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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2008

Dawn H. Pearcy, Delvon B. Parker and Larry C. Giunipero

With ever‐increasing competitive pressures, growing numbers of firms use electronic procurement (e‐procurement) in an attempt to reduce costs and increase profitability…

Abstract

With ever‐increasing competitive pressures, growing numbers of firms use electronic procurement (e‐procurement) in an attempt to reduce costs and increase profitability. Academicians and practitioners alike agree that one of the most important benefits of e‐procurement is its ability to facilitate integration within the firm and across the supply chain. However, there is much to be discovered about the prevalence of actual implementation of e‐procurement. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the extent to which firms operating in diverse industries use nine different e‐procurement tools that differ in their ability to facilitate supply chain integration. The survey data were provided by a sample of 142 members of the Institute for Supply Management (ISM). Factor analysis revealed that the group of nine e‐procurement tools could be categorized into two types: basic, single‐process tools and integrative tools. A t‐test of the mean differences between each type of e‐procurement tool revealed that firms used basic, single‐process tools to a greater extent than they used integrative forms of e‐procurement. To further explore firms’ use of e‐procurement, we attempted to ascertain whether the industry in which a firm operates impacts use. Logistic regression revealed that firm sector has an effect on the use of integrative eprocurement tools, with firms operating in the petroleum and the transportation equipment sectors being less likely to use them than their manufacturing counterparts. These findings are important, as previous research indicates that effective supply chain integration is associated with improvements in production planning, inventory management, distribution, and overall supply chain performance.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Larry C. Giunipero and Robert M. Monczka

Analysis of the organisational structures utilised to conduct international purchasing activities was undertaken at 24 multinational corporations. The majority of the…

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1038

Abstract

Analysis of the organisational structures utilised to conduct international purchasing activities was undertaken at 24 multinational corporations. The majority of the corporations studied had decentralised purchasing organisations and all had corporate purchasing staffs. Four basic approaches were found: (1) totally decentralised; (2) co‐ordinated; (3) totally centralised; and (4) separate international purchasing group. Within this overall framework there were several forms of staff assistance to assist operating units effectively accomplish their international purchasing goals. This assistance included foreign buying offices, trading companies and international staff specialists. There was also a common philosophy which indicated the necessity of worldwide sourcing.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1990

Larry C. Giunipero and Wai K. Law

A Just‐in‐Time system crosses functional lines and therefore requires support throughout the organisation. A survey of one‐hundred firms actively pursuing JIT…

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1416

Abstract

A Just‐in‐Time system crosses functional lines and therefore requires support throughout the organisation. A survey of one‐hundred firms actively pursuing JIT implementation found relatively high commitment from top and middle level management. Lack of functional support, especially from engineering, finance, and marketing has been reported as barriers in JIT implementation. The non‐commitment of functional groups has been related to their failure to understand JIT. This study found the size of the firm, the type of productive system, and the type of business did not exhibit strong influence over management and functional group commitment levels for JIT implementation.

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The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Reham A. Eltantawy, Gavin L. Fox and Larry Giunipero

There is a lack of extensive research related to the immediate consequences of supply management ethical responsibility (SMER) and the moderating and/or mediating factors…

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7635

Abstract

Purpose

There is a lack of extensive research related to the immediate consequences of supply management ethical responsibility (SMER) and the moderating and/or mediating factors that strengthen or weaken its consequences. Although the underlying presumption is that companies no longer have the luxury of ignoring the importance of SMER, the lack of empirical research of SMER's impact on supply management performance (SMP) reflects the need for research that draws on and empirically tests established theories concerning the role of corporate ethics within the context of supply management (SM). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of SMER and strategic supply management skills on SM perceived reputation and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the hypothesized relationships. A sample of 162 purchasing managers provided the data via survey.

Findings

Strategic supply management skills and perceived reputation have a positive direct impact on performance. SMER is not directly affected by skills and has an indirect impact on performance through its positive relationship with perceived reputation.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that SMER is limited in its ability to predict performance, but is a valuable component of building SM perceived reputation. Firms should not ignore SMER, as it may provide strategic marketing advantage as an order qualifier or limiting criterion.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the interplay among several important determinants of supply chain performance, including the greatly under‐studied ethics construct.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Larry C. Giunipero and Richard R. Brand

The concept and importance of supply chain management (SCM) has been introduced and described at length in the literature. Several mostly conceptual definitions of SCM…

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5466

Abstract

The concept and importance of supply chain management (SCM) has been introduced and described at length in the literature. Several mostly conceptual definitions of SCM were found. To classify these multiple definitions and extend SCM to include a process orientation a conceptual model of SCM evolution was developed. This research proposes that SCM is an evolving concept with individual firms at different stages in their adoption of the concept. In its most advanced form SCM is not a subset of logistics but is a broad strategy which cuts across business processes both within the firm and through the channels required to reach the customer and involves the firm's suppliers. Thus SCM as a concept is organization‐wide; not logistics‐specific. An exploratory study of purchasing professionals was performed and it was determined that their definitions of SCM focused on developing relations with suppliers including partnerships. SCM provided purchasers multiple benefits including improved supplier coordination. This improved coordination resulted in greater commitment to long‐term supplier relations, with a focus on reducing cost to the buying organization.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Larry C. Giunipero and Reham Aly Eltantawy

Supply managers must manage many risks in their increasingly competitive environments. Traditionally this meant buffering against uncertainties, which sub‐optimized…

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14412

Abstract

Supply managers must manage many risks in their increasingly competitive environments. Traditionally this meant buffering against uncertainties, which sub‐optimized operational performance. Risk management can be a more effective approach to deal with these uncertainties by identifying potential losses. This conceptual study proposes that situational factors‐ degree of product technology, security needs, the relative importance of the supplier, and the purchasers’ prior experience with the situation should be taken into consideration when determining the level of risk management in the supply chain. Doing so can avoid unforeseen losses and lead to better anticipation of risks.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Larry C. Giunipero and Robert M. Monczka

Discusses analysis of the organizational structures utilized to conduct international purchasing activities which was undertaken at 24 multinational corporations. The…

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3433

Abstract

Discusses analysis of the organizational structures utilized to conduct international purchasing activities which was undertaken at 24 multinational corporations. The majority of the corporations studied had decentral‐ ized purchasing organizations and all had corporate purchasing staffs. Four basic approaches were found: (1) totally decentralized; (2) co‐ordinated; (3) totally centralized; and (4) separate international purchasing group. Within this overall framework there were several forms of staff assistance for helping operating units effectively to accomplish their international purchasing goals. This assistance included foreign buying offices, trading companies, and international staff specialists. There was also a common philosophy which indicated the necessity of worldwide sourcing.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 27 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Dawn H. Pearcy and Larry C. Giunipero

The purpose of this research is to empirically investigate the role of firm size in the use of e‐procurement applications that vary in their ability to facilitate supply…

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5068

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to empirically investigate the role of firm size in the use of e‐procurement applications that vary in their ability to facilitate supply chain integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was drawn from members of the Institute for Supply Management (ISM). Purchasing professionals employed in 33 different industries completed a self‐administered questionnaire.

Findings

A total of 128 useable surveys were received. The data revealed a significant relationship between firm size and e‐procurement application. Specifically, larger firms were more likely to use integrative types of e‐procurement.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited in that it excluded purchasing professionals employed in the service sector. In addition, it only focused on the relationship between a single variable and e‐procurement application.

Practical implications

This research provides support for studies that suggest that firm size is related to IT use. In addition, it tests the framework developed in a previous research study conducted on supply chain IT. Finally, previous research has linked supply chain process integration with operational agility, lower costs, superior product/service design, and enhanced profitability. The findings of this research might prompt decision‐makers to ask themselves if their firms forgo such potential benefits when integrative forms of e‐procurement are not used.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the understanding of an emerging phenomenon by investigating firm size as an explanatory variable in the e‐procurement application decision. In addition, evidence is still lacking with regard to the prevalence of actual implementation of e‐procurement in firms. This study examines actual usage of 13 different e‐procurement applications across various industries. Finally, this research focuses on the use of e‐procurement in achieving integration. This is important to practitioners, as effective supply chain integration has been linked to enhanced business performance.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Larry C. Giunipero, Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai, Stephen N. Chapman and Ronald A. Clark

To examine the changes in just‐in‐time (JIT) purchasing practices over time.

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2359

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the changes in just‐in‐time (JIT) purchasing practices over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation of changes in JIT purchasing practices was done through a longitudinal study. The first study was performed in 1989. The second study was performed almost a decade later. The empirical studies measured the managerial perceptions of the importance of nine different areas of JIT purchasing activities. Regression and bootstrapping were used for comparison between time periods.

Findings

The study found similar results from a decade earlier on all but 17 out of a total of 103 JIT purchasing practices. The only significantly more important item was the contract provision for delivery frequency. It appears that purchasing professionals have learned and are more familiar with JIT purchasing practices. As a result four problem areas were significantly lower and 12 other practices deemed less important.

Research limitations/implications

Sample size is a limitation for the study. The analysis suggested certain influences of SCM on JIT practices. More rigorous measurement of SCM needs to be undertaken to explore the degree of integration of JIT with SCM philosophy.

Practical implications

The study identifies best JIT practices from a decade of practice.

Originality/value

This is a longitudinal study. It tracks the changes in practices and identifies best practices for managers.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Tom DeWitt, Larry C. Giunipero and Horace L. Melton

To demonstrate the linkage between Porter's cluster theory and supply chain management, and provide evidence of their potential joint positive impact on competitiveness…

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4056

Abstract

Purpose

To demonstrate the linkage between Porter's cluster theory and supply chain management, and provide evidence of their potential joint positive impact on competitiveness and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the linkage between cluster theory and supply chain management using data from a case study of the Amish furniture industry in Homes County, Ohio, USA.

Findings

Using the Amish furniture industry and a representative furniture firm as examples, the paper shows the positive impact of operating within an integrated supply chain in a geographically concentrated cluster.

Research limitations/implications

Use of a single case study approach limits the generalizability of the findings; the paper recommends further study of linkages in other industries and locations.

Practical implications

The study suggests that firms build competitive advantage by initially focusing primarily on local resources when selecting supply chain partners, rather than looking only for low cost advantage through distant sourcing.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the literature on business linkages by proposing an expanded definition of clusters as geographical concentrations of competing supply networks.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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