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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Fabian Most, Francisco J. Conejo and Lawrence F. Cunningham

Literature in entrepreneurial marketing (EM) continues to grow in volume and diversity. This paper aims to examine the topical structure of EM’s literature toward guiding…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature in entrepreneurial marketing (EM) continues to grow in volume and diversity. This paper aims to examine the topical structure of EM’s literature toward guiding research in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-phase bibliometric research design is implemented, encompassing co-citation and bibliographic-coupling analyses, network analysis, factor analysis and correspondence analysis.

Findings

In total, 14 EM literature clusters, comprising 7 topical meta-clusters, are mapped and discussed: the 7 clusters are resources and capabilities, entrepreneurial orientation (EO), measurement, EO/marketing orientation (MO) integration, MO, international entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

These topical streams confirm, refine and extend prior bibliometric studies. A more comprehensive, extensive and reliable picture of EM’s literature is provided, the result of using over twice as many references as prior studies and peer-reviewed journals only. Results will help guide EM research, contributing toward the field’s empirical/theoretical development.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Lawrence F. Cunningham, Clifford E. Young and James Gerlach

Few marketing studies look at service classifications for self‐service technologies (SSTs) and none directly compare consumer‐based perceptions of traditional services to…

6322

Abstract

Purpose

Few marketing studies look at service classifications for self‐service technologies (SSTs) and none directly compare consumer‐based perceptions of traditional services to SSTs. To fill this gap, this study aims to examine how customers perceived traditional services and SSTs on service classifications criteria proposed by Lovelock, Bowen and Bell.

Design/methodology/approach

In two separate studies consumer ratings for each classification method on each service were obtained. Using multi‐dimensional scaling (MDS), 13 traditional services and 12 SSTs were separately mapped onto a perceptual space of service classifications.

Findings

The comparison of the two perceptual spaces reveals that consumers viewed the classifications of convenience, person/object, and delivery for SSTs differently than that for traditional services. The classifications of traditional services were represented by two dimensions of customization/standardization and person/object. In contrast, the classifications of SSTs were represented by two dimensions of customization/standardization and separability/inseparability. Thus the description of the underlying dimensions of services varied by traditional services or SSTs.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible that the results of the MDS were influenced by the use of preset classifications. Results may also be influenced by the authors' choice of MDS method. Further research is needed regarding the classification of SSTs and the use of these classifications for SST design.

Originality/value

This research extends previous consumer‐based classification research by including SSTs. The findings identified separate typologies for SSTs and traditional services. The typologies should be of interest to both researchers and managers who are interested in how SSTs are perceived by consumers.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Lawrence F. Cunningham, Clifford E. Young, Moonkyu Lee and Wolfgang Ulaga

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study that examined how customers in the USA, France, and Korea perceived and classified a set of 13 services…

5056

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study that examined how customers in the USA, France, and Korea perceived and classified a set of 13 services based on multidimensional scaling (MDS).

Design/methodology/approach

A MDS framework was used to map service classifications and actual services in the USA, Korea and France. Results from each country were then compared to the other two countries to determine similarities and differences.

Findings

Results from this research suggest that there are two underlying dimensions that explain approximately 80 percent of the total variance in service perceptions and classifications. Underlying dimensions of the classifications across the three cultures were virtually identical. Differences among the countries were based on relative positioning of classifications and/or services on the underlying dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Evidence from diverse cultures implies that consumers perceive services in a somewhat simplistic, two‐dimensional fashion rather than the complex set of classifications proposed by researchers. Although the complex classifications may be of use to service providers in organizing the delivery of services, the presentation and positioning of those services is along a much simpler framework in the minds of customers.

Originality/value

This is the first time consumer‐based perceptions of services have been examined systematically across cultures using a MDS approach.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Lawrence F. Cunningham, Clifford E. Young, Wolfgang Ulaga and Moonkyu Lee

In the services marketing literature, few service classifications are based on how customers view services, and fewer of these have been validated cross‐culturally. To…

2762

Abstract

In the services marketing literature, few service classifications are based on how customers view services, and fewer of these have been validated cross‐culturally. To fill this gap, this research presents the results of a study that examined how US and French customers perceived and classified a set of 13 services based on multidimensional scaling. Service classifications were developed on a perceptual space where the actual services were mapped for two countries, the USA and France. The results of the study suggest that there are two underlying dimensions that explain approximately 80 percent of the total variance in service perceptions and classifications. The dimensions and correlations for the classifications and services displayed many consistencies and some differences among American and French consumers. Directions for future academic research and managerial implications are cited and discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Lawrence F. Cunningham, James H. Gerlach, Michael D. Harper and Clifford E. Young

This research aims to investigate the premise that the use of internet airline reservation systems is perceived to be riskier than traditional airline reservation shopping.

17515

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate the premise that the use of internet airline reservation systems is perceived to be riskier than traditional airline reservation shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 263 respondents investigated perceived risk at various stages of the consumer buying process.

Findings

The results reveal that perceived risk for airline reservation services follows a pattern throughout the consumer buying process. When viewed as a dynamic process, perceived risk for internet airline services shows more radical changes in risk levels than the traditional service. The analyses indicate that performance, physical, social, and financial risk are related to perceived risk at certain stages of the consumer buying process.

Practical implications

A major finding of this study is that there is a risk premium for internet airline reservation services and the risk premium permeates all stages of the consumer buying process. It is further demonstrated that the internet risk premium does affect usage levels; implying that the internet risk premium is consequential and warrants the implementation of risk mitigation strategies.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies on perceived risk that typically focused on the relationship of perceived risk and information search, this study examines the dynamics of perceived risk throughout the various stages of the consumer buying process.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Moonkyu Lee and Lawrence F. Cunningham

Examines determinants of service loyalty under the assumption that consumers perform a cost/benefit analysis when deciding whether or not they want to be “regular…

8356

Abstract

Examines determinants of service loyalty under the assumption that consumers perform a cost/benefit analysis when deciding whether or not they want to be “regular customers”. It develops potential determinants of service loyalty based on the service quality, transaction cost, and switching cost literature, and estimates their relative influences with survey data from customers currently using banks and travel agencies. The results indicate that, in addition to service quality perceptions, transaction/switching cost factors have a significant impact on service loyalty. Implications of the results are discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Barrie O. Pettman and Richard Dobbins

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

21324

Abstract

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

George B. Cunningham and Christina A. Rivera

The purpose of this paper is to (a) distinguish the structural designs, and (b) examine the relationship between structure and effectiveness in American sport…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to (a) distinguish the structural designs, and (b) examine the relationship between structure and effectiveness in American sport organizations. Formalization, centralization, and specialization were examined to determine the structural designs. Senior level administrators from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (N = 86) departments completed an electronic questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to group departments according to the three dimensions of structure. Results demonstrated the presence of two structural designs—the Simple Structure and the Enabling Structure. MANCOVA procedures showed differences between departments in athletic achievement, but not in the education of student athletes. Discussion of the findings and future directions are presented.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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