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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

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11588

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Gerald Vinten, David A. Lane and Nicky Hayes

There can be no doubt that the small and medium sized enterprise (SME) plays a pivotal role in most if not all economies, and that social policy makers have an interest in…

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1285

Abstract

There can be no doubt that the small and medium sized enterprise (SME) plays a pivotal role in most if not all economies, and that social policy makers have an interest in ensuring the viability of this sector of the economy, which plays a crucial role in the contract culture of national and international competitiveness. Quite apart from the essential symbiosis between the large multinationals and public limited companies and this sector, the sustainability of unemployment benefit payouts would be jeopardised should the sector experience a significant downturn. There are already worldwide concerns about the ability to continue to finance state pensions at anything like the present scale, and any loss of viability of the SME sector will simply exacerbate this situation. There are also useful reciprocations to be achieved by comparisons across sectors, including in significant areas such as internal control (Vinten, Lane, Hayes, 1996). The recent flurry of activity has included initiatives of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales 1996) and the information needs of owners (Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales 1996a), an Auditing Practices Board (1996) Practice Note, and a Department of Trade and Industry Consultation Document (DTI 1996).

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Management Research News, vol. 20 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

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1256

Abstract

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

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Management Decision, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2011

C. David Shepherd, Geoffrey L. Gordon, Rick E. Ridnour, Dan C. Weilbaker and Brian Lambert

The purpose of this paper is to examine practices of and differences between small and large organizations as they relate to the training of sales managers.

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1269

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine practices of and differences between small and large organizations as they relate to the training of sales managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing a survey approach, data were collected from a sample of sales managers and trainers employed by firms across the USA. Analysis was conducted between “small” and “largeorganizations based on sales force size.

Findings

While many similarities do exist between small and large firms' sales manager training practices, some significant differences also exist in terms of teaching approaches, types of instructors, training locations, methods, and content utilized. Results of the current study exhibit both similarities and differences as compared to results of sales manager training practices found in earlier studies.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a sample of sales managers and trainers employed by firms within the USA. Sales manager training practices could differ due to cultural differences, the industry the firm competes in, and other factors.

Practical implications

First, sales manager training activities show more similarities than differences between small and large firms. Second, internet‐based training methods are becoming prevalent in large firms while still struggling for acceptance in smaller ones. Third, no one type of instructor is viewed as being highly effective in either small or large firms. Fourth, senior management must support and encourage positive behavioral changes associated with sales manager training or else efforts will fail.

Originality/value

The current study answers the call for research to identify contemporary sales manager training practices, building upon results of previous studies.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Abby Ghobadian and David Gallear

Notes a broad agreement that small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) fulfil a critical role in modern economies, and therefore their ability to survive, remain…

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7904

Abstract

Notes a broad agreement that small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) fulfil a critical role in modern economies, and therefore their ability to survive, remain competitive and produce high quality outputs is of utmost importance at both micro and macro levels. Focuses on total quality management (TQM), a new management paradigm, which is successfully competing with the well‐established paradigms such as scientific management. Argues that implementation of TQM principles can potentially help SMEs to enhance their robustness, as well as improve the quality of their final output. However, observes that, by comparison with the large organizations, SMEs have been slow in implementing TQM. Examines the differences between the characteristics of SMEs and large organizations; the relationship between the size of organization and inherent characteristics of TQM; and the effect of organization size on the implementation of TQM using deductive research. Using the case data, develops a ten‐step methodology for the implementation of TQM in SMEs.

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International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Muhammad Ali

Board size is an important dimension of corporate governance. The purpose of this study is to propose and test indirect effects of organization size on organizational…

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1420

Abstract

Purpose

Board size is an important dimension of corporate governance. The purpose of this study is to propose and test indirect effects of organization size on organizational performance via board size, in the context of industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s predictions were tested in 288 medium and large organizations listed on the Australian Securities Exchange using archival data.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest the following: organization size is positively associated with board size and this relationship is stronger in manufacturing organizations; board size is positively associated with performance and this relationship is conditional on industry; and organization size has an indirect effect on performance via board size, and this indirect effect is also conditional on industry.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide some support for the resource dependency theory, agency theory and contingency theory.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that directors should take into account the effects of board size and industry to provide a more precise assessment of the board’s performance.

Originality/value

It predicts and tests the pioneering moderating effect of industry (manufacturing vs services) on the organization size–board size, board size–organizational performance and organization size–board size–organizational performance relationships.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Alan Coetzer, Chutarat Inma and Paul Poisat

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to examine the job embeddedness (JE)-turnover intentions relationship in large and small organisations; second, to…

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1968

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to examine the job embeddedness (JE)-turnover intentions relationship in large and small organisations; second, to investigate how employee perceptions of each dimension of JE may differ in large and small organisations; and third, to determine if work group cohesion moderates the JE-turnover intentions relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a short form of the original JE questionnaire, data were collected from 549 employees in organisations located in four major business centres in South Africa. Participants were from organisations in diverse industries.

Findings

JE predicted turnover intentions in large organisations, but not in small organisations. Contrary to expectations, employees in small organisations perceived that they would sacrifice more benefits than employees in large organisations if they were to quit. Results suggest that work group cohesion moderates the JE-turnover intentions relationship.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to determine how JE operates in different size organisations and in urban and rural small organisations.

Practical implications

In small organisations, building group cohesion and persuasively communicating benefits of working in a small organisation can help to embed employees.

Originality/value

This study responds to calls for further JE research in a wider range of national contexts. It contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the three dimensions of JE by investigating how employee perceptions of each dimension differ in large and small organisations. The study also responds to appeals for research that examines moderators of the JE-turnover relationship by exploring work group cohesion as a potential moderator.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Gary B. Roberts, Kerr Watson and John E. Oliver

The relationship between organisation size, technologyimplementation, and organisational culture is examined. Thirty‐fiveAmerican and Canadian manufacturing organisations

Abstract

The relationship between organisation size, technology implementation, and organisational culture is examined. Thirty‐five American and Canadian manufacturing organisations were surveyed concerning their approach to implementing statistical process control (SPC) technology. Organisations were classified as either large or small and hierarchic or non‐hierarchic. Approaches to implementing SPC were measured and compared among the four groups (large hierarchic, small hierarchic, large non‐hierarchic and small non‐hierarchic). Results indicated that both the size of the organisation and its culture determine how that organisation goes about implementing technological change. Larger organisations use inter‐departmental liaisons, temporary task forces, and permanent implementation teams more than smaller organisations in implementing new technology. Non‐hierarchic organisations appear to use goal and direct contact mechanisms at higher levels than hierarchical organisations when it comes to innovation and change. Results also indicate that there is more in common in the area of technological implementation between large and small businesses, and hierarchical and non‐hierarchical organisations than is often suggested.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Wojciech Kulczycki, Santosh Mikas and Joerg Koenigstorfer

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether consumers’ attitude toward sporting goods retailers depends on who engages in corporate social responsibility (CSR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether consumers’ attitude toward sporting goods retailers depends on who engages in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and where CSR takes place. The study aims to replicate previous findings on football teams (Kulczycki and Koenigstorfer, 2016) for for-profit sporting goods retailers by looking at how organization size and proximity of the supported cause to the retailers’ headquarters interact with consumers’ motive attributions for CSR (philanthropic vs profit).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 200 participants took part in the experimental study. The study applied a between-participant design manipulating both the proximity of the supported social cause (local vs distant CSR) and the size of the organization (small- vs large-sized organization) and measured perceived motives for CSR as independent variables. Attitude toward retailers was the dependent variable.

Findings

The results of regression analyses showed that perceived philanthropic motives increased attitude toward retailers. This relationship became stronger for large-sized sporting goods retailers, in particular when they engaged in CSR activities at distant locations. For small-sized retailers, the proximity of CSR did not impact on the relationship between motive attribution and attitude toward the retailer.

Practical implications

Large-sized retailers are encouraged to take particular care that consumers perceive CSR activities as philanthropy-driven, especially when supporting social causes at distant locations.

Originality/value

The study replicates previous findings and shows that not only for sports teams, but also for sporting good retailers, CSR can increase consumer attitudes even when the consumer population at the organization headquarters’ location does not directly benefit from CSR.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

C.J. (Neels) Kruger and Roy D. Johnson

Wilson argues that knowledge management (KM) maturity is an extension of information management and effective management of work practices. Gallagher and Hazlett state…

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1506

Abstract

Purpose

Wilson argues that knowledge management (KM) maturity is an extension of information management and effective management of work practices. Gallagher and Hazlett state that there is too much effort addressing technological concerns in KM while offering little practical assistance. Kruger and Snyman believe KM is a strategic resource with ICT and information management as enablers in establishing KM maturity. These three positions of KM growth and maturity reflect the huge spectrum of and diverse views. But, very little is known about the KM growth or maturity that occurs in different industries, or how employees and managers perceive growth in KM maturity. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

From a large urban South African University engaged in numerous collaboration programmes with industry, the authors gain insight into the growth of KM in industry groupings over a five‐year period. The authors apply an inventory developed by Kruger and Snyman to a set of 86 organisations distributed over nine economic sectors in South Africa. In total 434 employees are interviewed over three group levels (operational, middle and senior management). This is achieved by interviewing 178 senior practitioners in three subjects (one in each group level).

Findings

Analysis of the growth in KM maturity, as it relates to different organisational sizes, reveals that there are statistical differences between the score reported by small, medium, large and extra‐large organisations and between the scores reported by senior, middle and operational personnel. Findings also indicate that growth in KM differs between industry groupings, with high growth in construction, building materials and mining (±70 per cent), and low growth in educational institutions (±40 per cent).

Originality/value

This paper is of relevance to KM practitioners interested in gaining insight into KM maturity growth that occurred in different organisational groupings and at different operational levels across an extremely diversified environment.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

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