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The purpose of this research is to understand the effects of expertise and brand schematicity on the perceived importance of choice criteria in the context of purchasing…
The purpose of this research is to understand the effects of expertise and brand schematicity on the perceived importance of choice criteria in the context of purchasing red wine purchase.
Data were collected via an online survey of 307 French wine consumers. The interaction effects of expertise and brand schematicity on the importance assigned to choice criteria were then investigated.
First, the results show that commercial brand is more important for brand-schematic consumers (novice and expert) than for brand-aschematic (novice and expert) consumers. Second, to make their choice, brand-schematic consumers place a greater reliance on quality cues than brand-aschematic consumers, whether they are novices or experts. Third, brand-aschematic novice consumers are only interested in two quality cues [Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) label and wine category], but French brand-schematic novice and brand-aschematic expert consumers look for five quality cues (AOC label, wine category, vintage, commercial brand and place of bottling). Fourth, brand-schematic expert consumers take into account all quality cues.
The individual characteristics of consumers, that is, level of expertise and schematicity, influence the importance assigned to the information contained on the label. Care should be taken when designing a wine label, especially when consumers make their purchases in supermarkets and have no opportunity to seek advice. To convince these customers, it is essential that the font and size of the label ensure that the AOC label, wine category, vintage, commercial brand and place of bottling can be easily read. Brand-schematic consumers are interested in many quality cues to make their choice, and therefore, such information should be available in supermarkets (e.g. flyers and posters). Managers should also focus on brand content strategy to influence and hit brand-aschematic consumers.
There has been little research on the effect of brand schematicity on the importance of choice criteria. The interaction of brand schematicity and degree of expertise regarding product category has not been previously studied in relation to wine selection. Brand schematicity may be used as a segmentation criterion by managers in communication campaigns and brand content strategies.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of self-purchasing versus gift-giving situations on the importance of product cues and the moderating effect…
The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of self-purchasing versus gift-giving situations on the importance of product cues and the moderating effect of brand schematicity.
Data were collected via an online survey of 285 French consumers for wine and 139 French consumers for whisky. The interaction effect of the gift-giving situation and brand schematicity on the importance of product cues was then investigated.
The results differed, depending on the importance of brand cue. For the whisky category (high brand importance), brand schematicity had no influence on the importance of cues. For the wine category (low brand importance), brand schematicity moderated the influence of the gift-giving situation on the importance of extrinsic cues such as commercial brand. Brand schematicity and the situation of gift-giving also influence the number of important cues which consumers take into account when making their choice. In low-involvement purchasing situations, brand-aschematic consumers use fewer choice criteria than brand-schematic consumers, whereas in high-involvement purchasing situations, regardless of their level of brand schematicity, consumers use the same number of criteria to make their selection.
When the commercial brand is a salient cue and regardless of the purchasing situation, it is important to provide information on the brand to consumers through any format, such as social media, leaflets, flash codes, in-store digital display, etc. When the commercial brand is not a salient cue, brand schematicity may be relevant to a segment of consumers because this consumer profile may need more information and will focus on the commercial brand. Brand managers could develop a specific approach to schematic consumers based on brand content, for example, brand managers could provide marketing materials (e.g. leaflets, flash codes, mobile apps) to retail store managers explaining the origin and value of the commercial brand. Consumers could also be provided with digital devices (such as tablets), which they could use to search for information according to these cues before choosing their product. Social media and online brand community could also provide more details about the brand and may provide an interactive area for discussions with consumers.
There has been little research on the effect of brand schematicity on the importance of product cues. To the authors’ knowledge, the interaction between brand schematicity and purchase according to product category has not previously been studied. The influence of brand schematicity changes depending on the importance given to brand cues.
Over seas research suggests benefits in having staff from ethnic minorities for po licing multicultural communities. This study ‐ part of a larger study investigating…
Over seas research suggests benefits in having staff from ethnic minorities for po licing multicultural communities. This study ‐ part of a larger study investigating recruitment barriers and retention issues of ethnic minorities in the New Zealand Police ‐ presents the views of personnel from minority cultures about how they experience their professional roles within the organisation. The paper pre ents data from twenty in‐depth interviews conducted with police staff from one police region. Results of the study support overseas research and highlight New Zealand ‐ specific issues. While the sample size is small, the in‐depth interviews provide a rich data source. The paper presents new insights into how New Zealand Police officers from a range of cultural backgrounds perceive the contribution a culturally diverse workforce can make to policing. The study has practical implications for police recruitment and diversity policies.
The capital budgeting decision for a multinational enterprise needs to take into account concepts of business policy and competitive strategy. From the modern theory of…
The capital budgeting decision for a multinational enterprise needs to take into account concepts of business policy and competitive strategy. From the modern theory of the multinational enterprise, i.e., the theory of internalisation, it is recognised that proprietary firm specific advantages yield economic rents when exploited on a world‐wide basis. Yet the multinational enterprise finds these potential rents dissipated by internal governance costs of its organisational structure and the difficulty of timing and sustaining its foreign direct investment activities. This paper examines these issues by a focus upon parent‐subsidiary relationships and the strategic nature of the capital budgeting decision for a multinational enterprise.