression-preventive supervisor behavior.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Ghulam Ali Arain, Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Jonathan R. Crawshaw, Imran Ali and Armando Papa

Drawing on the self-consistency theory, this study aims to test a model where employees' supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE) is positively related to their promotive and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the self-consistency theory, this study aims to test a model where employees' supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE) is positively related to their promotive and prohibitive voice and mediate the positive relationship between leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) of an employee's promotive and prohibitive voice, but only for local rather than migrant workers.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the study hypotheses, multi-source data were collected from 341 matched supervisor–supervisee dyads working in a diverse range of organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Findings

As predicted, employees' SBSE is positively related to their promotive and prohibitive voice and mediates a positive relationship between their LMXSC and their promotive and prohibitive voice, but only for local workers. The study findings support the self-consistency theory perspective on LMX and provide new insight into the “dark side” of migrant working – a lack of voice.

Originality/value

This study responds to calls for more research that explores the roles played by macro-environmental factors on employees' voice. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2022

Wenhao Luo, Yuqing Sun, Feng Gao and Yonghong Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of employees' self-efficacy on employees' organizational identification. Based on a self-verification perspective, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of employees' self-efficacy on employees' organizational identification. Based on a self-verification perspective, this paper focuses on the mediating role of leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) and the moderating role of perceived organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a field survey (Study 1) of 207 employees recruited from multiple financial organizations and tested a moderated mediation model using Hayes's (2018) PROCESS macro. The authors conducted another scenario-based experiment (Study 2) using a sample of 151 employees recruited online to further establish causality in our model.

Findings

Results suggest that employees' self-efficacy is positively associated with their LMXSC, which, in turn, positively impacts employees' organizational identification. The positive relationship between LMXSC and organizational identification is stronger when employees' perceived organizational justice is higher. The indirect effect of self-efficacy on organizational identification through LMXSC is also strengthened by perceived organizational justice.

Practical implications

Managers are encouraged to develop employees' self-efficacy and to create a fair environment to promote employees' identification with the organization.

Originality/value

This research extends organizational identification literature by examining how and when employees' self-efficacy, a dispositional predictor, leads to employees' identification with the organization from a self-verification perspective.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2018

Man-Ling Chang and Cheng-Feng Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mediation model for understanding how favoritism, in the context of the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, influences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mediation model for understanding how favoritism, in the context of the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, influences subordinate-rated LMX via the subordinates’ perception of organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 39 managers and 159 employees working in local branches of banks in Taiwan. While the managers were asked to rate their LMX scores with all employees, three to five employees were randomly selected to participate in a survey which included two phases with a time lag of three months. Given the nested structure of the data, hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the mediation model.

Findings

The findings support the mediation model, indicating that LMX favoritism can significantly influence subordinate-rated LMX by enhancing subordinates’ justice perception.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing LMX research by showing that a superior’s LMX favoritism may change subordinate-rated LMX over time.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Hongdan Zhao

This study aims to examine the effect of relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) on employee voice by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the…

1686

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) on employee voice by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of affective commitment underpinning the relationship between RLMX and employee voice, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

We tested the model with data from 358 supervisor-subordinate dyads in a large Chinese company. Employees and their immediate supervisors provided data on separate questionnaires and on different occasions. And then, we used an identification number to match each employee questionnaire with the response of his/her immediate supervisor.

Findings

Results indicated that affective commitment fully mediated the positive relationship between RLMX and employee voice, even after controlling for personal leader-member exchange (LMX) quality. We also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the mediated relationship between RLMX and employee voice via affective commitment, such that the mediation was stronger for people lower, rather than higher, in Chinese traditionality.

Research limitations/implications

Testing the moderated mediation model helps to advance our theoretical understanding of the psychological mechanisms that underlie the effect of RLMX on employees’ behaviour.

Originality/value

This empirical study provides preliminary evidence of the mediating role of affective commitment in the positive relationship between RLMX and employee voice. Our moderated mediation model also extends the existing finding by adding substantive moderators (Chinese traditionality) to explain how the effect of RLMX on employees’ behaviours unfolds.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Brian Matthews, Jamie Daigle and Joy Cooper

The purpose of this study is to validate multiplicative cycle that exists between the job readiness and satisfaction model explored by Matthews et al. (2018), the…

1985

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to validate multiplicative cycle that exists between the job readiness and satisfaction model explored by Matthews et al. (2018), the satisfaction and performance paradigmatic nuances analyzed by Judge et al. (2001) and Gu and Chi (2009), in addition to the expectancy model theorized by Vroom (1964). The motivation to transfer learning serves as a conveyable variable transmitted within a learning continuum that sustains cyclical outputs.

Design/methodology/approach

An archetype to explore the connection between the three hypothesized theories is created through a neural network program. Exploring this connection develops deeper understandings of the derivatives of employee motivation as it pertains to its effect on readiness, satisfaction, performance and achievement dyads. A detailed analysis of the literature leads to the hypothesis that the motivation to transfer learning creates a multiplicative effect among hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The neural network program scaffolds the proposed general belief that positive effects of transfer motives cause a cyclical effect that continues to perpetuate among hypothesized dyads. Conversely, if this motivation decreases or ceases among one or more dyads, the cyclical effect will retract and, eventually stop.

Originality/value

Based on the neurologic outcome, one central theme emerged: managers must offer opportunities to acquire knowledge through assistive mechanisms (i.e. training) by providing external stability through controlled channels that activates the motivation to transfer learning into new opportunities. The transference of this knowledge produces reconstructive growth opportunities through continuous learning thus increasing performance.

目的

本研究的目的、除了驗證弗魯姆 (Vroom) (1964) 建立的「期望模型」理論外,也去驗證存在於工作準備就緒與馬修斯等人 (Matthews et al.) (2018) 所探索的滿足感模型之間的倍增週期,及質治等人 (Judge et al.) (2001) 和池 (Gu & Chi) (2009) 所分析的滿足感及表現之範式細微差別。學習轉移的動機作為一個被傳送至學習漸變體內的可輸送變量而運作,而這個學習漸變體是會維持週期性的輸出的。

研究設計/方法/理念

透過神經網絡程序,創造一個用以探索這三個假設性理論之間的關係的原型。探究這些關係,會使我們更能深入了解僱員動機的衍生品,因這涉及僱員動機對準備就緒、滿足感、表現及功績二元體的影響。仔細分析文獻帶出了一個假設,就是: 學習轉移的動機會在各假設的關係裏創造一個倍增的效果。

研究結果

這個神經網絡程序續步闡釋了一個被倡議的普遍觀念,那就是轉移動機的正面影響會帶來一個在假設性的二元體中會繼續持續下去的週期性效應。相反地,如果這動機在一個或多個二元體中減弱或停止,這週期性效應將會撤回及最終停止。

研究的原創性/價值

基於神經病學的結果,一個核心主題浮現了, 就是:管理人員必須提供透過輔助機制 (就是說:培訓) 而獲取知識的機會。方法是給會引發把學習轉為新機會的動機之受控渠道、提供外在穩定性。這知識的轉移,透過不斷學習而創造重建的成長,表現因而得以提升。

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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