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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Mona A. Abdelwahab

The purpose of this paper is to explore the “event” of the construction of Naguib Mahfouz Square. Drawing on the memory of Gamaet-Aldowel-AlArabyia Street, it attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the “event” of the construction of Naguib Mahfouz Square. Drawing on the memory of Gamaet-Aldowel-AlArabyia Street, it attempts to uncover the socio-cultural structures inherited in the Egyptian urban street.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts Foucauldian discourse on institutions of “knowledge and authority” to approach the power relations between the actors involved. This discourse was constructed through in-depth, unstructured interviews with architects and involved government personnel as well as other archival resources that included national newspapers and magazines.

Findings

This discourse reflected an institutional controversy between these actors over the perception and design of the Egyptian street, highlighting the alienation of the designer, and the user/lay-people, from the urban institution. Naguib Mahfouz Square presented a considerable deviation from the established norms of street design in Egypt at that time through its commemoration of a contemporary figure in literature, the architect’s involvement in the design process and the unfencing of urban space. This event thus questions the perception of the urban street beyond our socio-cultural inheritance, and towards street design as a performative urban act that embraces the everyday activities of lay-people in the street.

Originality/value

The paper utilises Foucauldian discourse on power to approach a case study of an urban event and space in Egypt, which has not previously been investigated thoroughly. It thus holds potential towards the resolution of inherited conflict between the urban street and the urban institution.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

ALAN SMITHSON

This paper has five objectives. First, to draw attention to serious weaknesses in Kaminsky's analysis of the South Australian “Freedom and Authority” memorandum. Second…

Abstract

This paper has five objectives. First, to draw attention to serious weaknesses in Kaminsky's analysis of the South Australian “Freedom and Authority” memorandum. Second, to sketch out how Kaminsky could have presented a more realistic picture of A.W. Jones's position both with regard to the memo, and school governance in general. Third, to show that had Kaminsky pursued this suggested line of analysis he would have found that Jones confused ends‐type policy‐making with technico‐professional decision‐making, which led Jones into error concerning the respective roles of lay people and professionals in educational policy‐making. Fourth, to illustrate how Jones's radical indictment of the lack of “democracy” in Australian schools in the mid 1970s was conjoined with conservative and technocratic decisional proposals. Finally, to suggest that the issues raised in my criticism of Kaminsky and Jones are of crucial importance to all those interested in school governance.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2014

Kathy Livingston, Kathleen M. Sutherland and Lauren M. Sardi

The purpose of this research is to investigate how parents and caregivers describe their concerns about the HPV vaccine for their children on open Internet websites. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate how parents and caregivers describe their concerns about the HPV vaccine for their children on open Internet websites. The study examines what the discourse among parents reveals about their concerns regarding the HPV vaccine.

Methodology/approach

Our exploratory study utilized a grounded theory approach as a method of collecting data and simultaneously formulating research questions based on emerging themes from the data. We used purposeful sampling to select sets of comments posted on websites that provided news, scientific information, or parental support regarding HPV and its vaccine.

Findings

Findings suggest support for Bond and Nolan’s (2011) theory that familiarity with a disease is central to parents’ assessment of risk, and that dread of a serious disease such as cervical cancer is weaker than dread of unknown possible side effects in parents’ motivation to give or withhold the vaccine for their children.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations include our usage of a purposeful convenience sample of websites. The limitation of this sampling technique is that the comments made by website “users” and used in the analysis may not be representative of the wider population, and may include Americans as well as non-Americans.

Originality/value of chapter

Our research fills an important gap in the literature by looking at the ways in which parents share their concerns about the HPV vaccine on Internet websites as they consider whether to reject, delay, or consent to the vaccine.

Details

Technology, Communication, Disparities and Government Options in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-645-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2011

Adrian Furnham, Richard Cook, Neil Martin and Mark Batey

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mental health literacy of students. This study is part of the growing interest in mental health literacy among young people.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mental health literacy of students. This study is part of the growing interest in mental health literacy among young people.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 400 university students indicated their knowledge of over 90 psychiatric illnesses labels derived from DSM:IV. They rated disorders on six questions concerning whether they had heard of the disorder; knew anybody with it; could define or describe it; knew what causes it; whether those with it can be cured; and whether it is common.

Findings

On average, participants had heard of just over one‐third of the various illnesses. Those who rated the conditions as more common deemed them to have more known causes and to be more curable. Emotionally intelligent, open‐to‐experience females who had studied relevant academic subjects claimed to be better informed. The participant's age and personality, as well as whether they had studied clinical psychology, related to their awareness.

Research limitations/implications

The paper favours recognition of mental disorders over an attempt to understand how well young people understand mental illness.

Originality/value

No study has attempted this methodology in the study of mental health literacy.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

H. James Harrington

Through the use of total quality management programmes, the industrialised western economies have made great strides in improving quality, reducing waste and increasing…

1130

Abstract

Through the use of total quality management programmes, the industrialised western economies have made great strides in improving quality, reducing waste and increasing productivity. It was our hope that these improvements would recapture our market share, recreating the jobs we lost in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Unfortunately, in many companies, growth in market share has not kept pace with improved productivity. As a result their surplus employee problem continues to grow. This paper discusses how to deal with this situation without massive layoffs.

Details

The TQM Magazine, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

António Martins

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a decision of restructuring and firing people in a Portuguese company was based on financial data, and how the interpretation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a decision of restructuring and firing people in a Portuguese company was based on financial data, and how the interpretation of such data made the process quite complex. This complexity was particularly relevant in the litigation that followed. At the core of the restructuring decision was the evolution of the firm's operating income; and a central point in litigation was precisely what should be considered the operating income of the company under analysis, and how it could influence the case's court outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2008 a Portuguese company fired people in its finance department. The main reason presented by the management to the laid off persons was the evolution of the firm's operating income, which was negative for several consecutive years. The paper, after a background analysis of restructuring decisions and financial performance, will focus on this case and the correspondent issues, that are mainly related to the concept of operating income, the style of communication between managers and affected employees, and court procedures. It will also compare the Portuguese accounting regime in 2008, with the present one, introduced in 2010 and based on IFRS, as far as the nature of operating income is concerned.

Findings

The main conclusion is that standards of accounting and financial reporting can have an important role in justifying restructurings and lay off decisions, and are quite complex to discuss in court cases related to labor laws. Also, changes in accounting systems can have a significant impact in measures of economic performance, opening a wide field of interpretation and legal uncertainty about case outcomes. Judges must have the capacity to navigate through such intricate questions, and see financial information numbers in the light of a company's true economic function.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the problems that can arise when financial data are the basis for layoffs. Given the nature of accounting conventions, if litigation follows, a significant degree of complexity can be brought to the legal process. Also, managers must state, in very clear terms, reasons for restructuring, and, when they stress financial performance, related indicators must have an objective nature.

Originality/value

The paper has value for managers engaged in restructuring processes and also for the legal professions, as far as the relation between layoffs and financial performance based on accounting data is concerned.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Lachelle Norris

Industry in rural, agriculturally based Northwest Tennessee has traditionally been apparel, textile, and footwear. In recent years, globalization has resulted in area…

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Abstract

Industry in rural, agriculturally based Northwest Tennessee has traditionally been apparel, textile, and footwear. In recent years, globalization has resulted in area plant closings, plant relocations and layoffs throughout the region. This paper examines the impact on former employees interviewed four years after a major plant closing in Obion County. This study presents the case study of the Brown Shoe Company that opened in 1923 and closed in 1994. The findings from this exploratory study suggest that the impacts of plant closures in the footwear industry are similar to other textile and garment factory closings. As in previous studies, workers were concerned with financial and health benefits issues and experienced emotional trauma. Dislocated workers were predominately female, and high poverty rates for families and female heads of households still exist almost eight years after the closing. Longitudinal research is suggested to further inform policy and governmental action in the wake of further plant closings, especially as such economic restructuring affects women and communities in rural southern areas of the USA.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Kevin F. Hallock

This paper uses data on over 4,600 layoff announcements in the U.S., covering each firm that ever existed in the Fortune 500 between 1970 and 2000, along with 40…

Abstract

This paper uses data on over 4,600 layoff announcements in the U.S., covering each firm that ever existed in the Fortune 500 between 1970 and 2000, along with 40 interviews of senior managers in 2001 and 2002 to describe layoffs in large U.S. firms over this period. In order to motivate further work in the area, I investigate six main issues related to layoffs: timing of layoffs, reasons for layoffs, the actual execution of layoffs, international workers, labor unions, and the types of workers by occupation and compensation categories. The paper draws on literature from many fields to help further understand these issues.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-426-3

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Gene Smith

The attached paper describes the keys to success for Southwest Airlines, including its approach to quality management. Southwest did not implement a formalized “quality…

15334

Abstract

The attached paper describes the keys to success for Southwest Airlines, including its approach to quality management. Southwest did not implement a formalized “quality management program.” Numerous companies in the USA have implemented formalized “quality management programs” and they failed because they were “programs of the month.” Implementing “quality” throughout a company is not the result of a formalized program but requires a cultural change in the way daily activities are conducted. The requirement of “doing it right the first time” must be integrated into the daily activities or culture of the company. The chairman of the board and president of a company must establish the tone for quality in not only what they communicate but also in their daily actions. Quality must be ingrained in the overall business model and strategies of a company. Southwest is very effective in integrating the importance of quality in its overall business model, strategic plan and its daily operational activities. Southwest did not engage outside consultants to develop a “quality program” but its style, culture and emphasis on quality were implemented in Southwest’s daily activities by Herb Kelleher, Chairman of the Board, and his management team.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Saskia Ryan, Nicole Sherretts, Dominic Willmott, Dara Mojtahedi and Benjamin M. Baughman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of response bias and target gender on detecting deception.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of response bias and target gender on detecting deception.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: a stereotype condition (bogus training group), a tell-signs condition (empirically tested cues), and a control condition. Participants were required to decide whether eight targets were lying or telling the truth, based upon the information they had been given. Accuracy was measured via a correct or incorrect response to the stimuli. The data were then analyzed using a 2×2×3 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether any main or interactional effects were present.

Findings

Results revealed training condition had no significant effect on accuracy, nor was there a within-subject effect of gender. However, there was a significant main effect of accuracy in detecting truth or lies, and a significant interaction between target gender and detecting truth or lies.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should seek a larger sample of participants with a more extensive training aspect developed into the study, as the brief training offered here may not be fully reflective of the extent and intensity of training which could be offered to professionals.

Originality/value

Within the criminal justice system, the need for increased accuracy in detecting deception is of critical importance; not only to detect whether a guilty individual is being deceitful, but also whether someone is making a false confession, both to improve community safety by detaining the correct perpetrator for the crime but also to maintain public trust in the justice system. The present research provides a fresh insight into the importance of training effects in detecting deception.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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