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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Alexandra E. MacDougall, John E. Baur, Milorad M. Novicevic and M. Ronald Buckley

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult…

Abstract

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult to navigate and comprehend. One potential explanation is that scholars have failed to comprehend that organizations are complex and intricate systems. In order to move us past this morass, we recommend that researchers extend beyond traditional rational, mechanistic, and variable-centered approaches to research and integrate a more advantageous pattern-oriented approach within their research program. Pattern-oriented methods approximate real-life phenomena by adopting a holistic, integrative approach to research wherein individual- and organizational-systems are viewed as non-decomposable organized wholes. We argue that the pattern-oriented approach has the potential to overcome a number of breakdowns faced by alternate approaches, while offering a novel and more representative lens from which to view organizational- and HRM-related issues. The proposed incorporation of the pattern-oriented approach is framed within a review and evaluation of current approaches to organizational research and is supplemented with a discussion of methodological and theoretical implications as well as potential applications of the pattern-oriented approach.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Jesús Pérez-Mayo

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific…

Abstract

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific literature and in social policy. We propose to use latent class analysis to evaluate poverty in Spain. We make use of the “fuzzy set” approach, and compare the results achieved from these two methodologies.

Details

Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Sonia Shagufta, Daniel Boduszek, Katie Dhingra and Derrol Kola-Palmer

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the number and nature of latent classes of delinquency that exist among male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the number and nature of latent classes of delinquency that exist among male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 415 young male offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. Latent class analysis was employed to determine the number and nature of delinquency latent classes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between latent classes and the three factors of criminal social identity (cognitive centrality, in-group affect, and in-group ties) whilst controlling for criminal friends, period of confinement, addiction, age, and location.

Findings

The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution. The classes were labelled: “minor delinquents” (the baseline/normative class; Class 3), “major delinquents” (Class 1), and “moderate delinquents” (Class 2). Class membership was predicted by differing external variables. Specifically, Class 1 membership was related to having more criminal friends; while Class 2 membership was related to lower levels of in-group affect and higher levels of in-group ties.

Practical implications

Findings are discussed in relation to refining current taxonomic arguments regarding the structure of delinquency and implications for prevention of juvenile delinquent behaviour.

Originality/value

First, most previous studies have focused on school children, whereas, this paper focuses on incarcerated juvenile offenders. Second, this research includes delinquents from Pakistan, whereas, most previous research has examined delinquent behaviour in western cultures.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Christian Ritzel and Stefan Mann

While it is incontestable that eating in restaurants leads to a higher energy intake than eating at home, this paper explores the even more environmentally relevant…

Abstract

Purpose

While it is incontestable that eating in restaurants leads to a higher energy intake than eating at home, this paper explores the even more environmentally relevant connection between meat intake and the location of eating.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on secondary data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the authors apply a latent class model (LCM), combining latent profile analysis (LPA) and regression analysis. Different (latent) consumer classes are modeled based (1) on share of meat consumption and (2) share of eating out by means of LPA, while class-specific socio-demographic characteristics are estimated by means of ordered logistic regression.

Findings

Results of the LPA reveal four (latent) consumer classes with regard to the share of meat consumption and the share of eating out. One class consists mostly of male meat lovers with a high share of eating out, which, however, only represents 7% of the sample. A much larger class represents an affluent social group that consumes the majority of food outside of the home but does not consume significantly more meat than the large group of moderates who mostly eat at home. The fourth class mostly consists of children with a very low intake of meat.

Originality/value

By applying a LCM, the authors shed some light on the relation between meat consumption and eating out. The authors demonstrated that commonly assumed relations, such as men eating more meat than women, do not necessarily apply. Similar findings apply to factors potentially influencing meat consumption, such as education, marital status and income.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2021

Jinju Lee, Yunsoo Lee, Soo Jung Kim and Ji Hoon Song

The purpose of this study is to identify latent classes of work values that influence the career choices of Korean workers through a person-centred approach. Because work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify latent classes of work values that influence the career choices of Korean workers through a person-centred approach. Because work values may be diverse in individuals, investigating the various combinations of those values will help understand individual's decisions to take, maintain and leave a job.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a total of 15,103 datasets collected at the national level in South Korea. Data were analyzed by using latent class analysis (LCA); a three-step approach was employed to address classification.

Findings

As the results of this study, Class 3, “seeking balanced work values rather than income,” presented the highest level of job satisfaction, whereas Class 1, “seeking job security and income,” exhibited the lowest.

Originality/value

Employing an assessment tool to identify the distinct combinations of work values that individuals possess and then providing them with appropriate training and development programs and customized Human Resource (HR) policies aligned with the classes will be essential tasks for HRD (Human Resource Development)/HRM (Human Resource Management) practitioners.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Peter M. Rivera and Frank D. Fincham

Research on the intergenerational transmission of violence has been limited by reliance on variable-oriented methodology that does not capture heterogeneity that exists…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the intergenerational transmission of violence has been limited by reliance on variable-oriented methodology that does not capture heterogeneity that exists within experiences of violent interpersonal conduct. The current study therefore examines the utility of a person-oriented statistical method in understanding patterns of maltreatment and intimate partner violence.

Approach

Guided by person-oriented theory, the current study utilizes latent class analysis, a person-oriented method used with cross-sectional data, to examine the heterogeneity within this transmission process in a sample of emerging adults (N = 150). This study also examined whether the classes identified differed on reported emotional reactivity and childhood family environment.

Findings

Three classes emerged from the latent class analysis, labeled full transmission, psychological transmission, and no transmission. Those comprising the full transmission subgroup reported the lowest levels of childhood family cohesion, accord, and closeness. The full transmission subgroup also reported significantly more emotional reactivity than the psychological transmission and no transmission subgroups.

Implications

To understand fully the etiology of intimate partner violence for maltreated offspring, a multidimensional view of violence is needed. The current study represents a step in this direction by demonstrating the utility of a person-oriented approach in understanding the IGT of violence.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Cristian Morosan and Agnes DeFranco

Cyber-attacks on hotel information systems could threaten the privacy of consumers and the integrity of the data they exchange upon connecting their mobile devices to…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyber-attacks on hotel information systems could threaten the privacy of consumers and the integrity of the data they exchange upon connecting their mobile devices to hotel networks. As the perceived cyber-security risk may be reflected heterogeneously within the US consumer population traveling internationally, the purpose of this study is to examine such heterogeneity to uncover classes of US consumers based on their perceptions of risk of using tablets for various tasks when staying in hotels abroad.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data collected from 1,016 US consumers who stayed in hotels abroad, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify the consumers based on their perceptions of risk associated with several tablet use behaviors in hotels.

Findings

The analysis uncovered four latent classes and produced a characterization of these classes according to several common behavioral (frequency of travel, the continent of the destination, duration of stay and purpose of travel) and demographic (gender, age, income and education) consumer characteristics.

Originality/value

Being the first study that classifies consumers based on the risk of using tablets in hotels while traveling internationally, this study brings the following contributions: offers a methodology of classifying (segmenting) consumer markets based on their cyber-security risk perceptions, uses LPA, which provides opportunities for an accurate and generalizable characterization of multivariate data that comprehensively illustrate consumer behavior and broadens the perspective offered by the current literature by focusing on consumers who travel from their US residence location to international destinations.

研究目的

酒店信息系统的网络攻击可能会泄露消费者隐私以及其通过酒店网络连接移动网络而进行的数据交换。由于美国消费者在出国旅游中对于网络安全危险的感知因人而异,因此,本论文旨在研究这种个人差异性,对美国消费者在出国旅游居住酒店中使用平面电脑的危险感知,进行特点分类。

研究设计

本论文样本为居住在国外酒店的1,016名美国消费者。本论文采用潜在剖面分析(LPA),对其使用酒店平板电脑的危险感知进行分类。

研究结果

本论文研究结果归纳四种潜在类别,以及根据集中常见行为变量(旅游频率、旅游目的地所在的洲、酒店居住时长、旅游目的地)和统计人口信息(性别、年龄、收入、和教育),进行消费者特点归纳。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首篇基于消费者出国旅游时使用酒店平板电脑的危险感知而进消费者分类的文章。因此,本论文结果有以下贡献:(1)贡献一种分类研究方法(市场细分),基于网络安全危险感知而划分;(2)使用潜在剖面分析方法,为多变量数据分析消费者行为,产出精确而概括特性的研究,提供机会;(3)对现有文献对国际旅游的美国消费者的研究拓宽了视野。

关键词

网络安全危险、平板电脑、潜在剖面分析、酒店、国际旅游

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Pamela Ray Koch and John Carl Koch

We discuss adoption as a diverse family structure in America. Adoption has existed in some form throughout the history with the portrayal varying by historical epoch…

Abstract

We discuss adoption as a diverse family structure in America. Adoption has existed in some form throughout the history with the portrayal varying by historical epoch. Adoption has been both disparaged and idealized to perpetuate the interest of elite players. This chapter discusses adoption in terms of the changing demographic which 21st century families face. In this manuscript, we first discuss the history of adoption in the United States including its impact as social control of premarital sex. Then the three players in the adoption triad are discussed and analyzed. Finally, we highlight how demographics of race, class, gender, and sexuality impact the adoption experience by 21st century families. Specifically, we explore the recent National Survey of Adoptive Parents from the United States Center for Disease Control and look at the modern adoption experience

Details

Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures and Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-028-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Jouni Juntunen, Sinikka Lepistö and Mari Juntunen

Outsourcing of accounting increasingly attracts research interest, but research concerning the impact of the benefits of outsourcing on firm capabilities and performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Outsourcing of accounting increasingly attracts research interest, but research concerning the impact of the benefits of outsourcing on firm capabilities and performance across firms remains limited. This paper aims to reveal the unobservable latent classes of firms that outsource their accounting functions by testing a research model concerning the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build on accounting outsourcing research and adapt a research model from the literature on business services outsourcing. The authors analyze the data from 261 small and medium-sized enterprises in Europe using finite mixture structural equation modeling (FMSEM) and additional methods.

Findings

The authors reveal three latent classes with different research models. Thriving outsourcers (N = 103) have a positive attitude toward accounting outsourcing and associate competitive capabilities with mediating the relationship from outsourcing benefits to firm performance. Annoyed outsourcers (N = 143) are dissatisfied with their accounting service provider and only associate outsourcing benefits with competitive capabilities. Convenient outsourcers (N = 15) feel comfortable with their current accounting service provider and associate outsourcing benefits with neither capabilities nor with firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study initiates the discussion about the unobservable heterogeneity among accounting outsourcers. The study introduces the use of the FMSEM method in accounting outsourcing research.

Practical implications

The study offers novel insights concerning accounting outsourcers and proposes original explanations for their outsourcing decisions that would help both the outsourcers and accounting service providers.

Originality/value

The study might be the first to categorize accounting outsourcers using FMSEM.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Henriikka Weir and Catherine Kaukinen

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood on adolescent delinquency and subsequent adult criminality.

Methodology/approach

Using Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis (LLCA), the present study investigates whether there are distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories among those exposed to violence in childhood.

Findings

Findings from the current study indicate that there are three distinct trajectories of delinquency and offending from age 14 to 27 for both males and females exposed to violence in childhood. Further, it appears that violent victimization in childhood bridges the gender gap in delinquency between males and females. Thus, childhood violent victimization, and the fact that females are victimized by parents/caregivers and romantic partners at higher rates than males, might be partially responsible in explaining the narrowing of the gender gap between male and female offending in the recent decades. At the same time, childhood violent victimization also seems to impact males and females in somewhat different ways. Practically, all female victims stop offending by their late 20s, whereas a fairly large proportion of males exposed to violent victimization in childhood steadily continue offending.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was able to identify the diverse impacts of violence exposure on engagement in subsequent delinquency, it did not examine the unique contributions of each type of violence on adolescent outcomes or the chronicity of exposure to each of these types of violent victimization. We were also not able to measure all types of violence experiences in childhood, such as exposure to parents’ or caregivers’ intimate partner violence.

Social implications

While early prevention would be the most desirable option for both genders for the most optimal outcome, the retrospective intervention and treatment programs should be gender-specific. For males, they should heavily focus on providing alternative ways to cope with anger, impulse control and frustration, as well as teach empathy, cognitive problem solving skills, verbal communication skills, and tangible life and job skills. For females, most successful intervention and treatment programs may focus on helping the girls through a transition from adolescence to adulthood while providing mental health, medical, and family support services.

Originality/value

The paper uses a unique methodological approach to identify distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories. The findings demonstrate how more resilient individuals (in terms of externalizing behaviors) can bring down the mean scores of delinquency even though many other individuals can be severely affected by violence exposure in childhood.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

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