Search results

1 – 10 of 382
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Laura Evans, Maria Ioannou and Laura Hammond

The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictive model of criminal risk in civil psychiatric populations, by determining the relative impacts of psychopathy, drug use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictive model of criminal risk in civil psychiatric populations, by determining the relative impacts of psychopathy, drug use, impulsivity and intelligence on levels of criminality.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 871 civil psychiatric patients, selected from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, who had been diagnosed with a mental illness or personality disorder, and hospitalised less than 21 days. Each participant was administered the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R). In addition, information on background demographics, drug use and criminality was obtained via a self-report questionnaire.

Findings

Pearson correlations identified significant positive relationships between past arrests, psychopathy, impulsivity and drug use. Intelligence was negatively related to past arrests. Multiple regressions identified a significant main effect for Factor 2 psychopathy on past arrests when controlling for all covariates, but not for Factor 1 psychopathy, intelligence or impulsivity. Drug use and gender had small univariate effects.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that future research investigates the influence of specific mental disorders on different types of offending.

Originality/value

By investigating predictors of criminal behaviour in civil psychiatric patients, the present study makes valuable contributions to the research literature, enhancing our theoretical understanding of the relationships between psychopathy and criminality/recidivism. It also has notable implications in applied practice, for example in the development and refinement of risk assessment methods.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Gary Hunter, Randy Vander Wal, Laura Evans, Jennifer Xu, Gordon Berger, Michael Kullis and Azlin Biaggi‐Labiosa

The development of chemical sensors based on nanostructures, such as nanotubes or nanowires, depends on the capability to reproducibly control the processing of the sensor…

1250

Abstract

Purpose

The development of chemical sensors based on nanostructures, such as nanotubes or nanowires, depends on the capability to reproducibly control the processing of the sensor. Alignment and consistent electrical contact of nanostructures on a microsensor platform is challenging. This can be accomplished using labor‐intensive approaches, specialized processing technology, or growth of nanostructures in situ. However, the use of standard microfabrication techniques for fabricating nanostructured microsensors is problematic. The purpose of this paper is to address this challenge using standard photoresist processing combined with dielectrophoresis.

Design/methodology/approach

Nanostructures are suspended in photoresist and aligned between opposing sawtooth electrode patterns using an alternating current (AC) electric field (dielectrophoresis). The use of photoresist processing techniques allow the burying of the nanostructures between layers of metal, thus improving the electrical contact of the nanostructures to the microsensor platform.

Findings

This approach is demonstrated for both multi‐walled carbon nanotubes and tin oxide nanowires. Preliminary data show the electrical continuity of the sensor structure as well as the response to various gases.

Research limitations/implications

It is concluded that this approach demonstrates a foundation for a new tool for the fabrication of microsensors using nanostructures, and can be expanded towards enabling the combination of common microfabrication techniques with nanostructured sensor development.

Originality/value

This approach is intended to address the significant barriers of deposition control, contact robustness, and simplified processing to realizing the potential of nanotechnology as applied to sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Gary Hunter

96

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Natalie Merinuk, Stephanie C. Varcoe, Peter J. Kelly and Laura D. Robinson

Substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occurs with other psychological conditions, such as eating disorders (EDs). Psychological factors such as emotional dysregulation, rash…

Abstract

Purpose

Substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occurs with other psychological conditions, such as eating disorders (EDs). Psychological factors such as emotional dysregulation, rash impulsivity (RI) and reward sensitivity (RS) play a role in the etiology of each disorder, yet little is known about the combined effects of these on comorbid SUDs and EDs or disordered eating behaviours (DEBs). This study aims to examine the role of these psychological factors in comorbid DEBs and SUDs among individuals in treatment for SUDs. The role of gender is tested as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional self-report survey was completed by 131 participants attending Australian residential substance use treatment centres. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of emotional dysregulation, RI and RS on comorbid DEB and SUD. Further, moderation analyses were used to examine the moderating effect for gender on the relationship between these three personality variables and comorbidity.

Findings

The most commonly reported primary substance of use was alcohol (43.5%), followed by amphetamines (38.6%). Findings showed that emotional dysregulation and RI were significantly related to an increase in comorbidity likelihood; however, RS was not. Gender moderated the relationship between comorbidity and RI only.

Originality/value

The significant positive relationship found between RI and comorbidity for females only was a novel finding for the current study. Further research is needed to develop an understanding of the etiology of comorbidity.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Kristen L. Sussman, Laura F. Bright and Gary B. Wilcox

The digital environment afforded by social networks has created an opportunity to understand more clearly the impact of social media native advertising on advertising processing…

Abstract

Purpose

The digital environment afforded by social networks has created an opportunity to understand more clearly the impact of social media native advertising on advertising processing outcomes. Thus, the current study integrates native advertising with engagement literature to compare engagement outcomes between feed and banner placements before analyzing engagement outcomes of sponsored social media posts by advertising objective. This work aims to contribute to advertising effectiveness literature arguing for the importance of engagement as a measure of effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Facebook advertising data were collected from a convenience sample of 10 Facebook advertisers that accounted for roughly $414,000 in advertising spend. Panel data, which are also called longitudinal or cross-sectional time-series data, used 26 months of data from the 10 advertisers to measure relationships between native advertising exposure and digital consumer engagement with advertising by advertising objectives of brand awareness, link clicks, conversions, post-engagement and video views.

Findings

Exposure to native advertising was a strong predictor of advertising processing and consumption using the three variables of interest: clicks, comments and shares. Ads reaching consumers while natively consuming content in their feed resulted in statistically significant improvements in impressions and clicks when compared to banner ads. Exposure to native ads was significantly related to all engagement outcomes of interest, except for advertisers who chose post-engagement as their advertising objective.

Practical implications

The results suggest that for advertisers seeking clicks, post-engagement objectives should likely be avoided. For this group, impressions were not related to link clicks but were related to comments and shares. Native advertising placements in the feed, however, are generally more effective than banner ads on Facebook for advertisers seeking engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This research is one of few studies to use longitudinal advertising data to explore engagement effects using real-world data collected from a diverse set of Facebook advertisers over a 26-month period. This study shows that interactive marketers using a social media feed to reach consumers can expect positive outcomes in advertising consumption, affective and cognitive processing and advocacy, but those outcomes may vary by advertising objective.

Originality/value

Given the uniqueness of the data set, the findings contribute to native advertising literature and to the literature on digital consumer engagement with advertising in social media. The study also provides empirical support for the efficacy of native advertising.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Brenda Jones Harden, Brandee Feola, Colleen Morrison, Shelby Brown, Laura Jimenez Parra and Andrea Buhler Wassman

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their…

Abstract

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their exposure to multiple poverty-related risks, African American children may be more susceptible to exposure to toxic stress. Toxic stress affects young children’s brain and neurophysiologic functioning, which leads to a wide range of deleterious health, developmental, and mental health outcomes. Given the benefits of early care and education (ECE) for African American young children, ECE may represent a compensating experience for this group of children, and promote their positive development.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2023

Cheryl J. Craig

This narrative inquiry centers on teachers' longitudinal experiences of policy-related reforms systematically introduced to T. P. Yaeger Middle School, a campus located in the…

Abstract

This narrative inquiry centers on teachers' longitudinal experiences of policy-related reforms systematically introduced to T. P. Yaeger Middle School, a campus located in the fourth largest, second most diverse city in America. The embedded research study, with roots tracing back to 1997, uses five interpretive tools to capture six mandated changes in the form of a story serial. Special research attention is afforded pay-for-performance, the sixth reform in the series. The deeply lived consequence of receiving bonuses for his teaching performance prompted Daryl Wilson, Yaeger's long-term literacy department chair, to proclaim “data is [G]od.” Wilson's emergent, inventive metaphor aptly portrays the perplexing conditions under which his career ended, and how my long-term research project likewise concluded.

Details

Teaching and Teacher Education in International Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-471-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Laura Fabregat-Aibar, Antonio Terceño and M. Glòria Barberà-Mariné

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a literature review to determine which variables have the greatest impact on the survival capacity of mutual funds, and if these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a literature review to determine which variables have the greatest impact on the survival capacity of mutual funds, and if these variables also have an influence on the various ways in which mutual funds disappear.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors carry out a systematic review of the literature on mutual funds and identify the main features that affect their capacity for survival.

Findings

The results show that most of the articles are based on data from the US market and that the two most studied variables are the return and the size of the fund. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviour of variables and the disappearance of funds has mainly been analysed by comparing surviving and non-surviving funds, but without specifying the way in which they disappeared. Finally, the results show that there is no single methodology for examining the survival of funds.

Originality/value

In the financial literature, no previous literature review has focused on the factors that influence the survival capacity of mutual funds. The authors consider that this review will provide a broader and more realistic vision of the level of academic interest in this field and identify any gaps that exist in the literature available.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Anthea Tinker, Elodie Haines, Laura Molloy, Imogen Monks, Evelina Russell and Laura Pennells

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exercise on the mental health problems of older women.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exercise on the mental health problems of older women.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on information from academic literature, government publications and publications from other relevant bodies. It is a scoping study and is not a systematic review because of the constraints of the resources.

Findings

There is growing evidence about the value of exercise for the mental health of older women but few evaluated examples of how this can be achieved.

Research limitations/implications

There is a gap in the literature about this topic with few evaluated examples of how more older women can be encouraged to take more exercise.

Practical implications

Policy makers, practitioners and older people themselves would gain from a greater emphasis on exercise as a means of improving quality of life and for reducing healthcare budgets through fewer referrals to services.

Social implications

Greater emphasis on exercise for older women would increase their quality of life through a reduction in mental health problems.

Originality/value

There is limited research which links mental health, exercise and older women, especially regarding the barriers to exercise that older women with diagnosed mental health problems may face.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1925

Referring to the importance of the public health services in this country, Sir Kingsley Wood, M.P., in a recent speech observed that the result of the recent General Election…

Abstract

Referring to the importance of the public health services in this country, Sir Kingsley Wood, M.P., in a recent speech observed that the result of the recent General Election afforded an unprecedented opportunity for the steady development during the next five years, and possibly ten, of the public health services of the country, not by means of stunts, but by science and statecraft. Prevention must be their great watchword. The great triumphs of public health were due in no small degree to the work of the general practitioner. To him came the great host of patients with what were called “trivial ailments,” which, in fact, did so much to incapacitate us as a nation. People little realised, for instance, what the “common cold” cost the State. One of the greatest needs in health matters of the immediate future was research. We were still in the dark as to the causes of measles, of influenza, of rheumatism, and of cancer. We had yet to learn the relationship of certain foods and particular diseases. The Health Ministry was concerned with the important question of pure food. We needed not only cheap food but clean food, which was vital to a healthy and vigorous race. There were two great objects to be achieved. We must continue to improve our food values. It was true that in 1920 out of nearly half a million deaths those of fourteen men and two women were directly attributed to “starvation.” but the evils of malnutrition could not be so narrowly limited. Clean and wholesome food was an effective weapon against disease and premature death. There was, it was gratifying to note, a considerable rise in the standard of national nutrition, and this had been an important and favourable factor in the decline of mortality from tuberculosis. But the consumer must more and more be safeguarded against contaminated, adulterated, and disease‐producing food. Civilisation had urbanised man, it had taken him away from his natural base—the soil—and thus from the prime source of his food supply. It brought him from lone distances, and while giving him a greater abundance it had robbed his food of much of its freshness and vitality. To‐day we often chose our food more by reading advertisements than in trusting to our natural tastes. We loved to see some of our vegetables very green, and accordingly they were canned and coloured for us. Dirty and dusty milk, and careless handling of meat and bread, “doctored” butter, and the boron preserved sausage, the boracised egg, the mixture of sugar, artificial flavouring, and benzoic acid, sometimes called ginger beer, were not the best illustrations of our advance in national health conditions. It was quite possible to imagine a reasonable meal which might contain 20 or even more grains of boric acid besides other preservatives. In these respects Great Britain was behind the standard of many other countries. There was a general movement in various parts of the civilised world in the direction of limiting and controlling the admixture of chemical preservatives and colouring matter with foodstuffs. He was glad to say that it had the support in this country of the great majority of the traders, who were equally anxious to see a pure food supply. The best firms and the shopkeepers of the country strongly desired it. Mr. Neville Chamberlain had the matter well in hand, and already certain regulations were being framed on the basis of the recommendation of an Expert Committee which had recently enquired into the whole subject. These regulations would first be published, in order that persons interested might, if they desired, submit recommendations to the Ministry. Certain of the recommendations of the Committee could not be effected without legislation, but it was proposed to undertake this as soon as pressure on Parliamentary time permitted. The Ministry hoped also to promote a measure consolidating the whole of the law relating to food. He desired to say, in conclusion, that while laws were necessary and regulations were desirable to a large extent, the vital matter of clean food rested with the nation itself. The public had recently been asked by the Ministry to refrain from the common practice of handling meat before purchasing. Fingering meat was, of course, a definitely unhealthy habit. Nobody desired unnecessary regulations, especially Britishers, and they did not want grandmotherly legislation: but in certain elementary matters in connection with our food we must break many old bad habits. Education had done much for improved health and temperance, and he did not doubt it would largely help to achieve the advanre which was so necessary and urgent in connection with attainment of a purer and cleaner food supply.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

1 – 10 of 382