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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Mehmet Burak Şenol

Real flight is cognitively demanding; accordingly, both indicators and display panel layout should be user-friendly to improve pilot-aircraft interaction. Poor…

Abstract

Purpose

Real flight is cognitively demanding; accordingly, both indicators and display panel layout should be user-friendly to improve pilot-aircraft interaction. Poor pilot-interface interactions in aircrafts could result in accidents. Although a general reason of accidents is improper displays, relatively few studies were conducted on interfaces. This study aims to present an optimization model to create intuitively integrated user-friendly cockpit interfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjectivity within most usability evaluation techniques could bring about interface design problems. A priori information about indicator’s possible locations may be available or unavailable. Thus different analytical approaches must be applied for modifications and new interface designs. Relative layout design (RLD) model was developed and used in new interface designs to optimize locations of indicators. This model was based on layout optimization and constructed in accordance with design requirements, ergonomic considerations with the pilot preferences. RLD model optimizes interface design by deploying indicators to the best locations to improve usability of display panel, pilot-aircraft interaction and flight safety.

Findings

Optimum interfaces for two problem instances were gathered by RLD model in 15.77 CPU(s) with 10 indicators and 542.51 CPU(s) with 19 indicators. A comparison between relative and existing cockpit interfaces reveals that locations of six navigation and four mechanical system indicators are different. The differences may stem from pilots’ preferences and relativity constraints. Both interfaces are more similar for the central part of the display panel. The objective function value of relative interface design (Opt: 527938) is far better than existing interface (737100). The RLD model improved usability of existing interface (28.61 per cent considering decrease in the objective function values from 737100 to 527938.

Practical implications

Future cockpit and new helicopter interface designs may involve RLD model as an alternative interface design tool. Furthermore, other layout optimization problems, e.g. circuit boards, microchips and engines, etc. could be handled in a more realistic manner by RLD model.

Originality/value

Originality and impact of this study related to development and employment of a new optimization model (RLD) on cockpit interface design for the first time. Engineering requirements, human factors, ergonomics and pilots’ preferences are simultaneously considered in the RLD model. The subjectivity within usability evaluation techniques could be diminished in this way. The contributions of RLD model to classical facility layout models are relativity constraints with the physical constrictions and ergonomic objective function weights. Novelty of this paper is the development and employment of a new optimization model (RLD) to locate indicators.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Roohie Kaushik, Jasdeep Kaur and Anushree

Reference voltage or current generators are an important requirement for an analog or digital circuit design. Bandgap reference circuits (BGR) are most common way of…

Abstract

Purpose

Reference voltage or current generators are an important requirement for an analog or digital circuit design. Bandgap reference circuits (BGR) are most common way of generating the reference voltage. This paper aims to provide a detailed insight of design of a folded cascode operational amplifier (FC op amp) and a BGR circuit. The complete study flow from design to layout of the circuits on 180 nm semiconductor laboratory (SCL) process leading to bonding diagram for possible tape-out is discussed. This study work has been supported by MeitY, Govt. of India, through Special Manpower Development Project Chip to System Design.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a detailed insight in design of a FC op amp and a BGR circuit. The complete study flow from design to layout of the two circuits on 180 nm SCL process leading to bonding diagram for possible tape-out is discussed. Section 2 shows the design of FC op amp, beta-multiplier circuit and their simulation results. Section 3 describes the comparison of design of conventional BGR and the proposed BGR with other state-of-art BGR circuits. Section 4 gives the comparison of their performance. The conclusion is given in Section 5.

Findings

The post-layout simulation of FC op amp show an open-loop gain of 64.5 dB, 3-dB frequency of 5.5 KHz, unity-gain bandwidth of 8.7 MHz, slew rate of 8.4 V/µs, CMRR of 111 dB and power of 25.5µW. Among the two BGR designs, the conventional BGR generated 693 mV of reference voltage with a temperature coefficient of 16 ppm/°C the other BGR, with curvature correction generated 1.3 V of reference voltage with a temperate coefficient of 6.3 ppm/°C , both results in temperature ranging from −40°C to 125°C. The chip layout of the circuits designed on 180 nm SCL process ensures design rule check (DRC), Antenna and layout versus schematic (LVS) clean with metal fill.

Research limitations/implications

Slew rate, stability analysis, power are important parameters which should be taken care while designing an op amp for a BGR. Direct current gain should be kept higher to reduce offset errors. Input common mode range is decided by the operating temperature range. A higher power supply rejection ratio will reduce BGR sensitivity to supply voltage variations. Input offset should be kept low to reduce BGR error in reference voltage. However, this paper emphasis on the flow from schematic to layout using simulation tools. As part of the study, the bonding diagram for tape-out of BGR and FC design in the given SCL frame size with seal ring is also explored, for possible tape-out.

Practical implications

Reference voltage or current generators are an important requirement for an analog or digital circuit design. BGR are most common way of generating the reference voltage. This paper provides a detailed insight in design of a FC op amp and a BGR circuit. The complete study flow from design to layout of the circuits on 180 nm SCL process leading to bonding diagram for possible tape-out is discussed. The chip layout of the circuits was designed on 180 nm SCL process ensuring DRC, antenna and LVS clean with metal fill using Cadence virtuoso and Mentor Graphics Calibre simulation tools.

Social implications

BGR are most common way of generating the reference voltage. This paper gives a detailed insight of a BGR design using a folded-cascode operational amplifier. The FC op amp is biased using a beta multiplier circuit and high-swing cascode current mirror circuit. The paper discuss FC circuit design flow from schematic to layout.

Originality/value

FC op amp is biased using a beta multiplier circuit and high-swing cascode current mirror. The paper discusses FC design flow from schematic to layout. The circuits were designed on 180 nm SCL technology with 1.8 V of power supply. The post-layout simulation show an open-loop gain of 64.5 dB, 3 dB frequency of 5.5 KHz, unity-gain bandwidth of 8.7 MHz, slew rate of 8.4 V/µs, CMRR of 111 dB and power of 25.5 µW. BGR were designed using FC op amp. The proposed BGR generated 1.3 V of reference voltage with a temperature coefficient of 6.3 ppm/°C in the range from −40°C to 125°C in schematic simulation.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Mahbub Rashid

– This paper aims to present an integrative review of the research studies on nursing unit layouts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an integrative review of the research studies on nursing unit layouts.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies selected for review were published between 1956 and 2014. For the purpose of this review, a framework for integrative review was developed using research orientations. The three primary dimensions – technical, psychological and social – of the designed environment and various combinations of these dimensions were used to define the research orientations of these studies.

Findings

Of all the publications reviewed for the paper, 21 presented technical orientations, 16 psychological orientations, 3 social orientations, 20 psychotechnical orientations, 10 sociotechnical orientations, 2 psychosocial orientations and 13 presented psychosociotechnical orientations. With only a few exceptions, several issues related to nursing unit layouts were investigated no more than one time in any one category of research orientations. Several other seemingly important issues including patient and family behavior and perception, health outcomes and social and psychosocial factors in relation to unit layouts have not been studied adequately.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies on nursing unit layouts will need to focus on patient and family behavior and perception, health outcomes and social and psychosocial factors in different units. They will also need to focus on developing theories concerning the effects of layouts on the technical, psychological and social dimensions of nursing units.

Originality/value

Despite a long history of research on nursing unit layouts, an integrative review of these studies is still missing in the literature. This review fills in the gap using a novel framework for integrative review developed based on research orientations.

Details

Facilities, vol. 33 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

B. Gopalakrishnan, Li Weng and D.P. Gupta

A plant layout in the context of manufacturing facilities design consists of the production areas, manufacturing support areas and personnel areas. In facilities design

Abstract

A plant layout in the context of manufacturing facilities design consists of the production areas, manufacturing support areas and personnel areas. In facilities design, plant layout has been determined to be one of the most important elements in the effectiveness of systematic manufacturing operability. This paper describes the development of a split departmental plant layout generation system (LAYSPLIT) in the domain of facilities design to develop layouts that will minimize the material handling costs. The plant layout generation system consists of a data acquisition module, a pair‐wise departmental exchange module, a layout development module, and a graphical representation module. The approach used to develop the system using a split departmental method, and the characteristics of the system are outlined. The advantages of the developed system in terms of facilitating effective operations and increasing productivity in manufacturing environments are discussed. The results obtained from LAYSPLIT are compared with that produced by the MCRAFT system and discussed.

Details

Facilities, vol. 21 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2018

Ioannis Krasonikolakis, Adam Vrechopoulos, Athanasia Pouloudi and Sergios Dimitriadis

Positioned in the e-retailing field, this study aims to investigate the effect of the retail store’s atmosphere on consumer behavior in 3D online shopping environments…

Abstract

Purpose

Positioned in the e-retailing field, this study aims to investigate the effect of the retail store’s atmosphere on consumer behavior in 3D online shopping environments, focusing on store layout as a critical influential factor.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a mixed research method approach that includes two complementary studies. First, a three-round Delphi study with domain experts is used to develop a store layout classification scheme (Study 1), resulting in five distinct types of store layout. Subsequently, 3D online retail stores that use the five layouts are designed and developed. These serve as treatments of a laboratory experimental design, which is used to assess layout impact on a number of attitudinal and behavioral variables (Study 2).

Findings

Five distinct types of store layout have been identified in Study 1, and their distinctive features are presented. The findings of Study 2 indicate that online shopping enjoyment, entertainment and ease of navigation are influenced by the store layout types of 3D online environments. Specifically, the “avant-garde” layout type facilitates the ease of navigation of customers in the store and provides a superior online customer experience. The “warehouse”’ adopts long aisles for the display of products, which simplifies the comparison of products, whereas the “boutique” layout was found to be the best in terms of shopping enjoyment and entertainment. The “department” layout shares many common characteristics with traditional department stores, providing an entertaining and enjoyable store, whereas the “pragmatic” layout emphasizes low system requirements.

Practical implications

The paper presents characteristics that make store layouts effective for different aspects of online customers’ experience and identifies opportunities that 3D online store designers and retailers can explore for the provision of enhanced, customized services to online customers.

Originality/value

This paper examines recent technological developments in store design and visual merchandising. It identifies five layout types of 3D online stores, which are different from those of brick–and–mortar and 2D online stores, and investigates their impact on consumer behavior. Further, the paper examines how each layout type influences online shopping enjoyment, entertainment, ease of navigation, online customer experience and, in turn, purchase and word-of-mouth intentions. Finally, the paper examines the moderating role of telepresence. Individuals with high sense of telepresence conceive 3D environments as “real” and are more concerned about the attributes that trigger the sense of enjoyment they experience while browsing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

B. Gopalakrishnan, R. Turuvekere and D.P. Gupta

Computer‐based models for the automatic generation of facility layouts have been shown to provide significant benefits to the industrial community for the planning and…

Abstract

Computer‐based models for the automatic generation of facility layouts have been shown to provide significant benefits to the industrial community for the planning and development of facilities. In a manufacturing environment, layouts are often needed for the manufacture, storage and shipment of specific product types within specific time periods. This is especially true in metal fabrication plants, as the dynamic nature of product storage and manufacture dictates the need for effective layout generation to achieve cost reductions. The system described in this paper integrates raw material storage, inventory management, scheduling and rack system design with facility layout development for the most satisfactory dynamic response. The research addressed in this paper has resulted in the development of a computer‐based model that focuses on the concept of integrating the domains of plant layout, material handling and warehousing in terms of raising overall effectiveness.

Details

Facilities, vol. 22 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Adam Vrechopoulos and Evagelos Atherinos

Elaborating on earlier research by Vrechopoulos et al., this paper aims to investigate web banking store layout effects on user‐consumer behaviour and to report on a…

Abstract

Purpose

Elaborating on earlier research by Vrechopoulos et al., this paper aims to investigate web banking store layout effects on user‐consumer behaviour and to report on a laboratory experimental investigation into user acceptance of three different layout types.

Design/methodology/approach

A web banking store was developed in three versions equal to the number of the alternative layouts manipulated by the laboratory experimental design. Two layout types were transformed from conventional banking and one type was designed by incorporating users' preferences and suggestions. The relationships in technology acceptance model (TAM) in the three treatments are tested separately, and then the subjects' evaluations on TAM constructs are compared.

Findings

The findings imply that store layout affects online consumer behaviour, confirming the findings of Vrechopoulos et al. in a different sector. The study also confirms the TAM relationships in all treatments and indicates that layout has an effect on user acceptance of web banking in terms of TAM constructs.

Research limitations/implications

This study confirms the available knowledge regarding a store layout's influencing role on consumer behaviour in the context of web commerce.

Practical implications

Direct managerial implications for web banking are provided through the design of the “improved future” layout, which is depicted in the form of an abstract interface design.

Originality/value

The paper adopts an innovative conclusive causal research design towards testing the research hypotheses. To that end, an experimental application was developed in the laboratory and the research hypotheses were “packed‐up” with references from different disciplines (i.e. marketing and information systems) providing through that an interdisciplinary nature on the present study.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Mohsen and Hassan

This paper presents a framework for the design of warehouse layout to organize the design process, facilitate the task of designers, and highlight important design issues…

Abstract

This paper presents a framework for the design of warehouse layout to organize the design process, facilitate the task of designers, and highlight important design issues to help warehouse managers make informed decisions. The framework accounts for several factors and operations of warehousing in the design, and addresses design decisions required to respond to them. It attempts to develop a layout that has several characteristics such as modularity, adaptability, compactness, accessibility, flexibility, and distribution of movement to enable it to respond to changing conditions, improve space utilization, and reduce congestion and movement.

Details

Facilities, vol. 20 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Yi‐Shou Wang, Hong‐Fei Teng and Yan‐Jun Shi

The purpose of this paper is to tackle a satellite module layout design problem (SMLDP). As a complex engineering layout and combinatorial optimization problem, SMLDP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to tackle a satellite module layout design problem (SMLDP). As a complex engineering layout and combinatorial optimization problem, SMLDP cannot be solved effectively by traditional exact methods. Although evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have shown some promise of tackling SMLDP in previous work, the solution quality and computational efficiency still pose a challenge. This paper aims to address these two issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Scatter search (SS) and a cooperative co‐evolutionary architecture are integrated to form a new approach called a cooperative co‐evolutionary scatter search (CCSS). The cooperative co‐evolutionary architecture is characterized by the decomposition and cooperation for dealing with complex engineering problems. SS is a flexible meta‐heuristic method that can effectively solve the combinatorial optimization problems. Designing the elements of SS is context‐dependent. Considering the characteristics of SMLDP, our work focuses on two folds: the diversification method, and the reference set update method. The diversification method is built on the method of coordinate transformation and the controlled randomness. The reference set is updated by the static method on the basis of two dissimilarities. Two test problems for circles packing illustrated the capacity of SS. However, when solving SMLDP, SS shows some limitations in the computational time and quality. This study adopts divide‐conquer‐coordination strategy to decompose SMLDP into several layout sub‐problems. Then CCSS is applied to cooperatively solve these sub‐problems. The experimental results illustrate the capability of the proposed approach in tackling the complex problem with less computational effort.

Findings

Applying CCSS to SMLDP can obtain satisfying solutions in terms of quality and computational efficiency. This contrasts with the limiting experimental results of SMLDP with some approaches (including modified SS).

Originality/value

A new CCSS is proposed to provide an effective and efficient way of solving SMLDP. Some elements of SS are improved to address the layout problem. SMLDP is decomposed into several sub‐problems that can be solved cooperatively by CCSS after its characteristics are taken into consideration.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Kusal Tharinda Nanayakkara, Sara Jane Wilkinson and Sumita Ghosh

Office layout arrangements have a significant influence on many important aspects of organisations, and design firms need to liaise with the client to determine the most…

Abstract

Purpose

Office layout arrangements have a significant influence on many important aspects of organisations, and design firms need to liaise with the client to determine the most appropriate design process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors design firms consider when designing new office layouts and the nature of future offices from the design and workplace strategist firms’ perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study comprising interviews with leading international and nation design firms and workplace strategy consultant firms in Australia. Qualitative data was analysed using a thematic approach, which adopted within case, and across case, analyses.

Findings

Research identified major factors considered when identifying appropriate workplace strategies. These included the existing and preferred culture of the organisation, the level of flexibility required, functionality and technology requirements, acoustic strategies, sense of community and generation gap between employees. Participants believed future offices would be technology driven, community oriented, sustainability, health and well-being focussed, smaller in size with satellite offices, such as co-working and office spaces.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for industry and academics, as it provides an in-depth understanding of workplace specialists’ and design firms’ perceptions of clients’ contemporary and future requirements from office spaces. It also illustrates what they look at when designing office spaces for large corporates.

Practical implications

Research demonstrates how the office environment should match with the physical and psychological needs of the organisation and its employees. Findings have practical applications to professionals in human resource management and the design, management, development and valuation of office buildings.

Originality/value

This paper provides in-depth insights into how design firms and workplace strategists meet organisations’ changing demand for physical spaces, their main considerations in developing new workplace strategies, process followed and nature of future workplace in Australian context.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate , vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

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