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The aim of this article is to investigate the incidence and impact of FWAs in smaller businesses in Scotland, as an integral part of a recent European Social Fund project…
The aim of this article is to investigate the incidence and impact of FWAs in smaller businesses in Scotland, as an integral part of a recent European Social Fund project. From theoretical perspectives it discusses the influences on, and impacts of, flexible working arrangements. The focus is then placed on the smaller business sector as regards its distinctive features and flexible working arrangements.
The papers presents the findings from empirical work comprising a large‐scale survey of, and series of interviews with, owner‐managers of smaller businesses in Scotland.
Part‐time work, time off in lieu, staggered working hours and shift swapping are the main types of flexible work in smaller businesses. In many incidences flexible working arrangements are requested by employees, operated informally, and centred on the business needs. There is significant scope for greater uptake of flexible working arrangements in smaller businesses, especially in services sector businesses. Positive impacts of flexible work arrangements in recruitment and retention, enhanced employee relations, commitment and loyalty are found, together with disadvantages of operational problems and administrative burdens. It is proposed that the gap between the potential for, and current practice in, flexible working arrangements may be narrowed by targeting information and guidance on such arrangements specifically to the owner‐managers of smaller businesses.
The literature on flexible working mainly concentrates on large organisations. With the growing economic importance and distinguishing features of the smaller business sector in the UK, there is a need to focus as much on this sector as large organisations.
This paper aims to provide a selection of poetry titles from the Poets House Showcase of 2005.
This article gives a review of the 2005 Poetry Publication Showcase.
This review represents a wide‐ranging selection of contemporary poetry collections and anthologies.
This list documents the tremendous range of poetry publishing from commercial, independent and university presses as well as letterpress chapbooks, art books and CDs in 2004 and early 2005.
Partially‐decoupled upwind‐based total‐variation‐diminishing (TVD) finite‐difference schemes for the solution of the conservation laws governing two‐dimensional…
Partially‐decoupled upwind‐based total‐variation‐diminishing (TVD) finite‐difference schemes for the solution of the conservation laws governing two‐dimensional non‐equilibrium vibrationally relaxing and chemically reacting flows of thermally‐perfect gaseous mixtures are presented. In these methods, a novel partially‐decoupled flux‐difference splitting approach is adopted. The fluid conservation laws and species concentration and vibrational energy equations are decoupled by means of a frozen flow approximation. The resulting partially‐decoupled gas‐dynamic and thermodynamic subsystems are then solved alternately in a lagged manner within a time marching procedure, thereby providing explicit coupling between the two equation sets. Both time‐split semi‐implicit and factored implicit flux‐limited TVD upwind schemes are described. The semi‐implicit formulation is more appropriate for unsteady applications whereas the factored implicit form is useful for obtaining steady‐state solutions. Extensions of Roe's approximate Riemann solvers, giving the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the fully coupled systems, are used to evaluate the numerical flux functions. Additional modifications to the Riemann solutions are also described which ensure that the approximate solutions are not aphysical. The proposed partially‐decoupled methods are shown to have several computational advantages over chemistry‐split and fully coupled techniques. Furthermore, numerical results for single, complex, and double Mach reflection flows, as well as corner‐expansion and blunt‐body flows, using a five‐species four‐temperature model for air demonstrate the capabilities of the methods.
Reviews ways in which sunk costs, particularly those embedded in property ownership, can affect programmes of selective closure of retail outlets. Three examples from UK…
Reviews ways in which sunk costs, particularly those embedded in property ownership, can affect programmes of selective closure of retail outlets. Three examples from UK retailing in the 1990s – Littlewoods, the British Shoe Corporation and Do it All – are used to demonstrate that sunk costs have been significant in delaying the execution of rationalisation programmes, and have led to substantial “write‐offs” of property assets in company balance sheets. Certain conventions and inflexibilities in British property law and management are identified as key influences. There is shown to be a need for further research into corporate closure programmes and their relationships with property and locational issues. Some tentative conclusions for corporate retail strategies are discussed.
LIBRARIANS do not desire tribute because, in the clenched antagonisms of to‐day, they carry on their normal work, so far as that is possible. Happy are those who have been allowed to continue their whole‐time devotion to library service, because there has seldom if ever been so much opportunity for good work. In some areas it must be limited, because the dark hours are hours of perpetual air raids or warnings of them, and our people in the more exposed towns cannot be expected to attend evening lectures, talks or recitals. A certain amount of afternoon work is possible, if there is adequate shelter in or adjacent to libraries. The confinement to their homes of our readers affords opportunities to persuade them to read, if persuasion is necessary. First we can instil into folk the desirability of always carrying a book, so that when they are caught by a warning they have something with which to wile away the time in the shelter. Then, there appears a chance of drawing attention to the books which we ought to have read but have not, and our readers may be urged to make black‐out hours profitable by special Studies. Few recent publications are better designed for this than the twenty‐one “Suggestions” which have just come from Leeds. Each consists of a four‐page leaflet, three pages bearing carefully selected and annotated titles, and they are on the subjects that matter—Modern Poetry, Voyages, Modern Thought, Without Passport (travel in Continental Europe), Humour, Amateur Drama, Popular Science, Kitchen Ranging, and so on—the range is great; and we believe these are worthy of national circulation. Reverting to lectures, Bristol has arranged its usual excellent programmes for adults and children respectively.
An aerothermodynamic design code for axisymmetric projectiles has been developed using a viscous‐inviscid interaction scheme. Separate solution procedures for the inviscid…
An aerothermodynamic design code for axisymmetric projectiles has been developed using a viscous‐inviscid interaction scheme. Separate solution procedures for the inviscid and the viscous (boundary layer) fluid dynamic equations are coupled by an iterative solution procedure. Non‐equilibrium, equilibrium and perfect gas boundary layer equations are included. The non‐equilibrium gas boundary layer equations assume a binary mixture (two species; atoms and molecules) of chemically reacting perfect gases. Conservation equations for each species include finite reaction rates applicable to high temperature air. The equilibrium gas boundary layer equations assume infinite rate reactions, while the perfect gas equations assume no chemical reactions. Projectile near‐wall and surface flow profiles (velocity, pressure, density, temperature and heat transfer) representing converged solutions to both the inviscid and viscous equations can be obtained in less than two minutes on minicomputers. A technique for computing local reverse flow regions is included. Computations for yawed projectiles are accomplished using a coordinate system transformation technique that is valid for small angle‐of‐attack. Computed surface pressure, heat transfer rates and aerodynamic forces and moments for 1.25 &le Mach No. &le 10.5 are compared to wind tunnel and free flight measurements on flat plate, blunt‐cone, and projectile geometries such as a cone‐cylinder‐flare.