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Book part
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Marlin Marissa Malek Abdul Malek and Hassan Abu Bakar

This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We…

Abstract

This chapter examines how leader–member dyadic communication in the Malaysian workplace operates at the leader–member dyadic level in the context of cultural norms. We propose a model of leader–member dyadic communication based on the cultural norms of budi bicara, which in turn influences the perception of workplace mentoring in Malaysia. The model is tested by using hierarchical multiple regression with data obtained from a sample of 510 employees in three Malaysian organizations. Results show that leader–member dyadic communication in the workplace is linked with the career mentoring perceptions. These findings partially validate our proposed model and provide empirical support for the central roles of communication exchange processes in mentoring.

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Mentorship-driven Talent Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-691-5

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Hassan Abu Bakar and Leah Omillion-Hodges

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying process of a relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior linking association between ethical leadership and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying process of a relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior linking association between ethical leadership and organizational identification in Malaysia’s diverse workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on relational dyadic communication, social comparison and social identity theories, the authors develop a mediation model. The model illustrates the link between the relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior processes, ethical leadership and organizational identification. The model was tested on a sample of 273 group members from 58 groups working in large government link corporations in Malaysia.

Findings

Results of hierarchical regression analysis provide support for the model. The authors found that ethical leadership was positively related to relative leader–member dyadic communication behavior based on the norms and values of budi context. Budi is a social norm in the Malaysian context that helps employees to know how they should interact with others. Budi is manifested through the use of language and should be used or present in the interactions or conversations with others.

Originality/value

The relative shared norms and values of budi mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational identification after controlling for the perception of individual leader–member dyadic communication behavior on norms and values of budi.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hassan Abu Bakar and Robert M. McCann

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether surface-level actual similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at earlier time periods in a work group’s development. Additionally, this research examines whether deep-level perceived similarity interacts with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a work group’s development. The relationship between shared cultural context and perceived and actual similarity is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This research analyzes longitudinal data from the study questionnaires at five occasions in a Malaysian organization.

Findings

Results based on a sample of 28 group projects and 141 matching dyad who completed the study questionnaires at 5 occasions reveal that there is no interaction between workgroup relational ethnicity and workgroup relational gender with leader-member dyadic agreement at early time periods in a workgroup’s development. Therefore, H1 is not supported. H2 posited that deep-level perceived similarity will interact with leader-member dyadic communication agreement in predicting group member performance ratings at later time periods in a workgroup’s development. H2 is supported. Results reveal that the interaction between leader-member dyadic communication agreement and perceived similarity explains 36 percent of the variance of perceived group members’ performance ratings. This is after accounting for the control variable and the independent variables. From a cultural standpoint, the findings in this study underscore that conversations based on the Malaysian cultural norm of “budi” reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that this shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity between ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians, and also both genders in the Malaysian workplace.

Research limitations/implications

Leader-member dyadic communication agreement reflects the social appropriateness and relationship quality between individuals, as well as the context of the leader-member workgroup interactions. The findings of this study underscore the premise that conversations reflect not only a cultural basis of communication, but also that shared cultural context leads to perceived similarity. This study specifically examines the role of ethnicity in Malaysia organizational workgroup (e.g. ethnic Malay, Chinese Malay, and Indian Malay) as well as gender.

Originality/value

This study systematically examines the influence of actual and perceived similarity in leader-member dyadic communication from a longitudinal and multilevel standpoint.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Joy Jones-Carmack and Noel Criscione-Naylor

The paper aims to clarify the multivariate effects of follower communication apprehension (CA) and demographic dissimilarity on follower perceptions of the leader–follower…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to clarify the multivariate effects of follower communication apprehension (CA) and demographic dissimilarity on follower perceptions of the leader–follower relationship quality (i.e. measured by leader–member exchange (LMX) theory). This study examined the possible mediating effects of follower CA on the relationship between demographic dissimilarity and LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

Research was collected from self-report ratings of one member of the dyad; several proactive techniques were utilized to reduce common method variance in the development and administration of the survey instrument. In total, 260 (N = 260) full-time hospitality industry employees participated in the study.

Findings

The results of this study indicate demographic dissimilarity has minimal effect on LMX and CA. However, the results indicated that follower CA was negatively related to follower perceptions of LMX quality. In addition, the results indicated that tenure working with the supervisor was negatively related to follower CA and positively related to follower perceptions of LMX quality.

Research limitations/implications

Research results may lack generalizability, and causality cannot be confirmed. Future studies utilizing longitudinal designs and/or data collected from each member of the dyad may provide support for current findings.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for understanding how situational characteristics influence follower CA and perceptions of LMX to encourage supervisors to increase communication with new subordinates, especially during the organizational acculturation process, thus reducing turnover. Furthermore, the significant relationship between age dissimilarity and CA offers practical implications for managing and celebrating generational differences in the workplace and bridging the gap between generations by maximizing communication between supervisors and subordinates. Communication is an essential consideration in the hospitality industry linked to creativity, relationship building and enhanced service experiences. Ultimately, this paper provides guidance for leaders to build sustainable, positive relationships with subordinates through more effective communication and build more inclusive service-based organizations.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to communication and leadership management practices by addressing four major problems: (1) limited research on situational characteristics that inhibit LMX quality, (2) limited research on communication variables as antecedents to LMX, (3) minimal research on the relationship between CA and LMX and (4) non-existent research on CA as a mediating variable in the relationship between demographic dissimilarity and LMX.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Xiayu Chen and Shaobo Wei

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which social media use for vertical and horizontal communication enhance employee performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which social media use for vertical and horizontal communication enhance employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the research model, the authors conducted a questionnaire survey in China. The authors used a customer panel database provided by a marketing research firm in China to identify appropriate respondents. Finally, the authors received 243 valid responses.

Findings

The authors find that social media use for vertical communication (SMUVC) is positively related to leader-member exchange (LMX) and social media use for horizontal communication (SMUHC) is positively related to team-member exchange (TMX). LMX and TMX are positively related to employee performance. LMX is positively associated with TMX. Besides, task complexity positively moderates the relationship between LMX and employee performance, while it negatively moderates the relationship between TMX and employee performance.

Originality/value

First, it adds to the literature by investigating the underlying mechanisms of how social media use for communication influences job performance. By identifying LMX and TMX as the underlying mechanisms, the authors make comprehensive considerations of how the vertical and horizontal relationships link the effect of social media use for communication on employee performance. Second, despite the growing evidence demonstrates that high-quality LMX and TMX can individually contribute to employee job performance, little research has considered both LMX and TMX relationships simultaneously and their effects on job performance. Finally, by establishing task complexity as a key moderator on the relationships between LMX and TMX and job performance, the study could explain the inconsistent findings in the literature that the effects of LMX and TMX are significant in some studies yet not significant in other studies.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Hassan Abu Bakar, Che Su Mustaffa and Bahtiar Mohamad

Researches have documented the impact of dyadic communication and relationships on individual behavior in workgroups. However, communication remains as the background…

Abstract

Purpose

Researches have documented the impact of dyadic communication and relationships on individual behavior in workgroups. However, communication remains as the background element in leadership and management literature as opposed to being the primary process in the leader‐member relationships development. The purpose of this paper is to establish and interpret the appropriate level of analysis based on the correlation between leader‐member exchange (LMX) quality, supervisory communication and team‐oriented commitment in a Malaysian organization setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey from a Malaysian organization (n=201) is analyzed on the relationships between LMX quality, supervisory communication and commitment using within and between analysis (WABA).

Findings

The individual dyad relationships and communication correlates with team‐oriented commitment at the group level. Therefore, LMX quality and supervisory communication influence overall team‐oriented commitment in a work group.

Research limitations/implications

Given that the analyses are based on self‐report in one organization, these results have to be handled carefully.

Practical implications

The results implied that the relationship between dyadic relationships quality, supervisory communication and team‐orientated commitment is best connected if individual workers in work group are encouraged to communicate their needs to supervisors. As such, the worker's ability to communicate mutually about relationships (LMX quality and positive relationships communication) and work (upward openness and job relevant communication) with their immediate supervisor implicates both personal fit and work group functioning.

Originality/value

The results extend the authors' understanding of LMX quality, supervisory communication and team‐oriented commitment by identifying the specific form levels of analysis in a Malaysian organization setting.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Pat Sniderman, Mark Fenton-O'Creevy and Rosalind Searle

Using the concept of disconfirming communication to define interpersonal mistreatment, the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of specific negative managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the concept of disconfirming communication to define interpersonal mistreatment, the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of specific negative managerial communication behaviors on employee emotions, while taking into account both leader-member exchange (LMX) and employee trait negative affect (NA).

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 275 working adults completed surveys about their managers’ confirming and disconfirming communication and their own emotional responses to these communications.

Findings

The positive relationship between disconfirming managerial communication and employee negative felt emotion was reduced when LMX was high and was increased for employees with high trait NA personalities.

Research limitations/implications

While the cross-sectional design exposes the study to potential common method bias, a priori and post hoc procedures minimized this risk, confirming it has a negligible impact on the results.

Practical implications

Study insights and the new instrument, the confirming/disconfirming managerial communication indicator can be used to train managers to be better communicators, thereby improving organizational effectiveness.

Social implications

Drawing attention to the nature and emotional impact of disconfirming managerial communication may reduce its occurrence and lead to improved employee mental health with resultant positive effects for society.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies of interpersonal mistreatment and managerial communication, the authors focus explicitly on the effect on employee emotion and explore confirming and disconfirming communication, and the moderating roles of LMX and trait NA.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Panagiotis Gkorezis, Victoria Bellou and Nikolaos Skemperis

Nonverbal communication comprises a core element of the interactions between leader and follower. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical attention regarding the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

Nonverbal communication comprises a core element of the interactions between leader and follower. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical attention regarding the impact of nonverbal cues on followers’ attitudinal outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this gap by linking a salient form of nonverbal communication, kinesics, to an under-researched leader-follower relationship outcome, that is relational identification (RI) with the supervisor. In doing so, the authors also highlight the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) in the aforementioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two studies in different countries. Moreover, the authors examined the hypotheses using hierarchical regression and bootstrap analysis.

Findings

As hypothesized, the present results showed that kinesics have both a direct and an indirect effect, through LMX, on RI with the supervisor.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge this is the first study that links a form of nonverbal communication to both LMX and RI.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Ofelia Brown, Carmen Paz-Aparicio and Antonio J. Revilla

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of a leader’s communication style (LCS) on the quality of interpersonal exchanges between leaders and followers (LMX)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of a leader’s communication style (LCS) on the quality of interpersonal exchanges between leaders and followers (LMX), and how this translates into the employee’s affective organizational commitment (AOC), in the context of Peru.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated model of six dimensions is used to measure LCS. Using multiple hierarchical regressions and the Preacher and Hayes mediation model, the study focuses on determining the direct and indirect effect of each of the dimensions on LMX and organizational commitment.

Findings

The dimension preciseness shows a significant direct association to AOC. Four dimensions are significantly related with LMX: expressiveness, preciseness and questioningness with a positive sign, while verbal aggressiveness records an important negative one. The same four dimensions show an indirect effect on AOC through LMX. Emotionality and impression manipulativeness do not record significant results.

Research limitations/implications

The research was carried out with a sample of 253 white-collar Peruvian professionals with high-level studies and managerial experience, which are not necessarily representative of the labor population. This research provides comprehensive evidence on how leaders’ communicative behavior may contribute to desirable outcomes such as employee commitment in a Latin American cultural context, although the findings may apply to other cultures.

Practical implications

This study contributes to clarify that each dimension of the LCS impacts differently on subordinate perceptions; leaders should understand this model and be able to make the necessary adjustments to their communication in order to obtain the desired results of leadership. The leader’s ability to communicate with a style characterized by expressiveness, precision, and questioning makes it easy to build high-quality LMX relationships for Peruvian employees. On the contrary, a communication style characterized by high levels of verbal aggressiveness may negatively affect subordinates, limiting the possibility of building high-quality LMX relationships. This, in turn, affects AOC of employees.

Social implications

This study is a contribution to clarify that each feature of the LCS has a different impact on the perception of the subordinate, for which the leaders should be trained to understand this model and be able to make the necessary adjustments to obtain the desired results of leadership. The leader’s ability to communicate with a style characterized by expressiveness, precision and questioning makes it easy to build high-quality LMX relationships for Peruvian employees. On the contrary, a communication style characterized by high levels of verbal aggressiveness will negatively impact subordinates, limiting the possibility of building high-quality LMX relationships.

Originality/value

The value lies in revisiting the construct “leader’s communication style” to turn it into an instrument for the exercise of leadership. It is a contribution in favor of leaders becoming aware that their own communication style constitutes an instrument of effective leadership and a lever to optimize the commitment of their collaborators toward the organization.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Trent Salvaggio and Thomas W. Kent

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of a followers’ perception of charisma to the followers’ perceived quality of each of the four sub-dimensions of LMX…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of a followers’ perception of charisma to the followers’ perceived quality of each of the four sub-dimensions of LMX quality, and the moderating effect of communication frequency on such a relationship. The study hopes to assess the relationship of the four sub-factors of LMX to charisma and, thereby, to advance the current understanding of relationship-based views of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 208 employed adults who are currently residing within the USA completed surveys that assessed charisma, LMX and it’s sub-factors, and communication frequency. The surveys were validated and the relationships between the variables were tested using partial least squares regression.

Findings

Charismatic leadership was shown to have significant effects on all the LMX sub-factors suggesting that charisma is not a simple trait possessed by some leaders. Additionally, the data suggests that there is a significant yet different level of effect of communication frequency on all the LMX sub-factors.

Research limitations/implications

Implications of the research findings are discussed; however, there are some shortcomings in the research. As the variables of communication frequency and LMX quality were rated by the same individual, a limitation to this study exists by way of possible same source bias. A further limitation results from the measurement method utilized to determine communication frequency and its dependence upon the ability of the survey respondent to accurately recall this information free from any type of recall bias (Raphael, 1987). Further study needs to be done into the nature of the moderating effects present on the four lower order factors of LMX. If there are intervening factors that influence the quality of the moderating effects, such as role expectation and role congruence, then the authors may be able to gain further insight into the positive and negative nature of these moderating effects.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that charisma is not a simple, one-dimensional factor and also suggests that the authors need to reconceptualize the ideas of charisma. At a minimum, the authors must rethink how to train people to become leaders.

Originality/value

The study advances the understanding of the relationship between charisma and LMX and its composite factors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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