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1 – 10 of 95
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Lawrance G., P. Sam Paul and Varadarajan A.S.

In the internal turning process, tool life and work piece quality are greatly influenced by the generation of heat in the cutting zone. During machining, cutting fluids…

Abstract

Purpose

In the internal turning process, tool life and work piece quality are greatly influenced by the generation of heat in the cutting zone. During machining, cutting fluids are applied at the cutting zones to reduce heat generation and enhance tribological properties. However, in the boring process, cutting fluids cannot be applied at cutting zone properly, and wastage of cutting fluid is a threat to the ecology and personnel health. Hence, application of semisolid lubricant in the boring process is considered as an innovative technique for temperature reduction in cutting zone because of its eco-friendly system, which also has a higher ability of biodegradability. This paper aims to study the influence of semisolid lubricants comprising of grease,graphite, aluminium oxide in different composition applied at a tool–chip,tool–work interface using a semisolid lubricant applicator applied with varying pressure.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, the cutting performance during boring of AISI4340 steel is enhanced through the application of semisolid lubricant with different composition of grease, graphite and aluminium oxide applied at tool-work and tool-chip interface with varying pressure using semisolid lubricant applicator.

Findings

The results show that use of semisolid lubricant like grease, graphite and nano aluminium oxide at tool-chip interface with maximum pressure reduces cutting temperature, tool vibration, cutting force and surface roughness.

Originality/value

Reduce cutting temperature, tool vibration, cutting force and surface roughness.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2018

James Phillips

Expert witnessing in asylum cases involves depicting the conditions of the applicant’s home country as a context for judging a well-founded fear for life or safety. Most…

Abstract

Expert witnessing in asylum cases involves depicting the conditions of the applicant’s home country as a context for judging a well-founded fear for life or safety. Most of the elements involved in the work of the expert country witness are dynamic and change over time, creating new challenges and new resources for describing and interpreting country context. Examining several characteristic Honduran asylum cases separated by 20 years reveals not only an increasingly complex and multifaceted set of relevant conditions in both the sending and the host country, but also a significant broadening of the anthropological “tool kit” available to the expert country witness (as the expert witness becomes aware of its relevance to country conditions at a particular time), and an increasingly reflexive and complex relationship of the expert witness to the country in question and to the court. In the interim, emerging problems of contextual complexity, subjectivity, changing and competing images of reality, and the shifting applicability of legal and sociological definitions and categories arise and can be partially addressed with emerging anthropological or social scientific resources, raising anew the nature of the relationship of the expert witness to the court and the possible mutual influence of social science and legal culture upon each other over time. As the number of refugee seekers increases globally, can expert witnesses trained in social sciences help asylum courts to imagine new ways of bridging the gap between legal regimes of governmentality and the subjectivity of refugees?

Details

Special Issue: Cultural Expert Witnessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-764-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1956

G.R. Lawrance

METALLISING or metal spraying is carried out by heating powder or wire in the flame of a gun and then projecting it on to a suitably prepared surface to form a coating.

Abstract

METALLISING or metal spraying is carried out by heating powder or wire in the flame of a gun and then projecting it on to a suitably prepared surface to form a coating.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 3 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Amarachukwu Nnadozie Nwadike and Suzanne Wilkinson

The process followed in amending building code creates problems for code users within the building industry. These problems include the need and frequency of changes made…

Abstract

Purpose

The process followed in amending building code creates problems for code users within the building industry. These problems include the need and frequency of changes made to building code, access to updated documents, method of communication, amendment interval and amendment pathway. This study aims to explore the viewpoints of building code users regarding building code amendments in New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a closed-ended questionnaire survey, this paper examined the New Zealand building code amendments by evaluating the views of experienced and relevant stakeholders within the research area.

Findings

A high proportion (50.90%) of the survey participants agreed to a three-years building code amendment cycle, as against the current biannual Amendment practiced in New Zealand. Findings from the study affirmed the necessity for building code amendment and the support for free amended building code documents to the public and other building standards. The study concludes with strong support to the use of intensive research and learning gained from disasters in building code amendment in New Zealand. Implementing the code users opinions encourages disaster resilience through effective application of the building code requirements in design and construction.

Originality/value

The contribution from this study offered a unique insight into the perspectives of building code users on building code amendment in New Zealand and ways of incorporating the findings in the building code later updates to improve disaster resilience in the built environment.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

S. Sarath and P. Sam Paul

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of the metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances…

Abstract

Purpose

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of the metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances. Similarly, at the beginning of the machining process, amplitude of tool vibrations is considerably low and it increases gradually and peaks at the end of the service period of the cutting tool while machining. It is significant to provide a corresponding real-time varying damping to control this chatter, which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity. This paper aims to review the literature related to the application of smart fluid to control vibration in metal cutting and also focused on the challenges involved in the implementation of active control system during machining process.

Design/methodology/approach

Smart dampers, which are used as semi-active and active dampers in metal cutting, were reviewed and the research studies carried out in the field of the magnetorheological (MR) damper were concentrated. In smart materials, MR fluids possess some disadvantages because of their sedimentation of iron particles, leakage and slow response time. To overcome these drawbacks, new MR materials such as MR foam, MR elastomers, MR gels and MR plastomers have been recommended and suggested. This review intents to throw light into available literature which exclusively deals with controlling chatter in metal cutting with the help of MR damping methods.

Findings

Using an MR damper popularly known for its semi-active damping characteristics is very adaptable and flexible in controlling chatter by providing damping to real-time amplitudes of tool vibration. In the past, many researchers have attempted to implement MR damper in metal cutting to control vibration and were successful. Various methods with the help of MR fluid are illustrated.

Research limitations/implications

A new cutting tool is always well-defined and sharp at the onset of metal cutting process and gradually losses these properties as the machining process advances. Similarly, at the beginning of the machining process, amplitude of tool vibrations is considerably low and it increases gradually and peaks at the end of service period of cutting tool while machining. Application of MR damper along with the working methodology in metal cutting is presented, challenges met are analyzed and a scope for development is reviewed.

Practical implications

This study provides corresponding real-time varying damping to control tool vibration which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity. Using an MR damper popularly known for its semi-active damping characteristics is very adaptable and flexible in controlling chatter by providing damping to real-time amplitudes of tool vibration.

Social implications

This study attempts to implement smart damper in metal cutting to control vibrations.

Originality/value

It is significant to provide corresponding real-time varying damping to control tool vibration which directly influences accuracy and quality of productivity.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

E.M.K. Ekanayake and B.A.K.S. Perera

Delays represent one of the most critical factors that affect the cost of a construction project. They have to be therefore analysed comprehensively using appropriate…

2194

Abstract

Purpose

Delays represent one of the most critical factors that affect the cost of a construction project. They have to be therefore analysed comprehensively using appropriate techniques. The purpose of this paper is to find out the delay analysis techniques (DATs) that are most commonly used in road projects in Sri Lanka, the extent of their usage, the criteria that can be used in selecting them and the technique that is most appropriate for the selection.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology adopted included an extensive literature review, expert interviews and a questionnaire survey.

Findings

In road projects in Sri Lanka, five types of DATs are mainly used. The “As-planned v. As-built Analysis” technique is the most commonly used technique while “Window Analysis” is the least used technique. Out of the nine criteria identified for selecting a DAT, the most important criterion is the acceptability of the technique to courts and tribunals. “Window Analysis” was found to be the most appropriate DAT that can be used in road construction projects in Sri Lanka.

Originality/value

“Window Analysis” can be recommended as the most appropriate DAT for road projects in Sri Lanka.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1956

N.J. Read

Calcium plumbate constitutes an important and novel addition to the few existing rust‐inhibitive pigments for the protection of iron and steel. Like red lead it provides…

Abstract

Calcium plumbate constitutes an important and novel addition to the few existing rust‐inhibitive pigments for the protection of iron and steel. Like red lead it provides protection by a combination of basic and oxidising characteristics, as well as film‐forming properties by interaction with linseed oil. It is believed to passify both cathodic and anodic areas on iron and steel, and in this respect differs from other rust‐inhibitive pigments. In practice, it shows the behaviour which on theoretical grounds might be expected to be associated with this type of inhibition. Linseed oil paints based on calcium plumbate have been found to be remarkably free from any tendency to crack, and their adhesion on galvanised iron and timber suggests the value of suck paints as primers with a wide variety of applications.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Premalatha J. and Sheela D.

This paper aims to present the design of a compact vertically polarized four-element UWB antenna suitable for MIMO communications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the design of a compact vertically polarized four-element UWB antenna suitable for MIMO communications.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit cell antenna is constructed using a square ring radiator excited through a stepped impedance feed. The proposed antenna covers the Ultra-wideband (UWB) spectrum ranging from 2.2 to 12.3 GHz. The isolation between the unit cell antennas in the array is enhanced using a simple microstrip line resonator. The decoupling element is connected to the ground through a via.

Findings

The proposed scheme offers at least 16 dB improvement in the port-to-port coupling. Furthermore, the four-element antenna array is constructed using a specific interlocking scheme. The proposed antenna array’s Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) performance metrics are analyzed.

Originality/value

By suitably selecting the excitation port, directional radiation patterns can be realized. The combined radiation pattern covers 360 degrees. A prototype antenna array is fabricated, and the simulation results are verified using real-time experiments. The proposed antenna is a suitable candidate for shark fin housing in automotive communications.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Bushra Rafique, Mudassir Iqbal, Tahir Mehmood and Muhammad Ashraf Shaheen

This review aims to focus on recent reported research work on the construction and function of different electrochemical DNA biosensors. It also describes different…

1553

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to focus on recent reported research work on the construction and function of different electrochemical DNA biosensors. It also describes different sensing materials, chemistries of immobilization probes, conditions of hybridization and principles of transducing and amplification strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The human disease-related mutated genes or DNA sequence detection at low cost can be verified by the electrochemical-based biosensor. A range of different chemistries is used by the DNA-based electrochemical biosensors, out of which the interactions of nanoscale material with recognition layer and a solid electrode surface are most interesting. A diversity of advancements has been made in the field of electrochemical detection.

Findings

Some important aspects are also highlighted in this review, which can contribute in the creation of successful biosensing devices in the future.

Originality/value

This paper provides an updated review of construction and sensing technologies in the field of biosensing.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Kamel Mellahi

Highlights the opinion that the importance of national culture in cross‐cultural management is diminishing, suggesting that the world is moving towards a single, global…

3559

Abstract

Highlights the opinion that the importance of national culture in cross‐cultural management is diminishing, suggesting that the world is moving towards a single, global management culture that is basically Western and, more specifically, American. Attempts to test this hypothesis by examining values held by future managers from five different cultures. Uses the Kruskal‐Wallis One Way ANOVA and the Mann‐Whitney tests to show that future managers from different cultural backgrounds will neigher adopt a mirror image of current management style in their cultures nor a global unified management style regardless of local culture.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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