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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Elsa Pereira, Margarida Mascarenhas, Adão Flores, Laurence Chalip and Gustavo Pires

The purpose of this paper is to identify the strategic leveraging goals associated with a portfolio of small-scale events and to analyze their implementation process…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the strategic leveraging goals associated with a portfolio of small-scale events and to analyze their implementation process (actors/tactics: who did what?) in order to propose new leverage typologies through new empirical research evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

Three techniques of data collection conducted the fieldwork: qualitative interviewing, direct observation and documental research. Based on the principles of grounded theory and using qualitative data analysis software (Nvivo) data were inductively analyzed.

Findings

Results showed the coexistence of a plurality of strategic leveraging goals, namely: “strengthen political advantage”; “integrate and retain partners/sponsors”; and “develop sports dynamics”. There was a set of tactics and actions identified and successfully implemented due to the coordination of the network of organizations part of the events, which included local and external actors.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers realized that it was impossible to take a neutral research stand. In fact, in qualitative research, the investigator is the first instrument of data collection. In this sense, it was important for researchers to constantly reflect on their role, as Pelias (2011) says “reflexive writing strategies include indicating how the researcher emerged as a contaminant, how the researcher´s insider status was revelatory or blinding, and how the researcher is implicated in the problem being addressed” (p. 662). It is also considered that, when organizing events, the network of interactions is extremely complex, making it difficult to capture all the actors’ perspectives.

Practical implications

In relation to the practical implications, it is important that sports event managers have in-depth knowledge and skills on event leveraging; it is also important that managers understand the sports culture in order to recognize the multidimensionality of strategic leveraging in sporting events. The strategic dynamic should be developed and coevolved with community/local and external actors. The coordination between the actors is a key point to achieve successful leveraging.

Social implications

A theoretical implication related to the event leverage is the creation of a new strategic objective – “developing the sport dynamics”. The sport participation tactic among other tactics were found, namely “enhancing of the sports shows” and “tuning of skills in sports management”.

Originality/value

The dynamics and plurality of strategic goals associated with the leverage of an event portfolio, namely the actions that were developed and also the actors’ interaction in small-scale events. Another factor is the identification of the prominent role of the external event organization committee in the dynamics of event leveraging, as well as the deep analysis of the leveraging process supported by the observation of all the events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Marijke Taks, B. Chris Green, Laura Misener and Laurence Chalip

The purpose of this paper is to present and use an event leveraging framework (ELF) to examine processes and challenges when seeking to leverage a sport event to build…

2508

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and use an event leveraging framework (ELF) to examine processes and challenges when seeking to leverage a sport event to build sport participation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an action research approach for which the researchers served as consultants and facilitators for local sports in the context of the International Children’s Games. Initially three sports were selected, and two sports were guided through the full leveraging process. Prior to the event, actions were planned and refined, while researchers kept field notes. Challenges and barriers to implementation were examined through observation immediately prior to and during the event, and through a workshop with stakeholders six weeks after the event, and interviews a year later.

Findings

With the exception of a flyer posted on a few cars during the track and field competition, none of the planned action steps was implemented. Barriers included competition and distrust among local sport clubs, exigencies associated with organizing event competitions, the event organizers’ focus on promoting the city rather than its sports, and each club’s insufficient human and physical resources for the task. These barriers were not addressed by local clubs because they expected the event to inspire participation despite their lack of marketing leverage. The lack of action resulted in no discernible impact of the event on sport participation.

Research limitations/implications

Results demonstrate that there are multiple barriers to undertaking the necessary steps to capitalize on an event to build sport participation, even when a well-developed framework is used. Specific steps to overcome the barriers need to be implemented, particularly through partnerships and building capacity for leverage among local sport organizations.

Originality/value

This study presents the ELF, and identifies reasons why sport events fail to live up to their promise to build sport participation. Necessary steps are suggested to redress that failing.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Laurence Chalip

One of the most significant innovations to emerge from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games has been the way that Australian tourism organisations have built the…

Abstract

One of the most significant innovations to emerge from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games has been the way that Australian tourism organisations have built the Games into their marketing strategies. As the Business Manager Olympic Games for the Australian Tourist Commission, Maggie White is responsible for the ambitious international Olympic tourism marketing program. Here she talks to Dr Laurence Chalip of Griffith University, about her role and the challenges she faced.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Danny O'Brien and Laurence Chalip

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex

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Abstract

Purpose

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex ante, strategic approach refers to the phenomenon of event leveraging. This paper aims to introduce readers to the concept, and poses practical exercises to challenge current thinking on sport event impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an introduction to the literature on the strategic leveraging of sport events and presents three theoretical models depicting various aspects of event leverage. The paper includes training exercises on the subject of sport event leverage along with possible answers.

Findings

Building on prior work, this paper proposes a new model for social leverage. The model and the related discussion highlight potential synergies between economic and social leverage.

Research limitations/implications

As the proposed model for social leverage is essentially exploratory, it remains empirically untested. This represents an obvious challenge for further research.

Practical implications

This paper recognizes that, particularly in the last decade, a paradigm shift has taken place in parts of the international events community, and provides a challenge and potential direction for event practitioners to continue the path towards achieving the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits for host communities.

Originality/value

The social leverage model breaks new ground in the (sport) events field, as does the push towards sustainability and a more triple bottom line approach to event outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Marijke Taks, B. Christine Green, Laurence Chalip, Stefan Kesenne and Scott Martyn

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spending patterns of non‐local participants and spectators at a medium‐sized international sport event, to segment their…

1911

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spending patterns of non‐local participants and spectators at a medium‐sized international sport event, to segment their spending patterns and consider implications for the quality of each segment's event experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Spending in nine sectors of the economy is measured via self‐report, and respondents are segmented into five groups: spectators, athletes, coaches, officials, and other participants (e.g. media, medical staff). The daily and aggregate spend for each segment in each economic sector is calculated and compared. Regression analysis tests differences among segments for each economic sector.

Findings

Participants account for 39 per cent of aggregate spend; coaches are the biggest spenders; athletes spend relatively little. The segments spend differently on hospitality, private transportation, grocery, and retail, with spectators spending significantly more than the participant groups on hospitality and private transportation, and significantly less on groceries and merchandise. Spending in sectors normally associated with celebration and festivity accounts for only 8 per cent of total spend.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are derived from a single event, but are consistent with other work, suggesting that inadequate attention is given to opportunities for festive celebration, especially among athletes.

Practical implications

Coaches are a particularly useful target market for retailers, whereas hoteliers and service stations should target their marketing at spectators. Event organizers should do more to build festivals.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the ways that different segments organize their spending at an event, and demonstrates that greater attention to festivals could enhance a sport event's overall impact.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

John Amis

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

John Amis

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Abstract

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Drew Martin and Arch G. Woodside

The purpose of this Editorial is to introduce the reader to seven training exercises in tourism.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this Editorial is to introduce the reader to seven training exercises in tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Introduces the papers in this special issue.

Findings

Effective learning requires doing–practice–failure–interpreting–experiencing success, rather than listening and watching.

Originality/value

Provides an introduction to experiential learning exercises for tourism and hospitality executive training.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

1 – 10 of 16