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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1907

The danger attending the use of the insufficiently purified waters derived from the Thames and Lea should, we think, be constantly pressed upon the attention of the…

Abstract

The danger attending the use of the insufficiently purified waters derived from the Thames and Lea should, we think, be constantly pressed upon the attention of the Legislature and of the public. We regard it as a duty to endeavour to prevent the continued neglect of the warnings which have been put forward from time to time by those who have made a careful and unbiassed study of the subject, and which have recently been again uttered and emphasised by SIR A. BINNIE, the late Engineer of the London County Council. In the public interest it is greatly to be regretted that the system of analytical control, which was maintained by certain London Borough Councils with regard to the water supplied within the areas under their jurisdiction, has been discontinued. The local checks referred to were of the greatest value to the inhabitants of the districts concerned by affording timely warning when water of dangerous character was being supplied, thus enabling some protective measures to be taken. They also served the useful purposes of keeping public attention fixed upon the matter.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1900

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons…

Abstract

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons for the judgment have to be based upon first principles of common‐sense, occasionally aided, but more often complicated, by already existing laws, which apply more or less to the case under discussion. The weak point in this particular case is the law which has just come into force, in which cheese is defined as the substance “usually known as cheese” by the public and any others interested in cheese. This reliance upon the popular fancy reads almost like our Government's war policy and “the man in the street,” and is a shining example of a trustful belief in the average common‐sense. Unfortunately, the general public have no direct voice in a police court, and so the “usually known as cheese” phrase is translated according to the fancy and taste of the officials and defending solicitors who may happen to be concerned with any particular case. Not having the general public to consult, the officials in this case had a war of dictionaries which would have gladdened the heart of Dr. JOHNSON; and the outcome of much travail was the following definition: cheese is “ coagulated milk or curd pressed into a solid mass.” So far so good, but immediately a second definition question cropped up—namely, What is “milk?”—and it is at this point that the mistake occurred. There is no legal definition of new milk, but it has been decided, and is accepted without dispute, that the single word “milk” means an article of well‐recognised general properties, and which has a lower limit of composition below which it ceases to be correctly described by the one word “milk,” and has to be called “skim‐milk,” “separated milk,” “ milk and water,” or other distinguishing names. The lower limits of fat and solids‐not‐fat are recognised universally by reputable public analysts, but there has been no upper limit of fat fixed. Therefore, by the very definition quoted by the stipendiary, an article made from “skim‐milk” is not cheese, for “skim‐milk” is not “milk.” The argument that Stilton cheese is not cheese because there is too much fat would not hold, for there is no legal upper limit for fat; but if it did hold, it does not matter, for it can be, and is, sold as “Stilton” cheese, without any hardship to anyone. The last suggestion made by the stipendiary would, if carried out, afford some protection to the general public against their being cheated when they buy cheese. This suggestion is that the Board of Agriculture, who by the Act of 1899 have the legal power, should determine a lower limit of fat which can be present in cheese made from milk; but, as we have repeatedly pointed out, it is by the adoption of the Control system that such questions can alone be settled to the advantage of the producer of genuine articles and to that of the public.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Abstract

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Leading Educational Systems and Schools in Times of Disruption and Exponential Change: A Call for Courage, Commitment and Collaboration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-851-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1906

Further evidence was given on April 3 before the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed to inquire into questions relating to the butter trade.

Abstract

Further evidence was given on April 3 before the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed to inquire into questions relating to the butter trade.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Felicity Joslin, Lea Waters and Paul Dudgeon

This study aims to test the relationship between two measures of sociocultural adjustment (perceived acceptance and work standard) with work attitudes and behavior and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the relationship between two measures of sociocultural adjustment (perceived acceptance and work standard) with work attitudes and behavior and with psychological distress following an internal merger of two previously distinct working groups within the one business.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study, using a cross‐sectional design, was used to assess the reactions of 250 employees (host employees=170; relocated employees=80) who had undergone an internal merger within a communications company.

Findings

Perceived acceptance and work standards following the merger were significantly related to work attitudes and behavior for both the host and the relocated employees. There was no direct relationship between perceived acceptance and work standards with psychological distress. However, work attitudes and behavior were found to mediate the indirect effect of perceived acceptance and work standards on psychological distress.

Research limitations/implications

The findings must be considered within the limitations of the study which include the use of a cross‐sectional design and testing within one business setting.

Practical implications

The research suggests that ensuring that employees from both pre‐merger groups are assisted in feeling accepted in the new culture and that both groups are giving support and resources to maintain work standards are important factors in managing post‐merger integration.

Originality/value

The study is the first to empirically test Berry's concepts of sociocultural adjustment, neutrality and asymmetry within an internal business merger.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1901

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some…

Abstract

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some way, and, proceeding along the lines of least resistance, they appear to have selected the Public Analyst as the most suitable object for attack. The charge against this unfortunate official was not that he is incompetent, or that he had been in any way negligent of his duties as prescribed by Act of Parliament, but simply and solely that he has the temerity to reside in London, which city is distant by a certain number of miles from the much favoured district controlled by the County Council aforesaid. The committee were favoured in their deliberations by the assistance of no less an authority than the “Principal” of a local “Technical School”;—and who could be more capable than he to express an opinion upon so simple a matter? This eminent exponent of scientific truths, after due and proper consideration, is reported to have delivered himself of the opinion that “scientifically it would be desirable that the analyst should reside in the district, as the delay occasioned by the sending of samples of water to London is liable to produce a misleading effect upon an analysis.” Apparently appalled by the contemplation of such possibilities, and strengthened by another expression of opinion to the effect that there were as “good men” in the district as in London, the committee resolved to recommend the County Council to determine the existing arrangement with the Public Analyst, and to appoint a “local analyst for all purposes.” Thus, the only objection which could be urged to the employment of a Public Analyst resident in London was the ridiculous one that the composition of a sample of water was likely to seriously alter during the period of its transit to London, and this contention becomes still more absurd when it is remembered that the examination of water samples is no part of the official duty of a Public Analyst. The employment of local scientific talent may be very proper when the object to be attained is simply the more or less imperfect instruction of the rising generation in the rudiments of what passes in this country for “technical education”; but the work of the Public Analyst is serious and responsible, and cannot be lightly undertaken by every person who may be acquainted with some of the uses of a test‐tube. The worthy members of this committee may find to their cost, as other committees have found before them, that persons possessing the requisite knowledge and experience are not necessarily indigenous to their district. Supposing that the County Council adopts the recommendation, the aspirations of the committee may even then be strangled in their infancy, as the Local Government Board will want to know all about the matter, and the committee will have to give serious and valid reasons in support of their case.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

James A. Russo and Lea E. Waters

This study had three aims. First, to examine the validity of the workaholism triad as compared to the workaholism dyad. Second, to test the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study had three aims. First, to examine the validity of the workaholism triad as compared to the workaholism dyad. Second, to test the relationship between workaholism and work‐family conflict. Third, to explore the three‐way relationships between worker type, work‐family conflict (WFC) and supervisor support and flexible work schedules.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants consisted of 169 workers employed in the legal industry. The sample used was respondent‐driven and questionnaires were self‐administered. Workaholism was operationalised using two dimensions of the Spence and Robbins WorkBat: first, drive to work and second, work enjoyment, which produced four worker types (workaholics, enthusiastic workaholics, relaxed workers and uninvolved workers).

Findings

Support was found for McMillan et al.'s dyad conceptualisation of workaholism as opposed to Spence and Robbins' triad model. Specifically it was found that the work involvement subscale had low internal reliability and an unreliable factor structure. Results demonstrated that worker type was significantly related to WFC. Specifically, workaholics and enthusiastic workaholics experienced significantly more WFC than relaxed and uninvolved workers. Regarding the three‐way relationships, it was found that worker type moderated the relationship between schedule flexibility and WFC. Specifically, it was found that enthusiastic workaholics, in contrast to their workaholic counterparts, experienced declining WFC with access to flexible scheduling. Supervisor support was not significant.

Practical implications

The current study suggests that blanket policies, designed to promote work‐life balance, are unlikely to be effective for all employees. Indeed, it appears that although both workaholics and enthusiastic workaholics experience high levels of WFC, these two worker types may require different support mechanisms in order to achieve greater work‐life balance.

Originality/value

Despite their apparent conceptual linkage, the relationship between workaholism and work‐family conflict has not been explored in the literature to date. The current study contributes to the field of organisational behaviour both through proposing an additional dispositional antecedent to WFC (i.e. workaholism) and through uncovering an additional consequence of workaholic behaviour patterns (i.e. WFC).

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1904

It must be evident to those who read the reports of the legal cases which are published month after month in this journal, that the administration of the laws relating to…

Abstract

It must be evident to those who read the reports of the legal cases which are published month after month in this journal, that the administration of the laws relating to the sale of bad, adulterated, and impoverished food in this country is rapidly becoming chaotic. We labour under the radical defects in the Acts themselves, the negligence of many of the authorities whose duty it is to set the law in motion, the lassitude of Parliament, and the apparent impotence of Government Departments. Add to these the mournful incapacity so frequently exhibited by occupants of the magisterial or judicial bench, when called upon to adjudicate on matters involving scientific points—even when these are only decimal points—the quibbling of defending lawyers, and the remarkable allegations of certain types of reputed expert witnesses, and we have a picture which can only be considered as in the highest degree discreditable. We admit that the picture has its ludicrous aspect, but the issues involved are far too serious to justify laughter or negligence ad infinitum. The difficulties, due to the causes mentioned, which lie in the way of those who really desire to see the Acts effectively enforced, are daily becoming greater, and in the absence of early and drastic remedial measures, can only lead to chaos. We urge again, as we have repeatedly urged before, that immediate, vigorous, and comprehensive action should be taken by the Government Authorities concerned to give legal effect to the recommendations of their own Departmental Committees, and to meet the representations so frequently made by those who are called upon to set the law in motion. If the absence of effective, action is to be attributed to real and not merely to apparent impotence, the only method of securing ultimate reform is that education of public opinion which it is the main object of this journal to carry out. The people who, rightly enough, are disturbed about the physical deterioration of the nation, and who hope great things from yet another Departmental Committee's investigations and reports—probably, like others we could name, doomed to pigeon‐holes and sterility—have not yet appreciated that WATER AIR, and FOOD are the main determining factors in all questions of human deterioration. When the fact is grasped by a sufficient number of persons—possessing votes—it may be hoped that there will be an awakening, and that some legislator of Herculean power will arise to cleanse the Augean stable.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 6 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Gawaher Muthanna and M.S.M. Amin

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under various crops and soil types using GIS for data storage, analysis and visualization of results.

Design/methodology/approach

Bani Al‐Harith agricultural area in Sana'a basin, Yemen was chosen for the study. ArcView GIS was used to plan for suitable crops and estimate the irrigation water requirements based on the farmer's preference and soil types. Using the available soil maps, the soil characteristics such as salinity, texture and suitable crop types were overlaid to produce the crop blocks map. The water balance equation was used to produce the crop water requirement map considering the crop coefficient for different crop stages. The total water demand for each irrigation block was calculated by summing the three components, namely percolation loss through the soil, maximum evapotranspiration of the crop and leaching requirement (LR) to maintain an acceptable salinity level.

Findings

The case study is an example of using GIS as an effective tool in irrigation planning. GIS facilities to acquire, store, analyze and display spatial data were used to produce the soil class map, soil profile map, crop map and water requirement map. The profile ECe values for the chosen crops is within the crop salinity tolerance for 100 percent yield except for blocks 4 and 5 where grape and coffee respectively are suggested to be grown. The profile ECe values are 18.37 dS/m in block 4 and 3.27 to 7.88 dS/m in block 5. The tolerance threshold of 100 percent yield for grape is 1.5 dS/m and for coffee is 3 to 6 dS/m. The salinity of the irrigation water was 2.08 dS/m. From the crop blocks map, the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of onion for block 1 is 1.2 dS/m, tomato for block 2 is 2.5 dS/m, alfalfa for block 3 is 2 dS/m, grape for block 4 is 1.5/ dS/m, and the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of coffee for block 5 is 5 dS/m. Leaching requirements were obtained by taking ECw value of 2.08 and ECe of 1.2, 2.5, 2, 1.5 and 5 for onion, tomato, alfalfa, grape and coffee respectively. The peak total water requirement occurred in May and was found to be 5,595 m3/ha, or 560 mm. The design irrigation water requirement for every block is shown in a map for easy visualization and manipulation to produce the best combination of soils, crops and water use.

Research limitations/implications

This method of determining the total irrigation water requirement is dependent on the selected irrigation system and crops whether shallow‐rooted, deep‐rooted or tree crops. The use of water in agriculture should be judicious, precise and sustainable. Application of GIS can be a useful tool in irrigation management since it provides rapid access to underlying information of crop suitability. The designer can try out various combinations of crops, to suit the soils and available water.

Practical implications

This methodology is useful for training irrigation engineers and water resource planners on the use of GIS technique to plan irrigation projects in arid areas.

Originality/value

This technique has never been applied to the study area.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Masooma Jaffer

In BCCI v Ali, the court was faced with the question whether an employer is under a duty to disclose breaches of contract where they may give rise to risks to the…

Abstract

In BCCI v Ali, the court was faced with the question whether an employer is under a duty to disclose breaches of contract where they may give rise to risks to the physical, financial and psychological welfare of the employee.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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