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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Pradipta Chandra, Titas Bhattacharjee and Bhaskar Bhowmick

The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the indicators of institutional barriers hindering the technology transfer training (TTT) process behind the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the indicators of institutional barriers hindering the technology transfer training (TTT) process behind the technology adoption lag affecting the agricultural output in India through development of a scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative technique has been followed for data collection through a close-ended questionnaire scored on the seven-point Likert scale. The sample size was considered as 161; target respondents were farmers and farmer-centric individuals. Data were analyzed using an exploratory factor analysis technique.

Findings

Factor analysis revealed that there are three significant factors related to TTT process, namely, comprehension, customization and generalization, which are liable for institutional barriers in technology adoption by farmers.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is biasness from both respondents’ end and interviewer’s end might exist during survey due to differences in perception.

Social implications

The key beneficiaries from this research are the small and marginal farming community in India. They can enhance their productivity through an appropriate training process. Corporates will show interest in investment through the mechanism of corporate social responsibility.

Originality/value

Under this study, the factors of the institutional barriers from the farmers’ perspective are being introduced as a new research contribution, especially for the resource crunch area of Jangalmahal and other similar places in India.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Richard Ohene Asiedu

The quest to reduce the cost of concrete which is a major construction input has prompted investigations into assessing the suitability of alternative sources of…

Abstract

Purpose

The quest to reduce the cost of concrete which is a major construction input has prompted investigations into assessing the suitability of alternative sources of conventional materials. This paper aims to report the compressive strength and workability of lateritic gravel used as all-in aggregate for concrete production.

Design/methodology/approach

Three prescribed mixes from all-in aggregate concrete were compared with concrete from lateritic gravel. The paper investigated the variation in strength of four different mixes – 100: 0, 90: 10, 80: 20 and 70: 30 – when portions of the lateritic gravel were replaced with pit sand, respectively, using varying water cement ratios to achieve optimal workability.

Findings

The density and compressive strength of each cube was measured on the 7th and 28th test dates. An increase in slump and compressive strength was observed in the lateritic concrete, as portions of the lateritic gravel were replaced with sand. However, the rate of increase in the compressive strength tended to decrease with increase in part replacement of lateritic gravel with sand indicating that there was a threshold of percentage of sand increase after which the compressive strengths are likely to decrease. This work never reached this threshold, but it is estimated to be about 40 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

Investigations focused on lateritic gravel sampled from two sites to represent samples from both the forest and savannah belt.

Practical/implications

Lateritic gravel can be used as all-in aggregate for non-structural concrete.

Originality/value

The compressive strengths achieved were better than those for the available normal all-in aggregate used.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 15 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Sarfo Mensah, Collins Ameyaw, Blondel Akun Abaitey and Hayford Obeng Yeboah

Over dependence on river/sea sand as building material has impacted the environment negatively. However, laterite, which is an environment-friendly indigenous building…

Abstract

Purpose

Over dependence on river/sea sand as building material has impacted the environment negatively. However, laterite, which is an environment-friendly indigenous building material in sub-Saharan Africa, has been less exploited as a suitable alternative. This paper aims to ascertain the optimum cement–laterite mix proportion at which laterite can be stabilized for production of walling units.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental method, laterite was collected from three borrow pit sites. Sieve analysis was performed to determine the particle size distribution. Also, the degree of workability of the cement–laterite mix was ascertained using slump test. Compressive strengths were determined at cement stabilization percentages of 3%, 7% and 10% on 12 cubes of100 mm cast and cured for 14 and 28 days, respectively.

Findings

The results showed that the lateritic soil investigated, achieves its optimum strength in 28 days of curing, at a stabilization level of 10%. An average compressive strength of 2.41 N/mm2, which is 20.5% greater than the target strength, was achieved.

Practical implications

To meet the desired compressive strength of alternative walling units while achieving environmental sustainability and efficiency in production, cement stabilization of lateritic soils should become a recommended practice by built environment professionals in sub-Saharan Africa.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first research works that attempts to determine the optimum level at which the abundant sub-Saharan laterite can be chemically stabilized for the production of non-load bearing walling units. This research promotes an environment-friendly alternative building material to sea sand, river sand and off-shore sand.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Sheetal Sheetal, Rajiv Kumar and Shashi Shashi

This paper seeks to examine the export competitiveness and concentration level of the 15 top sugar exporting countries over the last 18 years (2001–2018) with special…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the export competitiveness and concentration level of the 15 top sugar exporting countries over the last 18 years (2001–2018) with special reference to India.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper utilizes a review based approach and explains the structures of major sugar economies in context to protected and unprotected perspectives. Subsequently, empirical research was carried out to assess the competitiveness level of sugar using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) approach and Hirschman Herfindahl Index.

Findings

The study found structural changes in cane or beet sugar, and molasses over the time period between 2006 and 2015. Further, the findings confirmed that despite the stringent regulations in European Union, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Thailand, China, and India, the comparative advantage is high up to seven to nine sugar categories. Besides, despite the indulgent regulations in the Colombia, Brazil, and Canada, the comparative advantage is only consistent up to two to three sugar categories.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides an overview of competitiveness patterns of 15 sugar exporting countries and further compare their comparative and concentration levels. In this context, in future, it would be interesting to study the macro-economic and firm and industry-specific factors which may strengthen the study findings.

Practical implications

This study suggests that the sugar export of few countries (i.e. Mexico and Canada) is restricted up to their trade pacts and free trade zones which is restricting the competitiveness level and performance. Accordingly, such countries need to enlarge their business boundaries to foster their export competitiveness level. Rational subsidies and governmental assistance in diversification schemes in terms of products' range and sustainable processes can make India a consistent exporter in more categories.

Originality/value

Although, the previous studies attempted to examine the sugar industry with particular country context, this study enlarge the body of knowledge through simultaneously examining the sugar export scenario of fifteen sugar exporting countries and providing a broad comparative view of their competitiveness and concentration levels.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Linu Babu, S. Vishnu Mohan, Mahesh Mohan and A.P. Pradeepkumar

This paper aims to examine the geochemical change experienced by laterites in Kerala, India, subjected to tropical monsoonal climate. These sediments are underlain by hard…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the geochemical change experienced by laterites in Kerala, India, subjected to tropical monsoonal climate. These sediments are underlain by hard rock. The source rock characteristics have a major stake on the ultimate composition of sediments, as also the climatic conditions which an area experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Core samples have been obtained from several locations in a lateritic plateau. The upper portions of the borehole cores are composed of the lateritic hard cap, followed by lateritic soils. The soil samples were subjected to sediment texture analysis and XRF analysis (Bruker S4 Pioneer Sequential Wavelength-Dispersive XRF) for the determination of major elements ((in oxide form).

Findings

Major element geochemistry has revealed the following order of relative proportions of elements (in oxide form) SiO2 > Al2O3 > Fe2O3 > TiO2 >> Na2O > P2O5 > CaO > K2O > MgO > MnO. Even though the concentrations of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contribute 90% of major element chemistry, there is no significant correlation found for these elements within themselves or with others.

Research limitations/implications

Microscale movement of elements could not be characterised in this study. This requires access to an electron probe micro analyzer.

Practical implications

The practical implication of tropical weathering is that enhanced chemical leaching leads to movement of most elements out of the system, except for Al, leading to the possible formation of bauxite, or aluminous laterite.

Social implications

The weathered products in this study provide livelihood sustenance for many of the local households, through manual production of laterite bricks, which are used in construction.

Originality/value

The indices of the intensity of chemical alteration/weathering like chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical index of weathering (CIW) and weathering index of parker (WIP) reveal that the sediments indicate intense weathering of the source area prior to being deposited in the present location. This indicates enhanced monsoonal activity in the provenance areas, than that obtained today.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Anjani Kumar, Gaurav Tripathi and P. K. Joshi

New varieties of paddy are constantly being developed in India in order to sustain yield gains in the face of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

New varieties of paddy are constantly being developed in India in order to sustain yield gains in the face of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the authors attempt to identify the drivers for adoption of new varieties of paddy in India; the authors also estimate the impact on yield of the adoption of new paddy varieties.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data consisted of the reported information from approximately 20,000 paddy farmers in India. The study employs Cragg's double-hurdle model to study the probability and intensity of adoption of new varieties; we use regression discontinuity design to estimate the change in yield due to adoption of new varieties.

Findings

The authors’ findings indicate that the adoption of new varieties of paddy in India varies significantly within and between regions; further, the adoption of new varieties is affected by a number of socioeconomic and demographic factors; the authors also find that the adoption of new varieties increases yield significantly.

Research limitations/implications

These are observational data and not based on the experiments. The authors relied on farmers' memory to recall the information.

Originality/value

The authors suggest the formulation of strategic policies that can cater to the needs of regions and states that are lagging behind in the adoption of new paddy varieties.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Henry Adobor

This article extends the literature on agricultural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial failure in Ghana, a country in sub-Saharan Africa by exploring failure in a cohort…

Abstract

Purpose

This article extends the literature on agricultural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial failure in Ghana, a country in sub-Saharan Africa by exploring failure in a cohort of firms. As engines of economic growth, the performance of micro, small, and medium-sized firms is important. Agro-based enterprises, in particular, are vital because entrepreneurial failure in agribusiness affects food security, and is disruptive to social and economic stability.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative data from interviews, we identified reasons for the failure of a group of entrepreneurs associated with a novel agribusiness activity in an otherwise economically attractive market in an emerging economy. The data for the study came from 69 respondents who started and exited aquaculture, a form of agribusiness within a period.

Findings

The results of this study show that there can be negative effects of social structure on entrepreneurial behavior and outcomes. The strong social ties that emerged among the farmer-entrepreneurs led to excessive peer-to-peer copying and knowledge sharing, leading to premature closure of the search for nonredundant ideas. One consequence of that was the narrowing of the pool of available knowledge, which if broadened, may have improved the chances of success of these businesses. Also, the results demonstrate that a lack of institutional support in the form of training in the appropriate management of a new technology adversely affected the farmer-entrepreneurs and their businesses. It is important for governments that introduce a new economic activity to provide the scaffolding, including an understanding of the value chain, to enhance the chances of the economic success of ventures. Entrepreneurs for their part need to broaden their search for new ideas outside their peer groups to increase their chances of accessing non-redundant knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is small, limiting the generalization of findings and the recollection of events may fade with the passage of time, especially since most of the farmers did not keep written records.

Practical implications

First, entrepreneurship and economic development, long held as a panacea for moving developing countries out of poverty, may require consistent government support. Second, entrepreneurs venturing into business need to understand the particular challenges associated with a novel activity. Finally, entrepreneurs need to recognize that interconnectedness should not necessarily lead to the convergence of ideas and behavior.

Originality/value

The study extends and contextualizes the literature on agricultural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial failure. Besides, the study focuses on entrepreneurial failure in Sub-Saharan Africa, an under-researched setting.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Md. Reaz, Dorothea Bowyer, Connie Vitale, Masnun Mahi and Ahmed Mohamed Dahir

The paper examines the nexus between agricultural exports and the performance of agricultural firms in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the nexus between agricultural exports and the performance of agricultural firms in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic linkage is tested by using system GMM models and the period ranges from 2002 to 2016.

Findings

The results indicate that agricultural exports affect performance positively. However, agricultural raw materials have no significant impact on performance.

Research limitations/implications

The agricultural exports in relation to sectoral performance needs to be considered in the future.

Practical implications

The findings are important for policymakers to formulate policies that promote the agricultural sector. To put it differently, the policies may encourage investments in this sector. Also, the findings have substantial academic implications, bridging the gap between theory and empirical literature in the agricultural sector.

Originality/value

This work highlights the agricultural exports and their impacts on a firm's performance.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Amobi C. Ekwe, Alexander I. Opara and Obialo S. Onwuka

The corrosivity and competence of soils within Uburu and Okposi areas of the Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria, were evaluated using the electrical resistivity method. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The corrosivity and competence of soils within Uburu and Okposi areas of the Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria, were evaluated using the electrical resistivity method. This paper aims to provide information that will aid pre-design of subsurface iron/steel pipe networks for distribution of pipe-borne water and construction of subsurface structures for agricultural and environmental purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 22 vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the Schlumberger configuration were acquired with Allied Ohmega™ Terrameter with a maximum half current (AB/2) electrode spacing of 200 m. Layer parameters were determined using partial curve matching techniques, using the Schlumberger master curves, while processing and modelling were done with the IPI2win™ software. The VES results were interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively to obtain various curve types and layer parameters, respectively, which were used to categorize the area into different competence and corrosivity zones. The first layer isoresistivity and competence maps were used to delineate four zones (A,B,C and D) with varying apparent resistivities and competences.

Findings

Incompetent soils with resistivity values ranging from 24.3-88.7 Om are found in Zone A. The soils in Zone A are mainly expansive clays which swell on absorption of water. Zone B contains moderately competent soils with resistivity values ranging from 273-308.6 Om, while Zones C and D are underlain by sandstones and contain competent to highly competent soils with resistivity values ranging from 511-750 Om and 835-1,525 Om, respectively. Zone E contains highly corrosive (24.3 Om) to mildly corrosive (102 Om) soils; Zone F contains soils that are essentially non-corrosive with resistivity values ranging from 271-1,525 Om, while the corrosivity of soils within Zone G varies from corrosive to mildly corrosive, with resistivity values ranging from 44.3-114 Om.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the areas are not accessible because of community restrictions.

Practical implications

These findings are essentially very significant and should be taken into consideration when materials that are susceptible to corrosion are being considered for engineering, agricultural and environmental purposes in the area.

Social implications

The findings will aid water resource planners and developers on how to protect metal pipes from corrosion, when used for water reticulation and agricultural purposes.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the corrosivity of soils in the study area with a view to providing adequate protection to metal objects when being considered for water reticulation for domestic and agricultural purposes in the area.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Banhi Chakraborty

The purpose of this paper is to examine the success rate of MGNREGS as one of the major flagship programme aimed for employment generation for the rural unemployed through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the success rate of MGNREGS as one of the major flagship programme aimed for employment generation for the rural unemployed through exploring the applicability of the schemes in the given sociogeographical diversities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper attempts to reveal the relevance and outcome of MGNREGS in the context of rural labour market situation at different levels of the decentralised governance, using data published by the Ministry of Labour and employment at first stage, in addition to web-supported database of Ministry of Rural Development, and it also attempts, through case studies, to find out the root causes of anomalies at ground levels those intricate the performances at successive levels.

Findings

The paper shows how the structural deficiencies of the programme being added with procedural lapses affecting the realisation of the expected benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings are relevant with the particular socio-geographical situation which may have less applicability in areas of much favourable agro-climatic conditions.

Practical implications

The directions the paper could established will help in policy reform at State and Central levels. Special emphasis given on in-built lapses has implications in re-framing the schemes considering the feasibility of the local situations.

Social implications

The work attempted at the present set-up where the institution's mainstream direction is focused towards technological inputs dissemination both at teaching and research levels, may draw attention equally for understanding the social relevance of technology and it's application in particular.

Originality/value

The paper attempts to examine the intricacies involved in application of broad-base public-work programme in reality and suggested necessary corrections through adopting area-specific policies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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