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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Lance Brennan, Les Heathcote and Anton Lucas

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…

Abstract

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.

Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.

During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.

The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.

In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.

People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.

Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.

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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Abstract

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Ethics in the Global South
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-205-5

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Tim Gorichanaz

Trends in information technology and contemplative practices compel us to consider the intersections of information and contemplation. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Trends in information technology and contemplative practices compel us to consider the intersections of information and contemplation. The purpose of this paper is to consider these intersections at the level of institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the notion of institution is defined and discussed, along with information institutions and contemplative institutions. Next, sanctuary is proposed and explored as a vision for institutions in the digital age.

Findings

Sanctuary is a primordial human institution that has especial urgency in the digital age. This paper develops an info-contemplative framework for sanctuaries, including the elements: stability, silence, refuge, privacy and reform.

Research limitations/implications

This is a conceptual paper that, though guided by prior empirical and theoretical work, would benefit from application, validation and critique. This paper is meant as a starting point for discussions of institutions for the digital age.

Practical implications

As much as this paper is meant to prompt further research, it also provides guidance and inspiration for professionals to infuse their work with aspects of sanctuary and be attentive to the tensions inherent in sanctuary.

Originality/value

This paper builds on discourse at the intersection of information studies and contemplative studies, also connecting this with recent work on information institutions.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Efthimia Dafou

The purpose of this paper is to provide a boundary-focused analysis of career patterns in Greek public education.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a boundary-focused analysis of career patterns in Greek public education.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive, interpretive design from the naturalistic paradigm was chosen for the study, based on narratives of 27 public education employees who used decision-making models for outlining their career plans.

Findings

This study depicted career-related boundaries and intentions of employees to develop their career within their domain or crossing particular boundaries, namely, the public-private boundary, the public education to higher education boundary, the occupational and other less salient boundaries.

Research limitations/implications

The delimitation of the study on public education employees studying for a postgraduate diploma might limit the scope of inter-occupational mobility.

Practical implications

This study highlights the subject of the first degree as the most critical determinant of career development, and identifies the role of structural constraints, especially of promotion systems, in “bounding” graduate careers.

Originality/value

This study developed a typology of career paths of public education employees and associated them with the identification of two main employee profiles, related to the subject of their first degree.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Dianne Chambers and Richard G. Berlach

This chapter focuses on the increasing use of both assistive technology (AT) and teacher assistants (TAs) to support students with disabilities within the inclusive…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the increasing use of both assistive technology (AT) and teacher assistants (TAs) to support students with disabilities within the inclusive classroom, and why it is vital that teacher assistants have appropriate training in the area of AT. A description of assistive technology and its role in inclusion of students with special needs is provided along with a description of training in assistive technology that was undertaken with teacher assistants. Implications for training and support of teacher assistants in the area of assistive technology are also discussed.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1915

A circular letter addressed by the Local Government Board on the 27th October, 1913, to Authorities administering the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, is printed as an…

Abstract

A circular letter addressed by the Local Government Board on the 27th October, 1913, to Authorities administering the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, is printed as an Addendum to a recently issued Report by DR. MACFADDEN, on the work of the Board's Inspectors of Foods during the year 1913–14. This letter relates to the administration of the “Public Health (Milk and Cream) Regulations, 1912,” and points out that by these Regulations “ a definite restriction ” has been placed on the use of preservatives by producers, retailers and others concerned in the milk and cream trade, that no preservative is to be added to milk in‐any case, that no preservative is to be added to cream which is sold as cream, and that the Regulations do not prohibit the sale of cream containing boric acid, borax, or a mixture of these preservative substances, or hydrogen peroxide, provided (1) that it is sold not as cream, but as preserved cream, and (2) that the vessel in which it is sold bears a declaration in the prescribed form, showing the amount and nature of the particular preservative added, the addition to cream of any other preservative substances than those mentioned being prohibited. It is further stated that the object of the Regulations in regard to cream is to secure that preserved cream sold in compliance with the Regulations shall be distinguished at all stages of sale from cream to which no preservative has been added, and that this distinction is important in the interests of the public generally, and particularly in the interests of children and invalids. The italics are ours. In view of this pronouncement by the Board it is pertinent to enquire as to the fate of the extraordinary recommendation made in one of the Board's recent official reports to the effect that a much larger maximum amount of preservative should be allowed in cream during the six warmer months of the year than during the other six months. If a maximum limit is fixed for any period it is plain that the presence of an amount of preservative in excess of that limit is regarded by the Board as capable of rendering the cream injurious to health—at any rate in so far as children and invalids are concerned. It follows, therefore, that the adoption of the recommendation referred to would result in the sale of cream which, on the Board's own showing, must be injurious to health, during the warmer months of the year. The recommendation in question has been put forward as an argument for the defence in cases of prosecution for the adulteration of cream with preservatives, and in view of its official or semi‐official nature, has created unnecessary difficulties for the prosecuting Authorities. It is true that in the Sessions Appeal case of Whale v. Bennett, the character of this recommendation was thoroughly exposed and that the proposal was effectively disposed of, but it is none the less serious and inconvenient that such a suggestion should have been allowed to appear in a Government Report. We hope that we may now be permitted to congratulate the Board on the fact that they have officially repudiated the recommendation in question. The circular letter urges Local Authorities administering the Food and Drugs Acts to see that the “Milk and Cream Regulations, 1912,” are enforced in their districts “by the administrative procedure authorised under the Regulations, and, should necessity arise, by the institution of proceedings under the public health enactments referred to in the note appended to the Regulations.” It is, however, admitted by the Board in this letter that the action taken under the Regulations is independent of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts and does not affect the action which may be taken under those Acts and that it is open to the Authority “ on consideration of the report of a Public Analyst on a sample of milk or cream to take action either under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts or under the Regulations,” but the Board considers that “it is generally desirable that in cases in which it appears that the Regulations have been infringed, such action as may be necessary should be taken under the Regulations rather than under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts.” We are unable to agree with this view. The appeal cases of Cullen v. McNair and Whale v. Bennett have resulted in the decisive establishment of the fact that the presence of boric preservatives in cream to the extent mentioned in those cases renders the adulterated cream injurious to health, and, in all cases where samples of cream are found to contain such amounts of this adulterant, Local Authorities will be well advised to institute proceedings under the Third Section of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1875. The Sixth Section of the Act of 1875 has been shown to be useless by the decision in the Sessions appeal case of Williams v. Friend, whereas under the Third Section notification of the presence of the amount of the adulterant affords no protection to the adulterator, and the law in this respect is not and cannot be over‐ridden by the “ Milk and Cream Regulations, 1912.” The principal blot on the Milk and Cream Regulations, 1912, is that under these Regulations any amount of an injurious preservative may be added with impunity to cream so long as the cream is sold as “ preserved cream ” and the amount of the preservative present is stated on the label—provisions which are perfectly worthless so far as the protection of the ordinary purchaser is concerned.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1902

The people of this country are frequently described, more or less correctly, as “long suffering,” and there is possibly no question in regard to which they have suffered…

Abstract

The people of this country are frequently described, more or less correctly, as “long suffering,” and there is possibly no question in regard to which they have suffered so much and so long as that of the national food supply. Now and again some more thoughtful member of the Legislature addresses a question on the subject to some responsible Minister of the Crown, possibly on the sufficiency, or sometimes even on the purity of some article of food, and receives an answer which, as a general rule, is a mere feeble evasion of the particular point on which information is desired.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Abstract

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Hard Labour? Academic Work and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-501-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Nadia Edmond, Yvonne Hillier and Mark Price

The purpose of this article is to explore how higher education (HE) institutions are responding to the workforce remodelling agenda of public services and the emergence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to explore how higher education (HE) institutions are responding to the workforce remodelling agenda of public services and the emergence of “para‐professions” within traditionally low paid/low status employment.

Design/methodology/approach

With reference to recent research, the article reviews the authors' experience of foundation degrees (FDs) in education and explores tensions in managing the competing needs of the varying stakeholders.

Findings

A model of work‐based learning (WBL) results from the study, which includes consideration of the following key areas: employer engagement; CPD and professional bodies – external validation and professional recognition; progression into HE through the workforce; and pedagogy of WBL

Research limitations/implications

This article identifies a need for the systematic examination of the issues raised by the implementation of FDs as CPD for employed staff. The assumption that FD provision for employees results in more effective WBL is challenged. The importance of FDs in accreditation for a range of occupations in the Children's Workforce also suggests a need for research into the ”professionalisation” of these occupations.

Practical implications

The issue of employer engagement is fundamental and that paper argues that HE has a crucial role to play but that ensuring employer engagement requires responsiveness on the part of university structures, as well as the capacity to stimulate employer engagement and/or sanction lack of employer engagement at the level of individual programmes.

Originality/value

This article provides information about the new phenomenon of implementation of FDs to support workforce development.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Sandra C. Buttigieg, Emanuela-Anna Azzopardi and Vincent Cassar

Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various…

Abstract

Medical errors in obstetric departments are commonly reported and may involve both mother and neonate. The complexity of obstetric care, the interactions between various disciplines, and the inherent limitations of human performance make it critically important for these departments to provide patient-safe and friendly working environments that are open to learning and participative safety. Obstetric care involves stressful work, and health care professionals are prone to develop burnout, this being associated with unsafe practices and lower probability for reporting safety concerns. This study aims to test the mediating role of burnout in the relationship of patient-safe and friendly working environment with unsafe performance. The full population of professionals working in an obstetrics department in Malta was invited to participate in a cross-sectional study, with 73.6% (n = 184) of its members responding. The research tool was adapted from the Sexton et al.’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire – Labor and Delivery version and surveyed participants on their working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe performance. Analysis was done using Structural Equation Modeling. Results supported the relationship between the lack of a perceived patient-safe and friendly working environment and unsafe performance that is mediated by burnout. Creating a working environment that ensures patient safety practices, that allows communication, and is open to learning may protect employees from burnout. In so doing, they are more likely to perceive that they are practicing safely. This study contributes to patient safety literature by relating working environment, burnout, and perceived unsafe practice with the intention of raising awareness of health managers’ roles in ensuring optimal clinical working environment for health care employees.

Details

Structural Approaches to Address Issues in Patient Safety
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-085-6

Keywords

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