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Article

Rozhan Othman, Foo Fang Ee and Ng Lay Shi

The purpose of this paper is to identify a number of limitations of the theory on leadermember exchange (LMX). This paper aims to argue that under certain conditions high…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify a number of limitations of the theory on leadermember exchange (LMX). This paper aims to argue that under certain conditions high quality LMX can be dysfunctional. It proceeds to identify the antecedents and outcomes of dysfunctional LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the theory on LMX and justice to identify the conditions that lead to dysfunctional LMX and its consequences.

Findings

A review of the extant literature indicates that favouritism by the leader and the reliance on impression management by followers can lead to dysfunctional LMX. This can then lead to negative reactions from group members and undermine work group cohesiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This paper points to new directions for research in LMX. It highlights the need to recognize that under certain conditions high quality LMX can be perceived as unfairness.

Practical implications

Managers need to recognize issues needing their attention in developing quality exchange with their subordinates. Failure to address these issues can undermine work group performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the debate on the role of LMX. Specifically, it attempts to add to the discussion in the emerging literature on dysfunctional LMX.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Reza Salehzadeh

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new typologies of leadermember exchange (LMX) theory.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new typologies of leadermember exchange (LMX) theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This research conducted a thorough, targeted literature review along with a qualitative research method involving in-depth, open-ended and semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted with 21 managers and 70 employees of different public organizations during the two years. After interviews, data were transcribed and the qualitative research method of theory elaboration was used to extract the themes from the transcripts.

Findings

The results showed that the LMX has a dynamic nature with four different versions. Also, the results discovered the multi-level of LMX with three different types of leaders’ styles. In addition, four factors that cause damage to high-quality relationships have been identified (i.e. perceived dissimilarity, feeling of being betrayed, failure to meet the expectations and impression management). Finally, the results discovered five dark sides of LMX.

Originality/value

This research proposes the new typologies of LMX and the approach and findings of this research contribute to the literature of leadership theories.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article

Barrie O. Pettman and Richard Dobbins

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Abstract

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part

Francis J. Yammarino, Minyoung Cheong, Jayoung Kim and Chou-Yu Tsai

For many of the current leadership theories, models, and approaches, the answer to the question posed in the title, “Is leadership more than ‘I like my boss’?,” is “no,”…

Abstract

For many of the current leadership theories, models, and approaches, the answer to the question posed in the title, “Is leadership more than ‘I like my boss’?,” is “no,” as there appears to be a hierarchy of leadership concepts with Liking of the leader as the primary dimension or general factor foundation. There are then secondary dimensions or specific sub-factors of liking of Relationship Leadership and Task Leadership; and subsequently, tertiary dimensions or actual sub-sub-factors that comprise the numerous leadership views as well as their operationalizations (e.g., via surveys). There are, however, some leadership views that go beyond simply liking of the leader and liking of relationship leadership and task leadership. For these, which involve explicit levels of analysis formulations, often beyond the leader, or are multi-level in nature, the answer to the title question is “yes.” We clarify and discuss these various “no” and “yes” leadership views and implications of our work for future research and personnel and human resources management practice.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article

Swati Chaurasia and Archana Shukla

The paper aims to establish the relationship between leader member exchange (LMX) relationship and work role performance through the dynamic process of employee…

Abstract

The paper aims to establish the relationship between leader member exchange (LMX) relationship and work role performance through the dynamic process of employee engagement. The study outlines why and how leadership is important for employee engagement and effective work role performance. Adopting a survey based research design, a sample of 198 Indian working managers at different levels including various sectors has supported our hypotheses that employee engagement mediates the relations between LMX and work role performance. It provides empirical insights about how employee engagement process influences the LMX and work role performance relationships. The results also suggest that high quality relationship of employees with their leaders is positively related to employee engagement and their work role performance.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article

Pan Jing‐zhou and Zhou Wen‐xia

With the increasingly intensifying competition and the development and maturity of the modern organization, employees have no longer fully been attached to the…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasingly intensifying competition and the development and maturity of the modern organization, employees have no longer fully been attached to the organization. The employee‐organization relationship gets more and more attention. As spokespersons of their organizations, the leaders in all levels, to a considerable extent, have an effect on the understanding of the employee for the organization. The purpose of this paper is to explore leader and member exchange (LMX) relationships' impact on employees' organizational commitment and discuss the mediating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) during the period.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample consisting of 423 employees in four organizations was investigated. After testing the reliability of all questionnaires, the authors constructed a model of the mediating effect of POS between LMX relationships' impact on employees' organizational commitment and used structural equation model technology to verify it.

Findings

The results showed that: affect, loyalty and professional respect have a significant impact on affective commitment but the result of the contribution is not significant. So, work exchange (contribution) was different from social exchange (affect, loyalty and professional respect) in the influence on employee's organizational affective commitment. POS had an intermediary effect between the affect exchange and affective commitment in the organization. Leader‐membership has an important implication for the employee‐organization relationship. The exchanges of different dimensions between the leader and the member were different no matter for the affected contents of the attitude to the organization of the employee or for the affecting mechanism.

Research limitations/implications

All variable data came from the same employee questionnaires, which may lead to potential problems of same source bias or common method variance. In order to test the influence of common method variance, this research carried out Harman's one‐factor test.

Practical implications

The organization should emphasize developing the relationship between the leaders from various levels and the members, and in particular the social exchange out of the work must not be neglected.

Originality/value

The present study explores LMX's influence on employees' affective commitment towards the organization from a social exchange perspective. The authors adopted multi‐dimensions LMX, which is different from prior studies (e.g. Wayne et al. and Zhou and Bao) to discuss the mechanism of LMX's impact on subordinates' attitudes to the organization.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article

Bilal Bin Saeed, Bilal Afsar, Sadia Cheema and Farheen Javed

The purpose of this paper is to examine how leadermember exchange relates to subordinate’s innovative work behavior through core self-evaluation (CSE), domain knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how leadermember exchange relates to subordinate’s innovative work behavior through core self-evaluation (CSE), domain knowledge and creative process engagement. On the basis of an interactional approach, this study hypothesized that there is an interaction between leadermember exchange, CSE and domain knowledge that affects innovative work behavior, such that leadermember exchange has the strongest positive relationship with innovative work behavior when subordinates have high levels of CSE and domain knowledge; and creative process engagement mediates the effect that this three-way interaction between leadermember exchange, CSE and domain knowledge has on innovative work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 323 employees and their immediate supervisors (121) from automotive industry. First, subordinates completed measures of their leadermember exchange, CSE and domain knowledge. Then, the supervisors of these employees assessed their subordinates’ innovative work behavior.

Findings

The results showed that leadermember exchange, CSE and domain knowledge interacted to affect employee innovative work behavior in such a way that when CSE and domain knowledge were both high, leadermember exchange had the strongest positive relationship with innovative work behavior and creative process engagement mediated this relationship.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to empirically examine the interactional perspective of leadermember exchange on innovative work behavior through domain knowledge, CSE and creative process engagement. Theoretical and practical implications and future area of research are discussed at the end.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Ankur Nandedkar

This study investigates the dynamics of supervisor-subordinate relationship, commonly referred in leadership literature as leader-member exchange (LMX), in the context of…

Abstract

This study investigates the dynamics of supervisor-subordinate relationship, commonly referred in leadership literature as leader-member exchange (LMX), in the context of envy, and its associated consequences. Building on the affective events theory, we hypothesize that employees who do not share a good relationship with their supervisors (low-quality LMX) will be envious of the peers that maintain great relationship (high-quality LMX) with the supervisor. As a result, they will restrict knowledge sharing, and engage in uncivil behaviors. Hierarchical regression was used to test hypotheses on data derived from a sample of 204 software engineers working across various information technology firms in India. The study found support for all of the proposed hypotheses and extends research in the field by demonstrating negative consequences of envy in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article

Dae‐seok Kang and Jim Stewart

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leadermember exchange (LMX) and human resource development (HRD) to gain a better understanding of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leadermember exchange (LMX) and human resource development (HRD) to gain a better understanding of the LMX‐performance relationship through connecting LMX and HRD theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Dubin's framework is used for the purpose of linking LMX with HRD. Except that the last three steps (empirical indicators of key terms, hypotheses, testing) involved conducting empirical research, the authors employ steps 1 through 5 to build an HRD‐based LMX model, i.e. the first step specifies that the units of the theory be identified; the second step involves establishing the laws of interaction applicable to the units of the theory. The third and fourth steps define boundaries for an HRD‐based LMX model and suggest propositions for future empirical research. In addition, to lessen the likelihood of some redundancy the system states are included with the laws of interaction.

Findings

LMX and HRD (as represented by identified outcomes) theories are linked by at least three key factors: trust, empowerment, and performance. A theoretical model linking LMX and HRD also describes the contributions of trust, empowerment, and performance to LMX theory of leadership with the help of two specific HRD interventions – trust building and empowerment facilitation.

Research limitations/implications

The confirmation of the theoretical model through empirical research is still required.

Practical implications

In the aspect of relational performance, this paper proposes a basis for designing and implementing strategic HRD activities and recommends the conceptual model as an intervention technique for organizational change.

Originality/value

This paper illuminates the base of LMX leadership theory and seeks to develop new practical insights of the theory. In so doing, it aims to contribute to reducing the tension between leadership theorists and leadership development practitioners, described as validity versus usefulness.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Connie Green

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the styles of conflict management and the quality of dyadic exchanges between leader and follower…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the styles of conflict management and the quality of dyadic exchanges between leader and follower, controlling for age, gender, education, and organizational tenure.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology was quantitative and incorporated the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory‐II and LeaderMember Exchange Version 7 survey instruments.

Findings

There were significant findings with respect to quality of dyadic relationship and use of conflict management styles. The lower the dyadic relationship quality, the more moderating styles are introduced into the relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study were: participants were selected by the vice president of human resources for this international company and were limited to current US employees; the study was limited to one company, thereby limiting the ability to generalize study findings; and the study focused on correlational data, and made no attempt to address the cause and effect issues related to conflict, conflict management, leadermember exchange, or leadership.

Originality/value

The value of this study is its original contribution to the research literature, as no previous studies which incorporated both conflict management and leader‐follower relationship quality could be found during the exhaustive literature review.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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