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1 – 10 of 364
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Taylor Davis, Tracy W. Nelson and Nathan B. Crane

dding dopants to a powder bed could be a cost-effective method for spatially varying the material properties in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) or for evaluating new…

Abstract

Purpose

dding dopants to a powder bed could be a cost-effective method for spatially varying the material properties in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) or for evaluating new materials and processing relationships. However, these additions may impact the selection of processing parameters. Furthermore, these impacts may be different when depositing nanoparticles into the powder bed than when the same composition is incorporated into the powder particles as by ball milling of powders or mixing similarly sized powders. This study aims to measure the changes in the single bead characteristics with laser power, laser scan speed, laser spot size and quantity of zirconia nanoparticle dopant added to SS 316 L powder.

Design/methodology/approach

A zirconia slurry was inkjet-printed into a single layer of 316 SS powder and dried. Single bead experiments were conducted on the composite powder. The line type (continuous vs balling) and the melt pool geometry were compared at various levels of zirconia doping.

Findings

The balling regime expands dramatically with the zirconia dopant to both higher and lower energy density values indicating the presence of multiple physical mechanisms that influence the resulting melt track morphology. However, the energy density required for continuous tracks was not impacted as significantly by zirconia addition. These results suggest that the addition of dopants may alter the process parameter ranges suitable for the fabrication of high-quality parts.

Originality/value

This work provides new insight into the potential impact of material doping on the ranges of energy density values that form continuous lines in single bead tests. It also illustrates a potential method for spatially varying material composition for process development or even part optimization in powder bed fusion without producing a mixed powder that cannot be recycled.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2020

Shekhar Srivastava, Rajiv Kumar Garg, Vishal S. Sharma, Noe Gaudencio Alba-Baena, Anish Sachdeva, Ramesh Chand and Sehijpal Singh

This paper aims to present a systematic approach in the literature survey related to metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes and its multi-physics continuum modelling…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a systematic approach in the literature survey related to metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes and its multi-physics continuum modelling approach for its better understanding.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of the literature available in the area of continuum modelling practices adopted for the powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes for the deposition of powder layer over the substrate along with quantification of residual stress and distortion. Discrete element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) approaches have been reviewed for the deposition of powder layer and thermo-mechanical modelling, respectively. Further, thermo-mechanical modelling adopted for the PBF AM process have been discussed in detail with its constituents. Finally, on the basis of prediction through thermo-mechanical models and experimental validation, distortion mitigation/minimisation techniques applied in PBF AM processes have been reviewed to provide a future direction in the field.

Findings

The findings of this paper are the future directions for the implementation and modification of the continuum modelling approaches applied to PBF AM processes. On the basis of the extensive review in the domain, gaps are recommended for future work for the betterment of modelling approach.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to review only the modelling approach adopted by the PBF AM processes, i.e. modelling techniques (DEM approach) used for the deposition of powder layer and macro-models at process scale for the prediction of residual stress and distortion in the component. Modelling of microstructure and grain growth has not been included in this paper.

Originality/value

This paper presents an extensive review of the FEM approach adopted for the prediction of residual stress and distortion in the PBF AM processes which sets the platform for the development of distortion mitigation techniques. An extensive review of distortion mitigation techniques has been presented in the last section of the paper, which has not been reviewed yet.

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2022

Jaydeepsinh M. Ravalji and Shruti J. Raval

Selective laser melting and electron beam melting processes are well-known for the additive manufacturing of metal parts. Metal powder bed fusion (MPBF) is a common term…

Abstract

Purpose

Selective laser melting and electron beam melting processes are well-known for the additive manufacturing of metal parts. Metal powder bed fusion (MPBF) is a common term for them. The MPBF process can empower the manufacturing of intricate shapes by reducing the use of special tools, shortening the supply chain and allowing small batches. However, the MPBF process suffers from many quality issues. In literature, several works are recorded for qualification of the MPBF part. The purpose of this study is to recollect those works done for quality control and report their helpful findings for further research and development.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted to highlight the major quality issues in the MPBF process and its root causes. Further, the works reported in the literature for mitigation of these issues are classified and discussed in five categories: experimental investigation, finite element method-based numerical models, physics-based analytical models, in-situ control using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods and statistical approaches. A comparison is also prepared among these strategies based on their suitability and limitations. Additionally, improvements in MPBF printers are pointed out to enhance the part quality.

Findings

Analytical models require less computational time to simulate the MPBF process and need a smaller number of experiments to confirm the results. They can be used as an efficient process parameter planning tool to print metal parts for noncritical applications. The AI-ML based quality control is also suitable for MPBF processes as it can control many processing parameters that may affect the quality of the MPBF part. Moreover, capabilities of MPBF printers like thinner layer thickness, smaller beam diameter, multiple lasers and high build temperature range can help in quality control.

Research limitations/implications

This study converts the piecemeal data on MPBF part qualification methods into interesting information and presents it in tabular form under each strategy. This tabular information provides the basis for further quality improvement efforts in the MPBF process.

Originality/value

This study references researchers and practitioners on recent quality control efforts and their significant findings for a better quality of MPBF part.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Zhenglin Du, Hui-Chi Chen, Ming Jen Tan, Guijun Bi and Chee Kai Chua

In recent years, additive manufacturing techniques have attracted much research attention because of their ability to fabricate customised parts with complex geometry. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, additive manufacturing techniques have attracted much research attention because of their ability to fabricate customised parts with complex geometry. The range of composites suitable for laser-based powder bed fusion technique is limited, and has not been investigated yet. This paper aims to study the fabrication of AlSi10Mg reinforced with nAl2O3 using the laser-based powder bed fusion technique.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach was used to investigate the densification of AlSi10Mg–nAl2O3 composites using laser-based powder bed fusion technique. Optimisation of the porosity was performed, and microstructure evolution was evaluated.

Findings

In this study, laser volumetric energy density (approximately 109 J/mm3) was found to be required for the fabrication of AlSi10Mg–nAl2O3 composites with a relative volumetric density approximating 99%. The use of laser volumetric energy density resulted in larger grains. Columnar grain structure was observed via the use of electron backscatter diffraction mapping.

Originality/value

This paper examines the processing of new aluminium composite material suitable for the fabrication via the laser-based powder bed fusion technique.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Andrei C. Popescu, Mihai Oane, Carmen Ristoscu and Ion N. Mihailescu

This paper aims to develop efficient and simple models for thermal distribution, melt pool dimensions and controlled phase change in the laser additive manufacturing (AM…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop efficient and simple models for thermal distribution, melt pool dimensions and controlled phase change in the laser additive manufacturing (AM) of bulk and powder particles ceramic materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes new analytical models for the AM of bulk and powder bed ceramic materials. A volumetric moving heat source, along with the complete melting of bulk and powder particle materials, is taken into account. Different values of laser absorption coefficient in solid and liquid states have been used to investigate the phase transformation. Furthermore, the pores and voids dimensions are also included in the modeling. Theoretical predictions have been compared with the experimental analyses and finite element simulations in laser to silicon nitride and laser to alumina interaction. The analysis focuses on the impact of laser power and scanning speed on the melt pool width and depth evolution into the bulk substrate and powder bed.

Findings

This study shows that the powder particles exhibit a higher thermal distribution value than the bulk substrate because of voids in the powder layer. The laser beam experiences multiple reflections in the presence of porosity/voids, thus increasing the surface absorption coefficient, which becomes relevant with the increment in the pore/void dimension. A direct relationship has been found between the laser power and melt pool dimensions, while the scanning speed displayed an inverse relationship for the melt pool width and length. Larger melt dimensions were inferred in the case of laserpowder particle interaction compared with laser–bulk substrate interaction. A close correlation was found between the analytical simulations, experimental investigations and numerical simulation results within the range of 4%–8%.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to develop efficient and simplified models for ceramics laser AM by taking into account different laser absorption coefficients in solid and liquid form, voids and pores dimensions and controlled phase transformation to avoid vapors and plasma formation. The limitation of the finite element simulation model is that the solution is strongly dependent on the mesh quality and accuracy directly linked to the computation efficiency and time. A finer mesh requires a longer computing time than a coarse mesh. Finite element simulations require, however, specialized skills.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Mehrshad Mehrpouya, Daniel Tuma, Tom Vaneker, Mohamadreza Afrasiabi, Markus Bambach and Ian Gibson

This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in powder bed fusion (PBF) techniques for additive manufacturing of multiple materials…

2932

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in powder bed fusion (PBF) techniques for additive manufacturing of multiple materials. It reviews the emerging technologies in PBF multimaterial printing and summarizes the latest simulation approaches for modeling them. The topic of “multimaterial PBF techniques” is still very new, undeveloped, and of interest to academia and industry on many levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper. The study approach was to carefully search for and investigate notable works and peer-reviewed publications concerning multimaterial three-dimensional printing using PBF techniques. The current methodologies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, are cross-compared through a systematic review.

Findings

The results show that the development of multimaterial PBF techniques is still in its infancy as many fundamental “research” questions have yet to be addressed before production. Experimentation has many limitations and is costly; therefore, modeling and simulation can be very helpful and is, of course, possible; however, it is heavily dependent on the material data and computational power, so it needs further development in future studies.

Originality/value

This work investigates the multimaterial PBF techniques and discusses the novel printing methods with practical examples. Our literature survey revealed that the number of accounts on the predictive modeling of stresses and optimizing laser scan strategies in multimaterial PBF is low with a (very) limited range of applications. To facilitate future developments in this direction, the key information of the simulation efforts and the state-of-the-art computational models of multimaterial PBF are provided.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Manoj Kumar, Gregory J. Gibbons, Amitabha Das, Indranil Manna, David Tanner and Hiren R. Kotadia

The purpose of this study is to investigate the microstructural evolution of high-strength 2024 Al alloy prepared by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the microstructural evolution of high-strength 2024 Al alloy prepared by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) route. The high-strength wrought Al alloy has typically been unsuitable for AM due to its particular solidification characteristics such as hot cracking, porosity and columnar grain growth.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research work, samples were fabricated using L-PBF under various laser energy densities by varying laser power and scan speed. The microstructural features that developed during the solidification are correlated with operating laser parameters. In addition, finite element modelling (FEM) was performed to understand the experimentally observed results.

Findings

Microstructure evolution and defect formation have been assessed, quantified and correlated with operating laser parameters. Thermal behaviour of samples was predicted using FEM to support experimental observations. An optimised combination of intermediate laser power and scan speed produced the least defects. Higher energy density increased hot tearing along the columnar grain boundaries, while lower energy density promoted void formation. From the quantitative results, it is evident that with increasing energy density, both the top surface and side wall roughness initially reduced till a minimum and then increased. Hardness and compressive strength were found to decrease with increasing power density due to stress relaxation from hot tearing.

Originality/value

This research work examined how L-PBF processing conditions influence the microstructure, defects, surface roughness and mechanical properties. The results indicates that complete elimination of solidification cracks can be only achieved by combining process optimisation and possible grain refining strategies.

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2022

Kaitlyn Gee, Suh In Kim, Haden Quinlan and A. John Hart

This study presents a framework to estimate throughput and cost of additive manufacturing (AM) as related to process parameters, material thermodynamic properties and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study presents a framework to estimate throughput and cost of additive manufacturing (AM) as related to process parameters, material thermodynamic properties and machine specifications. Taking a 3D model of the part design as input, the model uses a parametrization of the rate-limiting physics of the AM build process – herein focusing on laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and scaling of LPBF melt pool geometry – to estimate part- and material-specific build time. From this estimate, per-part cost is calculated using a quantity-dependent activity-based production model.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis tools that assess how design variables and process parameters influence production cost increase our understanding of the economics of AM, thereby supporting its practical adoption. To this aim, our framework produces a representative scaling among process parameters, build rate and production cost.

Findings

For exemplary alloys and LPBF system specifications, predictions reveal the underlying tradeoff between production cost and machine capability, and look beyond the capability of currently commercially available equipment. As a proxy for build quality, the number of times each point in the build is re-melted is derived analytically as a function of process parameters, showcasing the tradeoff between print quality due to increased melting cycles, and throughput.

Originality/value

Typical cost models for AM only assess single operating points and are not coupled to models of the representative rate-limiting process physics. The present analysis of LPBF elucidates this important coupling, revealing tradeoffs between equipment capability and production cost, and looking beyond the limits of current commercially available equipment.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Cassidy Silbernagel, Adedeji Aremu and Ian Ashcroft

Metal-based additive manufacturing is a relatively new technology used to fabricate metal objects within an entirely digital workflow. However, only a small number of…

Abstract

Purpose

Metal-based additive manufacturing is a relatively new technology used to fabricate metal objects within an entirely digital workflow. However, only a small number of different metals are proven for this process. This is partly due to the need to find a new set of parameters which can be used to successfully build an object for every new alloy investigated. There are dozens of variables which contribute to a successful set of parameters and process parameter optimisation is currently a manual process which relies on human judgement.

Design/methodology/approach

Here, the authors demonstrate the application of machine learning as an alternative method to determine this set of process parameters, the subject of this test is the processing of pure copper in a laser powder bed fusion printer. Data in the form of optical images were collected over the course of traditional parameter optimisation. These images were segmented and fed into a convolutional autoencoder and then clustered to find the clusters which best represented a high-quality result. The clusters were manually scored according to their quality and the results applied to the original set of parameters.

Findings

It was found that the machine-learned clustering and subsequent scoring reflected many of the observations which were found in the traditional parameter optimisation process.

Originality/value

This exercise, as well as demonstrating the effectiveness of the ML approach, indicates an opportunity to fully automate the approach to process optimisation by applying labels to the data, hence, an approach that could also potentially be suited for on-the-fly process optimisation.

Graphical abstract

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Agnieszka Chmielewska, Bartlomiej Adam Wysocki, Elżbieta Gadalińska, Eric MacDonald, Bogusława Adamczyk-Cieślak, David Dean and Wojciech Świeszkowski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and titanium powders using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). In addition, the influence of manufacturing parameters and different melting strategies, including multiple cycles of remelting, on printability and macro defects, such as pore and crack formation, have been investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An LPBF process was used to manufacture NiTi alloy from elementally blended powders and was evaluated with the use of a remelting scanning strategy to improve the homogeneity of fabricated specimens. Furthermore, both single melt and up to two remeltings were used.

Findings

The results indicate that remelting can be beneficial for density improvement as well as chemical and phase composition homogenization. Backscattered electron mode in scanning electron microscope showed a reduction in the presence of unmixed Ni and Ti elemental powders in response to increasing the number of remelts. The microhardness values of NiTi parts for the different numbers of melts studied were similar and ranged from 487 to 495 HV. Nevertheless, it was observed that measurement error decreases as the number of remelts increases, suggesting an increase in chemical and phase composition homogeneity. However, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of multiple phases regardless of the number of melt runs.

Originality/value

For the first time, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, elementally blended NiTi powders were fabricated via LPBF using remelting scanning strategies.

1 – 10 of 364