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Article

Richard Clarke

In Europe, as in other developed regions of the world, formal protected areas (PA) are, almost by definition, conservation islands within a wider landscape of intensive…

Abstract

Purpose

In Europe, as in other developed regions of the world, formal protected areas (PA) are, almost by definition, conservation islands within a wider landscape of intensive farming, towns, industry and transport links. The recognised need for “more, bigger, better and joined” implies the need for complementary approaches. The purpose of this paper is to examine some innovative funding and delivery mechanisms in the UK and their strengths – and weaknesses – compared to the formal system of PA.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on recent research undertaken for the UK Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) the HLF landscape partnership (LP) programme is described and related to other area-based approaches including the Wildlife Trust’s Living Landscapes, the Futurescapes programme of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the UK government’s Nature Improvement Areas (NIA).

Findings

LPs represent an increasingly important vehicle for securing conservation of the natural and cultural heritage alongside the formal system of designated PA. Their reliance upon local initiative, community engagement and multi-agency participation presents significant advantages. The strength of the LP approach is that it is “bottom up” and in some ways opportunistic.

Practical implications

Non-tax funding of innovative approaches to landscape governance presents significant opportunity for natural and cultural heritage conservation, particularly in their capacity to mobilise local enthusiasm and support. However, it fits also with neo-liberal approaches which seek to transfer to the “third sector” responsibilities previously the province of local and national government.

Originality/value

This paper is one of a very limited number of studies of developed-country LPs. It widens the concept of “PA” beyond formal IUCN categories and indicates the potential for innovations in funding and governance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Ling Hin Li and Lang Gan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of adopting a market‐based land use model, Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), which is very popular in America…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of adopting a market‐based land use model, Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), which is very popular in America and other countries as a positive land use control mechanism for conservation, in an evolving socialist land economy, namely China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes a case study approach, supplemented by a cost‐benefit model, to estimate the feasibility of establishing a TDR model in Chongqing, China.

Findings

From the analysis, it is found that a market‐based land use mechanism can serve to maximize the benefits of all parties and can balance the interests between development pressures and conservation needs. However, this is based on a number of conditions, including: that a well‐developed legal framework should be set up, to clearly delineate property rights; that a good and enforceable planning system should be in place; and that a mature land market mechanism should be developed that allows open market prices to be realized in the trading of development rights.

Research limitations/implications

This case study is based on a hypothetical situation of one case. More data are needed to support the argument in the future.

Practical implications

Conservation is a major concern for the local governments in China, given the recent high speed economic growth. A model that can balance development pressure, while allowing the market to compensate fully for the infringement of property rights in the process of urban regeneration, is worthy of the authority's attention in future policy formulation.

Social implications

This paper shows that the society as a whole can strike a balance between the need for economic development and conservation of historic sites, provided some conditions can be met.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study the establishment of a market‐based land use model in the conservation policy of land in China.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article

Lisa Powell and Carol Tilt

For more than three decades, researchers have been searching for evidence of corporate economic, social and environmental sustainability, the holy grail of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

For more than three decades, researchers have been searching for evidence of corporate economic, social and environmental sustainability, the holy grail of corporate success in a socially and environmentally conscious world of the future. The vast majority of entities that researchers have investigated have focussed on the primary goal of profit maximisation, with only vaguely articulated (if any) social and environmental targets. Very little research has been undertaken to expose the inner workings of organisations that are striving primarily to improve environmental outcomes within a commercial setting. The purpose of this paper is to expose the inside details of an organisation that tried but failed, and highlights the role of power and politics in its demise.

Design/methodology/approach

The “processual” or “contextualist” (Burns, 2000, p. 568) methodology adopted in this investigation has facilitated the interpretation and understanding of complex inter-relationships existing amongst key management personnel. The method steps undertaken included observation and documentation of organisational strategic and operational decision-making practices over a period of 22 months and the examination and analysis of over 800 documents prepared either by or about the organisation.

Findings

Examining the inter-relationships of power and politics amongst key players during a period of significant change revealed an intense struggle for corporate survival between two management groups: the original “environmentalist” managers who prepared the entity for listing on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX); and, the introduced “economic rationalist” managers who guided it through the post listing phase. A failure to effectively transition the power held over resources, decision-making and meanings from the old to the new managers proved to significantly challenge the organisation and possibly contributed to its ultimate demise. Some important lessons were highlighted, particularly the need to develop and establish shared understandings. It is suggested that for a business to move closer to being sustainable, rather than allowing one of the existing paradigms to dominate, a new business model needs to emerge.

Originality/value

The practical implementation of conservation activities on a large commercial scale is a controversial notion. The investigation of this unique case through a period of significant change represents an important experiment in the quest for sustainability and reveals valuable lessons that may guide other organisations that follow in its wake.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article

Ziad M.M. Shehada, Naziaty Mohd Yaacob and Nila Inangda Manyam Keumala

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated management structure for the identification and evaluation of Palestine’s heritage, although the unending Israeli…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated management structure for the identification and evaluation of Palestine’s heritage, although the unending Israeli occupation poses a huge, multi-faceted constraint. Necessarily, the approach chosen considers aptly the local culture, values, dynamics and context, assimilating the significance of a broader range of different, diverse historical and cultural resources with a variety of meanings, tangible and otherwise, across various sections of the population.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-technique strategy emphasized the combination of between-technique triangulation in the implementation to enhance and improve substantially the related internal legitimacy of the investigation. A thorough exploration was executed via field investigation survey, meetings with the local communities and conservation questionnaires. Equally useful was the second method employed to gain valuable information on the transformation of conservation activities in highly diverse geological and cultural cases in the USA, France and Egypt.

Findings

This research consequently produced a much needed, important approach for the recognition, assessment and administration of Palestine’s ancient cultural assets with respect to native culture, standards, non-static aspects and boundaries.

Originality/value

The study assists the authorities and decision makers in developing mechanisms for the management of the cultural heritage that would stop the expansion of Israeli settlements as a form of non-violent resistance.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article

Alan W. Scott

The paper seeks to deal with vernacular roofing practices within the North York Moors National Park.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to deal with vernacular roofing practices within the North York Moors National Park.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially the paper carries out a literature review of the geography and geology of the area and identifies what makes it physically unique. The paper then examines the development of various roofing materials, including thatch, stone slates and pantiles with case studies of old practice and modern methods from around the Park.

Findings

Roofing styles are simplistic and have steered away from the intricate in favour of the indigenous or readily available. The paper demonstrates the much‐regionalised nature of the roofing materials and recognises this as one of the special cultural features worthy of conservation.

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited to the North York Moors National Park but the approach taken could be extended to other conservation areas.

Practical implications

The results of the research will benefit those involved in the conservation of vernacular buildings in the North York Moors National Park.

Originality/value

The paper calls for additional guidance for roofers and specifiers on traditional vernacular techniques and for existing funding under the Environmental Stewardship Scheme to be extended to include rural communities in National Parks.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article

José Ângelo Guerreiro da Silva, Raquel Curto Fernandes e Castro Ribeiro, Ana de Carvalho Cameira Mocinho Viras and Catarina Bentes Silva Grilo

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), set specific targets for halting biodiversity loss, including the need to establish 10 per cent of coastal/marine areas…

Abstract

Purpose

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), set specific targets for halting biodiversity loss, including the need to establish 10 per cent of coastal/marine areas conserved through, among other things, well‐connected systems of protected areas by 2020. The reality is that whereas nearly 15 per cent of land is protected, just over 1 per cent of marine space is similarly protected. The challenge is to reach “a global representative system” of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), recognizing that countries need to establish cooperative mechanisms at ecoregion level. The purpose of this paper is to address the options and trends for countries to develop transboundary cooperation through MPAs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address several case studies, focusing on political, governance and financing frameworks.

Findings

The main findings revealed that countries use MoU, MoA or Joint Declaration supported on international conventions as the WHC, Ramsar Convention and CMS. Governance models seem to include political/management/technical levels, with political decisions translated into action plans carried out by joint committees, supported by national institutions and scientific/technical boards. Also the involvement of civil society in management is a growing driving force. Financing transboundary MPAs is going through an evolutionary process, from an exclusive binomial national budgets/UNEP‐GEF to a wider financial net through ecotourism income and private donors.

Originality/value

The different solutions found point out myriad possibilities where transboundary cooperation is envisaged. States can benefit from the experiences already acquired to jointly achieve the target of protecting 10 per cent of the marine environment by 2020.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Silvia Gaia and Michael John Jones

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current nature and content of biodiversity reporting practices adopted by English local councils. By adopting a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current nature and content of biodiversity reporting practices adopted by English local councils. By adopting a multi-theoretical framework that relies on economic and social theories such as agency, stakeholder, legitimacy and institutional theories, this study also aims to investigate the factors that explain the extent of biodiversity disclosure provided by local councils.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a self-constructed disclosure index to analyse the biodiversity-related information published in the official websites of 351 English local councils. A multivariate analysis was conducted to analyse the association between local councils’ characteristics and biodiversity disclosure.

Findings

This study shows that the information disclosed on local biodiversity is limited and does not allow the interested stakeholders to get a comprehensive picture of the current status of local biodiversity. It also provides evidence that the level of biodiversity disclosure is significantly associated with the level of local council’s population, the presence of councillors from environmentally oriented parties and environmental non-governmental organisations operating in the local council area, poor biodiversity management practices and local councils’ visibility.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few accounting studies that provides a comprehensive analysis of biodiversity disclosure by analysing its nature and content and investigating the factors associated with such disclosure. It extends agency, stakeholder, institutional and legitimacy theories, by showing that local councils use voluntary disclosures to satisfy the informational needs of the main stakeholders and to assure that their strategies and practices conform to the values and expectations of the community they represent.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Mohammad Ishaq Lone, Abdul Wahid and Abdul Shakoor

The study is an endeavour to find out the preservation status of rare documents in Srinagar. The rare documents, here, mean the manuscripts and rare books, journals…

Abstract

Purpose

The study is an endeavour to find out the preservation status of rare documents in Srinagar. The rare documents, here, mean the manuscripts and rare books, journals, reports, magazines, archival documents, etc. These resources are available in private libraries of individuals and religious institutions in Srinagar. This study aims to find these private libraries of individuals/families and religious institutions, which are unknown to the scholarly world and observe the preservation status of rare documents. The main focus is to document their present preservation status to give an opportunity to the stakeholders, particularly the government organizations, to take appropriate action before they are lost forever.

Design/methodology/approach

Before conducting the survey, the investigator interviewed 114 persons including literary persons, faith leaders, librarians, faculty members from various prominent institutions in Srinagar to get leads regarding the persons/families and religious institutions in possession of rare documents. The investigator gathered data through two different schedules and later analyzed the same in this study after carrying out a pilot study to make necessary changes to the schedules compiled for the study. The investigator visited personally each family/individual and religious institution to gather the data for months together.

Findings

An arduous job was carried out in which around 111 individuals/families and religious institutions were found to be having such rare resources. However, the data gathered reveals a dismal picture of private libraries and religious institutions, in possession of rare documents, as almost all caretakers/ families are devoid of any knowledge regarding the maintenance of these important sources of knowledge. Further, the traditional methods of preservation are still in vogue in some private libraries. These traditional methods have opened new areas of research while at the same time can prove detrimental to the collection if they are useless.

Originality/value

The study is the first of its kind in the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir i.e. Srinagar. The study gives an idea of preservation status of manuscripts and rare documents including books, magazines, journals, archival documents, etc. so that the same are taken care of for posterity. The study is an eye-opener for the policymakers, conservators, archivists and others interested in historical documents. The study will help in furthering the research process as it needs to be ascertained whether the traditional methods of preservation are fruitful. In short, the study is quite helpful in understanding the nature of collection in Srinagar so that appropriate steps are taken by all particularly the Government in J&K. The paper will surely help in the policy formulation in the future.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

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Article

Weihua Deng, Pei Lv, Ming Yi and Ming Liu

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the co-editing mechanism aiming at content creation, and an entry of online encyclopedia is taken as a case, for the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the co-editing mechanism aiming at content creation, and an entry of online encyclopedia is taken as a case, for the purpose of promoting and enhancing the development of wiki-based digital humanities projects (WDHPs), specifically, the projects that focus on gathering contextual information in the culture heritage domain.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study was conducted by three steps. A representative entry’s editorial records were reorganized to obtain a data set of discussion statements (n=608), based on which linked-structures were built, and PageRank algorithm was used to analyze the co-editing process. Skewness statistic was applied to measure the consensus of co-editing, and consensus evolution over time was explored. Linear or curve fitting was performed to analyze the correlation between consensus evolution and its influential factors.

Findings

In WDHPs, co-editing activity of content creation can be considered as a large-scale group discussion, consensus can evaluate the efficiency of co-editing, which evolves with time and is influenced by the number of statements, breadth and depth of argumentation structure. Taking “Mogao Grottoes” as an example, group discussions around 15 key issues dominate the content creating process, consensus is on a rise with time, finally reaches a relatively high level, and consensus evolution is more influenced by breadth than by depth of argumentation structure, which indicates that co-editing efficiency of “Mogao Grottoes” is fine and more argumentation in a depth manner should be guided.

Practical implications

For researchers of WDHPs, it is beneficial to apply online encyclopedia platform combining with consensus analysis to develop WDHPs. For designers of WDHPs, the elements related to argumentation structure can be absorbed into the design to promote co-editing in an effective manner. For DH researchers, the analytic procedure can be beneficial of revealing the interest of contributors in a specific DH field.

Originality/value

This research is novel in comprehensively understanding co-editing mechanism of content creation in WDHPs, resulting in a three-step analytic procedure of presenting co-editing process, evaluating and improving co-editing efficiency.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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