Research conducted in the early 1990s in Hungary indicated a lack of knowledgeable and influential personal sources in the cosmetics product category. The purpose of this…
Research conducted in the early 1990s in Hungary indicated a lack of knowledgeable and influential personal sources in the cosmetics product category. The purpose of this article is to examine women cosmetics opinion leaders in Hungary approximately ten years into the country’s transition to a market economy. Because of the evolution of the cosmetics market over the past decade and Hungarian women’s increased involvement with cosmetics, we expected to see the emergence of opinion leadership in the product category. Survey data from 340 Hungarian women indicate that the incidence of cosmetics opinion leadership and self‐reported product knowledge is lower than what we might expect in more established market economies. Nonetheless, we found the relationships between cosmetics opinion leadership in Hungary and antecedent and consequent variables are similar to what we would expect in more established market economies. We discuss the implications of these results for marketing managers.
As Hungary makes the transition from a centrally‐planned to amarket‐based economy, its consumer markets are changing rapidly, with adeluge of new brands and products, new…
As Hungary makes the transition from a centrally‐planned to a market‐based economy, its consumer markets are changing rapidly, with a deluge of new brands and products, new stores, variation in prices and the demise of old, familiar brands and stores. Reports on Hungarian consumers′ perceptions of their marketplace and their responses to changes in these markets based on research conducted from autumn 1989 to autumn 1992. Includes personal interviews, observation, focus groups and a survey of 300 female heads of households.
The main objective of customer satisfaction programs is to increase customer retention rates. In explaining the link between customer satisfaction and loyalty, switching…
The main objective of customer satisfaction programs is to increase customer retention rates. In explaining the link between customer satisfaction and loyalty, switching costs play an important role and provide useful insight. For example, the presence of switching costs can mean that some seemingly loyal customers are actually dissatisfied but do not defect because of high switching costs. Thus, the level of switching costs moderates the link between satisfaction and loyalty. The purposes of this paper are: to examine the moderating role of switching costs in the customer satisfaction‐loyalty link; and to identify customer segments and then analyze the heterogeneity in the satisfaction‐loyalty link among the different segments. An empirical example based on the mobile phone service market in France indicates support for the moderating role of switching costs. Managerial implications of the results are discussed.
Product enthusiasts, increasingly prevalent in American society, represent significant marketplace forces because of their high levels of information seeking, opinion…
Product enthusiasts, increasingly prevalent in American society, represent significant marketplace forces because of their high levels of information seeking, opinion leadership, and innovativeness. For marketers to best serve these consumers, many commonly used marketing strategies must be altered or adapted. In this article, marketing mix elements serve as a framework to discuss strategic issues relevant to this category of consumer.
This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences…
This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences among these studies that have produced conflicting results. The findings provide a benchmark for future researchers and practitioners seeking to gain insight into consumer information search processes unfolding in the new environment of online, mobile, and social networking channels.
A meta-analysis of an extensive array of empirical studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external information search was conducted. Regression analysis was used to test whether certain characteristics in the studies can explain variability in the effect sizes in which effect sizes are entered as dependent variables and moderators as independent variables.
Objective and subjective knowledge tend to increase search, while direct experience tends to reduce search. Consumers with higher objective knowledge search more when pursuing credence products. However, they search relatively less when pursuing search products. Consumers with higher subjective knowledge are much more likely to search in the context of experience products, but as is the case for objective knowledge having little effect on search for experience products, subjective knowledge has no significant effect on information seeking for search products. In addition, objective knowledge facilitates more information search in a complex decision-making context while higher subjective knowledge fosters more external information search in a simple decision-marketing context. Finally, the findings indicate that the knowledge search relationship reflects strong linkage in the pre-Internet era.
Relatively little is known about how the relationship between knowledge and information search varies across different types of products in simple or complex decision-making contexts. This study begins to fill this gap by providing insight into the relative importance of objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, and direct experience in influencing consumer information search activities for search, experience, and credence products in simple or complex decision-making contexts.
Employing the conceptual framework of play themes, this study examined and reported the product categories that presented branded entertainment the most, the different…
Employing the conceptual framework of play themes, this study examined and reported the product categories that presented branded entertainment the most, the different types and features of branded entertainment, and how various play themes were incorporated in branded entertainment in the context of Facebook brand profile pages. The major findings were consistent with the conceptual framework and literature on branded entertainment. Some unexpected findings were also provided and discussed. The line between entertainment and marketing communication has become increasingly blended or even erased during recent years, particularly in the Internet context. Researchers and practitioners are highly interested in the marketing potential of branded entertainment since it may boost brand awareness and build strong consumer‐brand relationships. Little academic research to date has been conducted to systematically study branded entertainment on the Internet. This study is a nascent attempt to understand branded entertainment in user‐centered social networking websites (SNWs), since young users are shifting away from other online media to SNWs. Branded entertainment may help marketers gather segmented yet fun‐seeking SNW users and deliver nonintrusive marketing messages to them.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether or not mavens’ dissemination activities are likely to promote or hinder retailers’ store brand premiumisation attempts…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether or not mavens’ dissemination activities are likely to promote or hinder retailers’ store brand premiumisation attempts, by revealing the relationship between mavens’ price and non-price on-pack extrinsic cue search and their store brand purchasing behaviours.
The paper adopts a hypothetic-deductive approach and develops a model of mavens’ store brand purchasing behaviour. The model is tested using SEM on a US data set containing 457 respondents. A full discussion of the direct, indirect and total effects is provided.
Mavens’ store brand purchasing behaviours are strongly linked to their price search activities and negatively related to their use of non-price on-pack extrinsic cues. This indicates that their dissemination activities are likely to stress lower prices and hence price competition rather than promote other cues used to infer quality. Thus, mavens are likely to inhibit retailers’ store brand premiumisation attempts. Mavens’ investments in time engaged in search activities are strongly linked to social returns rather than private financial savings.
The work is based on data collected using an online survey in one region of the USA where store brands are not as prevalent in other countries such as the UK.
The investigation of non-price on-pack extrinsic cues reduces mavens’ store brand purchasing behaviours while the use of price cues increases them. This suggests that even with mavens’ market expertise that a non-price extrinsic cue deficit continues to exist for these products. Consequently, retailers need to re-examine and rework the cues contained on pack to convey more positive consumption-related information if mavens are to become store brand advocates.
Rather than conceptualising the maven as possessing market wide knowledge, this research adopts a domain specific perspective arguing that price mavenism can be distinguished from product-related mavenism with consequences for the set of extrinsic cues used as part of the maven’s search process. In doing so, it reveals the conflicting effects that these maven dimensions have on purchasing behaviours and the likely effects on mavens’ dissemination activities.
The purpose of this research is to investigate four factors (fan identity salience, satisfaction, attachment, and enduring involvement) to assess their ability to…
The purpose of this research is to investigate four factors (fan identity salience, satisfaction, attachment, and enduring involvement) to assess their ability to differentiate among three types of fans (frequent, moderately frequent, and infrequent attendees). A convenience sample of college fans of a university woman's basketball team is used. The results suggest both identity salience and enduring involvement may be useful as segmentation variables for sports marketers
To show that Chinese consumers are constantly redefining and revaluing goods along the axes of the real and the false, with little regard for legal definitions of brand…
To show that Chinese consumers are constantly redefining and revaluing goods along the axes of the real and the false, with little regard for legal definitions of brand authenticity or “fakeness.”
The data was collected through interviews, focus groups, observations, and casual conversations over 16 months of ethnographic research in Beijing, China.
In their everyday consumption practices and navigation of a complex and often dangerous marketplace, Chinese consumers categorize products based on their perceived “truth.” The paper introduces a typology that describes these local categories and explains their utility for consumers.
The data was primarily conducted in an urban capital with a highly educated and high-average-income populace, thus it does not represent all Chinese consumers or a statistical sample.
This paper explains how the same globalizing processes that helped brands establish themselves in the Chinese market now threaten the capability of all brands to gain and retain the trust of consumers
By explaining how new calculations of value are being produced under glocalized regimes of manufacture and distribution, this research makes an important contribution to our understandings of brands and their limits.