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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Forbes Gibb and Ioannis Matthaiakis

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a framework for assessing the level of localisation on web sites.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a framework for assessing the level of localisation on web sites.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identifies the key forms of localisation that may be evident on a web site. A two‐by‐two matrix is presented which incorporates language in one dimension and non‐language criteria in the other. Web sites are then evaluated against these criteria and mapped onto the matrix to assess the relative level of localisation between web sites. The criteria and matrix have been tested against web sites operating in the Greek exporting sector.

Findings

The framework was found to be easy to use in practice. While a large set of potential localisation criteria were identified, only a subgroup of these criteria are likely to be relevant for any target group of web sites and the framework should therefore be scoped to match the characteristics of the survey group. The issue of localisation was not found to have been addressed to any great extent amongst the sample of Greek exporting companies.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used was small as the prime purpose was to test the usability of the framework, and further evaluations will be needed to confirm these initial findings.

Practical implications

Given the relative poor performance of the Greek exporting sector, localisation is an aspect that should be given higher priority. The framework represents a cost‐effective method for self‐assessment and benchmarking against competitors.

Originality/value

The framework is novel and should be usable by both web designers and users.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Iris Xie and Edward Benoit

The purpose of this study is to compare the evaluation of search result lists and documents, in particular evaluation criteria, elements, association between criteria and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare the evaluation of search result lists and documents, in particular evaluation criteria, elements, association between criteria and elements, pre/post and evaluation activities, and the time spent on evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzed the data collected from 31 general users through prequestionnaires, think aloud protocols and logs, and post questionnaires. Types of evaluation criteria, elements, associations between criteria and elements, evaluation activities and their associated pre/post activities, and time were analyzed based on open coding.

Findings

The study identifies the similarities and differences of list and document evaluation by analyzing 21 evaluation criteria applied, 13 evaluation elements examined, pre/post and evaluation activities performed and time spent. In addition, the authors also explored the time spent in evaluating lists and documents for different types of tasks.

Research limitations/implications

This study helps researchers understand the nature of list and document evaluation. Additionally, this study connects elements that participants examined to criteria they applied, and further reveals problems associated with the lack of integration between list and document evaluation. The findings of this study suggest more elements, especially at list level, be available to support users applying their evaluation criteria. Integration of list and document evaluation and integration of pre, evaluation and post evaluation activities for the interface design is the absolute solution for effective evaluation.

Originality/value

This study fills a gap in current research in relation to the comparison of list and document evaluation.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Carl A. Young, Nicolette Filson and Rachael Debnam-O’Dea

Purpose – To examine the potential social media has for increasing pre-service English language arts (ELA) teachers’ language interest, awareness, and content knowledge by…

Abstract

Structured Abstract

Purpose – To examine the potential social media has for increasing pre-service English language arts (ELA) teachers’ language interest, awareness, and content knowledge by engaging them in an ongoing collaborative effort to seek out, make observation about, and highlight contemporary examples of language, literacy, and culture in action in global media using Twitter as a platform.

Design – The research design was qualitative and included a thematic analysis of Twitter posts from the pre-service teacher participants during the semester, informal feedback about the experience during the semester, and written reflections at the end of the semester. Students worked independently on the assignment throughout the semester, outside of a few brief, and informal check-ins during class by the instructor. At the end of the semester, students completed an open-ended survey to reflect on their experiences with and takeaways from participating in this Twitter-based language exploration activity. The theoretical frameworks that were foundational to the study included the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) and Andrews’ (2006) criteria for language exploration and awareness.

Findings – The findings of this qualitative study indicate that engaging pre-service teachers in an ongoing collaborative effort to promote language, literacy, and culture via social media has great potential in terms of students increasing not only their knowledge of language and language awareness, but also their TPACK overall. Specific examples of how participants responded to the experience are provided.

Practical Implications – This study contributes to the literature on the potential impact of social media on content area learning and teacher preparation by providing concrete, research-based suggestions for how both English teacher educators and middle and secondary ELA teachers can engage in collaborative efforts to learn more about, expand definitions of, and promote aspects related to ELA content, like language awareness, variety, and dialect. It includes recommendations for both teacher educators and middle and secondary ELA teachers to expand their notions for defining and teaching aspects of language that go beyond a narrow focus on grammar and to consider ways that social media and digital literacies can enhance these efforts.

Details

Best Practices in Teaching Digital Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-434-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Yaghoub Norouzi and Hoda Homavandi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate image search and retrieval problems in selected search engines in relation to Persian writing style challenges.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate image search and retrieval problems in selected search engines in relation to Persian writing style challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an applied one, and to answer the questions the authors used an evaluative research method. The aim of the research is to explore the morphological and semantic problems of Persian language in connection with image search and retrieval among the three major and widespread search engines: Google, Yahoo and Bing. In order to collect the data, a checklist designed by the researcher was used and then the data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.

Findings

The results indicate that Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines do not pay enough attention to morphological and semantic features of Persian language in image search and retrieval. This research reveals that six groups of Persian language features include derived words, derived/compound words, Persian and Arabic Plural words, use of dotted T and the use of spoken language and polysemy, which are the major problems in this area. In addition, the results suggest that Google is the best search engine of all in terms of compatibility with Persian language features.

Originality/value

This study investigated some new aspects of the above-mentioned subject through combining morphological and semantic aspects of Persian language with image search and retrieval. Therefore, this study is an interdisciplinary research, the results of which would help both to offer some solutions and to carry out similar research on this subject area. This study will also fill a gap in research studies conducted so far in this area in Farsi language, especially in image search and retrieval. Moreover, findings of this study can help to bridge the gap between the user’s questions and search engines (systems) retrievals. In addition, the methodology of this paper provides a framework for further research on image search and retrieval in databases and search engines.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Marta Kuzma and Albina Moscicka

This paper aims to present the authors’ attempts to evaluate the access to archival maps available in digital libraries. Its aim was to pinpoint the factors determining…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the authors’ attempts to evaluate the access to archival maps available in digital libraries. Its aim was to pinpoint the factors determining the effectiveness of access to old maps and to evaluate which Polish libraries provide resources in such a way as to give the users the best chance of finding the materials necessary for their research.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented research focussed on archival documents from academic libraries accessible from the Polish Digital Libraries Federation and available from Europeana Collections. The evaluation criteria were established along with features that determine the level of difficulty of access to data describing archival documents. The research took into account the way of recording the data about archival documents in metadata. The authors have also analysed the quantity of available resources and the consistency of metadata record.

Findings

The results of the research have demonstrated that one-third of the analysed libraries deserve a positive evaluation. The digital library of the Warsaw University and the Jagiellonian Digital Library received the best scores in terms of the description of archival documents. Considering the number of resources, the Jagiellonian Digital Library and the Digital Library of the University of Wrocław are positively distinguished.

Originality/value

The method of evaluating the access to archival maps has been developed. The criteria and features necessary for this evaluation and the way of their interpretation have also been defined. The future goals leading to the improvement of the access to the archival maps have been also presented.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Mervyn Martin and Maryam Shademan Pajouh

The purpose of the paper is to highlight the lack of fairness in the international trading system, including the HR policies in the WTO which have wider implications on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to highlight the lack of fairness in the international trading system, including the HR policies in the WTO which have wider implications on the participation of developing countries in the multilateral trading system.

Design/methodology/approach

The main research methodology undertaken for this paper is based on the quantitative approach, predominantly from sources such as books, articles and WTO reports.

Findings

There is a correlation between the HR policies employed by the WTO and the usage by developing countries of the WTO DSU.

Practical implications

The implications of the research/paper indicate that discrimination against developing countries in the international system goes beyond their inherent weakness as poorer members of the international order. Such discrimination is deep rooted within the institutional governance of the system.

Social implications

The need to re‐evaluate policies practices by international institutions in the light of the developments of the twenty‐first century.

Originality/value

There has been no work undertaken in relation to the use of language as a criterion for job selection and its implications on the participatory value of developing countries in the WTO DSU.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Edward Rock Davis and Rachel Wilson

This paper aims to analyse contrasting discourses on education and competitiveness from four countries to show the different national values that are a key driver in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse contrasting discourses on education and competitiveness from four countries to show the different national values that are a key driver in economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses content analysis to compare and contrast the newspaper discourse surrounding the OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in four countries with above OECD average performance: Japan and South Korea (improving performance) and Australia and Finland (declining performance). PISA has attracted much government and public attention because it reflects education and the economic value of that education.

Findings

There are key contrasts in the discourses of the four countries. Despite shifts to globalised perspectives on education, strong national and cultural differences remain. Educational competitiveness and economic competitiveness are strong discourses in Japan and South Korea, while in Australia and Finland, the focus is on educational competitiveness. The media in Finland has few references to economic competitiveness and it does not feature in Australia. The discourse themes on PISA from 2001 to 2015 are presented with trends in educational attainment and shifting national perspectives on education.

Research limitations/implications

Analysis is limited to the top two circulation newspapers in English language in each country over 2001 to 2015. These newspapers in Finland, Japan and South Korea include translated content from local language papers.

Originality/value

The paper provides longitudinal perspectives to understand the contrasting societal values placed on education and how these relate to perspectives on competitiveness. This media evidence on national discourses can inform education policy orientations in the four countries examined.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Kyle C. Huff

The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural intelligence (CQ) and language proficiency are related to cross‐cultural adjustment, expatriate satisfaction, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural intelligence (CQ) and language proficiency are related to cross‐cultural adjustment, expatriate satisfaction, and expatriate desires towards the future, to further what is known about CQ.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey was developed and administered to 140 native English‐speaking expatriates living in Japan who were participating in the Japan Exchange and Teaching program. The survey was designed to measure CQ, language proficiency, cross‐cultural adjustment, satisfaction with their work and life in Japan, and their attitudes towards future expatriate assignments.

Findings

In total, there were eight criterion variables used in the study. Results from a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the four CQ factors and language proficiency to various degrees were able to predict the various criterion variables. Motivational CQ was the only predictor variable that was able to predict all criterion variables.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides solid quantitative research into CQ. However, since the data come from self‐report surveys, its limitations in terms of common method bias are recognized.

Practical implications

This study identifies both language ability and CQ as predictive of expatriate adjustment. This information enables organizations to better prepare their members for expatriate assignments.

Originality/value

Although prior research has investigated a number of these issues separately on various types of samples, this paper is the first to combine all the variables into one study using expatriates.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Megan Miller and Volker Hegelheimer

Despite their motivational appeal to learners, innovative and technologically advanced computer simulation games targeting native English speakers frequently remain beyond…

Abstract

Despite their motivational appeal to learners, innovative and technologically advanced computer simulation games targeting native English speakers frequently remain beyond the competence of ESL learners as independent didactic tools. Guided by Chapelle’s (2001) criteria for determining CALL task appropriateness, this paper illustrates how the popular authentic simulation, The SIMs, can be adapted to enhance vocabulary learning through supporting materials. Adult ESL learners completed a five‐week unit, experiencing different conditions of supplemental materials while completing tasks using The SIMs. The participants received mandatory supplemental materials in one condition, voluntary access to supplemental materials in the second, and no supplemental materials in the third. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in vocabulary acquisition for the first condition. Student feedback suggests the supplemental materials were beneficial for successful task completion. Thus, how authentic computer simulation tasks are structured and supported appears to have a considerable bearing on the appropriateness of the task.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Giles Tewkesbury and David Sanders

A new type of high‐level robot command library is presented, which can be viewed as a marriage between simulation and control. The library commands contain simulations of…

Abstract

A new type of high‐level robot command library is presented, which can be viewed as a marriage between simulation and control. The library commands contain simulations of the physical abilities of the robots as well as having the ability to control the physical machinery. The control of the machinery is performed by translating parameter information and then mapping the library commands to the robot controller commands. To demonstrate the use of the libraries, two robot programming languages have been analysed and new robot command libraries created for two types of machine. The robots selected were a Fanuc A600 and a Unimation PUMA robot. The paper also presents criteria that were used for assessing programming languages for use in programming and controlling robots. The paper shows how simulation can be incorporated into a high‐level robot command library (or object library) and how the command library can be used for the programming of industrial robots. The work has demonstated the advantages of including simulation within robot command libraries. The purpose of the research has not been to define another new robot command library, and the techniques presented here can be applied to other robot languages and high level robot command libraries.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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