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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Carola Raab, Orie Berezan, Natasa Christodoulidou, Lan Jiang and Stowe Shoemaker

Hoteliers are often frustrated by the significant fees charged for bookings by Online Travel Agents (OTAs), and they try to encourage more direct bookings that circumvent…

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1780

Abstract

Purpose

Hoteliers are often frustrated by the significant fees charged for bookings by Online Travel Agents (OTAs), and they try to encourage more direct bookings that circumvent the OTA system. However, there are billions of dollars of room revenues generated by OTAs every year; and many companies in other industries sell their products through multiple channels. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hotel revenue managers can collaborate successfully with OTAs.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methods are applied in this study, specifically focus groups and in-person interviews with market managers of a leading OTA. Content analysis is performed, using ATLASti 5, to discover emerging themes and categories from the transcripts.

Findings

This study highlights several OTA value propositions and how hotels can benefit from them. Additionally, the findings of this study reveal that effective two-way communication between OTAs and revenue managers is the key to success. An “optimization loop” is established, which specifies that partnership and collaboration between OTAs and hotels must occur in a circular sequence of communication, engagement, collaboration and strategy.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation for this study is that interviews were conducted only with market managers, limiting the perspective to that of OTAs.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of research and dialogue discussing productive relationships between OTAs and hotel firms. Through in-depth in-person interviews with a diverse set of market managers from a leading OTA, this study brings to light an array of perspectives of what is required to optimize the OTA/hotelier relationship.

研究目的

酒店经营者常常受到在线旅行社(OTA)收取高额预订费用的困扰。酒店试图鼓励客人直接预订房间,绕过OTA程序。然而,每年OTA贡献仍有数以十亿计美金的订房收入; 其他行业的很多公司采用多渠道销售产品。本论文研究目的在于探索酒店经理人们如何能够成功地与OTA合作。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用定性研究方法,主要以小组讨论和个人访谈的形式,与一家行业领先的OTA市场经理们进行深度访谈。本论文借用ATLASti 5 内容分析工具进行样本分析,总结出主题和分类。

研究结果

本论坛提出了多个OTA价值组成,以及酒店如何从中盈利。此外,本论文还指出了OTA和财务经理的有效双向交流的重要性。其中,需要建立“循环展开”(Optimization Loop),即OTA和酒店之间的合作交流需要建立在循环、有序、通畅、以及战略的基础上。

研究理论限制/意义

本论文一个主要的理论限制就是只采访了OTA的市场经理。

研究原创性/价值

理论上,关于OTA和酒店之间的战略合作的讨论,我们知之甚少。本论文采用与一家行业领先的OTA市场经理们的深入访谈,将这一合作关系进行积极讨论分析,提供一系列优化战略合作的方案和见解。

关键词

在线旅行社(OTA),酒店订房收入,合作关系,Expedia,市场经理,收入优化

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Xi Leung, Sarah Tanford and Lan Jiang

The purpose of this study was to explore the marketing effectiveness of hotel Facebook messages in terms of promoting favorable attitudes and behavior intentions among…

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1497

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the marketing effectiveness of hotel Facebook messages in terms of promoting favorable attitudes and behavior intentions among potential hotel guests

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment was conducted with a three (message format) × three (message content), between-subjects factorial design in which three message formats, i.e. word/text, picture and weblink, and three types of message content, i.e. brand, product and interactive, were manipulated.

Findings

The findings indicate that the most effective message format is dependent upon its purpose. Picture messages are most effective for promoting the brand, whereas weblink messages influence intentions to book hotels based on product attributes. Electronic word-of-mouth intention is an important outcome of Facebook marketing, which can be strengthened by word messages and weblink messages about products.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that the study used pseudo Facebook pages and messages created for each experimental condition. Facebook pages can take many forms, so the findings may not generalize to other Facebook pages.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest several important practical implications for the hotel industry to leverage Facebook marketing. To foster favorable attitudes and build brand awareness, hotel marketers should include picture messages that prominently feature the brand image. To motivate booking a particular product, word messages describing product features should be provided, along with a weblink that takes the customer directly from product information to a hotel-booking engine.

Originality/value

Although preliminary research has been conducted on Facebook marketing activities, little is known about the effectiveness of Facebook messages. For example, do different types of messages have different effects on marketing effectiveness? What message type is most effective? Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate empirically the effects of different message types on marketing effectiveness. The results of this study will shed light on how hotels can post the most persuasive message content in the most effective message format on their Facebook pages to enhance their fans’ attitudes and increase their purchase intentions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2018

Xi Y. Leung and Lan Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test an extended theory of planned behavior model (TPB) to explain how following destination Facebook pages impacts travelers…

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1235

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test an extended theory of planned behavior model (TPB) to explain how following destination Facebook pages impacts travelers’ visit intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The study asked 252 participants to follow a destination’s Facebook page for three months before they completed the survey. An integrative model combining theory of planned behavior, social influence theory and attitude toward the ad was proposed. Partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) was used in testing the proposed model.

Findings

The findings indicated that the three social influences (compliance, identification and internalization) all significantly impacted visit intention both directly and mediated by subjective norm. Facebook page experience also significantly influenced visit intention mediated by perceived behavioral control. However, both attitude toward the destination and attitude toward messages were not significantly associated with visit intention.

Practical implications

The findings of this study revealed important practical implications for destination marketing organizations (DMOs) to leverage Facebook marketing. Specifically, DMOs should pay extra attention to the social influence of Facebook pages, especially identification, and also use Facebook pages to reduce perceived behavioral control of potential visitors.

Originality/value

This study was one of the first attempts to explore the factors influencing visit intention of destination Facebook fans based on an extended TPB model. The study also contributed to the literature of using PLS-SEM in predicting behavioral intention through a reflective-formative higher-order model.

研究目的

本论文旨在建立和验证一个扩展的计划行为模型, 用来解释旅游目的地Facebook如何影响游客旅游意图。

研究设计/方法/途径

252人参与本研究项目, 他们实际关注了一个旅游目的地Facebook三个月, 然后填写了问卷。本论文以计划行为模型、社会影响理论、以及广告认知理论等为基础, 建立一体化模型。本论文采用偏最小二乘回归结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)验证这个一体化模型。

研究结果

三种社会影响因素(从众、认同、内化)均对旅游意图有直接和间接的影响。Facebook体验也对于旅游意图, 通过知觉行为控制的中间调解作用, 有显著影响。然而, 目的地态度和信息的态度并未显著地与旅游意图有关。

研究实践意义

本论文结果对于旅游目的地管理机构(DMOs)如何使用Facebook营销有着实际启示作用。特别的是, DMOs应该更加关注Facebook的社会影响方面, 比如认同, 以及使用Facebook来减少潜在游客的知觉行为控制。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首先几篇以TPB模型为基础, 探索目的地Facebook粉丝效应的旅游意图的文章。本论文还对于使用PLS-SEM技术通过反应性-形成性多阶模型来预测行为意图的文献有着理论贡献。

关键词

关键词:广告认知, 、目的地Facebook, 、社会影响理论, 、计划行为理论, 、旅游意图

纸张类型

研究论文

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Mehmet Erdem and Lan Jiang

The purpose of this research study is to present an overview of hotel revenue management (RM) research articles published in scholarly journals during the 2001-2013 period…

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2174

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to present an overview of hotel revenue management (RM) research articles published in scholarly journals during the 2001-2013 period while offering a direction for future research that focuses on RM in the hotel industry context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Boolean search keywords across the period of 2001 to 2013, a total of 83 hotel RM-related research journal articles were queried. To ensure that all the identified articles were hotel-RM related, each article was independently reviewed; 70 research journal articles were identified as relevant for inclusion in this study.

Findings

RM has been and will continue to be a critical tool for the hotel industry, especially since the rise of its perceived strategic role among hoteliers. The RM process is shifting from a tactical to a strategic approach. Also, RM has become more technology driven and it is becoming more customer-centric. Hoteliers should spend more effort and resources on training and educating revenue managers.

Research limitations

The content analysis is limited to the databases available to the research team.

Practical implications

This study serves as a resource for scholars interested in RM research in the hotel industry and documents the focus of RM research and the key issues offered by scholars.

Originality/value

No study has previously offered an overview of RM research articles focusing on the hotel industry (covering the years since 2000). The manuscript serves as framework for scholars who may wish to identify existing research patterns and pursue new directions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Lan Jiang

Following China entered the World Trade Organisation in November 2001, attention has been paid worldwide to the current Chinese legal system, political policies, and the…

Abstract

Following China entered the World Trade Organisation in November 2001, attention has been paid worldwide to the current Chinese legal system, political policies, and the development of economic reform. Recent debates on corporate governance in China have become a global topic of interest. The corporate governance reform is now the centre of the enterprise reform. This paper evaluates the development of corporate governance reform in China and identifies its changes in legislation on corporate control. This paper provides evidence to show that China has been making significant progress in the development of corporate governance reform. It concludes that China has established a fundamental legal framework for corporate governance. The changes in regulations on corporate control indicate that the development of a more sophisticated corporate governance system is under way. However, corporate governance reform in China is still at an early stage of development. The existing problems are still significant. Laws and legal institutions have experienced difficulties keeping up with the changes that have been taking place in China. The rights of selecting management of state‐owned enterprise still remain in the hands of the state. The reform of the banking system lags behind the development of the market economy and state‐owned banks are still under government's control. The paper argues that in Chinese context as far as the rights of selecting management remain in state's hand, the independent board of directors will have less power to achieve the goals in corporate control. Thus the agency problems will not be solved, and it is very difficult to excise and protect minority shareholders' interest. In today's Chinese market the corporate governance cannot provide the protection of minority investors' interests. This paper also argues that it is very dangerous for individual investors to invest in the Chinese market and they have to bear higher risks. This paper suggests that increasing the Sophistication of the corporate governance system of both internal and external control is the key for the Chinese market. This is because the Chinese context is very complicated. There are so many regulations and laws applied in business practice. Different companies and enterprises apply different laws. This paper points out when a national corporate governance system is established it should serve the whole economic market. Thus the further reform of state‐owned enterprises and also the banking system should take place so that China can build up a real economic market structure according to international regulations. This paper also suggests that in the long‐term, building up a cultural background for applying corporate governance system is very important in Chinese society. Improving the culture in the social environment could help to improve the corporate governance in business practices.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2011

Lan Jiang

China has achieved continuous economic growth and become more integrated with the global economy since the start of the current financial crisis in late 2008. As the…

Abstract

China has achieved continuous economic growth and become more integrated with the global economy since the start of the current financial crisis in late 2008. As the second largest economy in the world, China's political policies, economic and social development have influence on global economy. Attention has been paid worldwide to the current Chinese legal system, political policies and the development of economic reform since China entered the World Trade Organisation in November 2001. The corporate governance reform is the centre of the enterprise reform. In September 1999, The Fourth Plenum of the Chinese Communist Party's 15th central Committee identified that corporate governance is the core of the modern enterprise system. In recent years China has made significant progress in developing the foundations of a modern corporate system. There are more than 1,200 companies which have successfully diversified their ownership through public listing and 80% of small and medium size companies have been transformed into non-state-owned enterprises. More and more state-owned enterprises are on the way to transforming into corporations. China has formed a legal framework for corporate governance.

Details

Governance in the Business Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-877-0

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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2020

Lan Jiang

The growing power of China's economy with its ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative for building a new globalised world is generally believed to have an impact on global economic…

Abstract

The growing power of China's economy with its ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative for building a new globalised world is generally believed to have an impact on global economic development and sustainability.

The current Chairman and President of the People's Republic of China Mr. Jinping Xi proposed the ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative in 2013 during his official visit to Kazakhstan and Indonesia. This was a Chinese initiative to create the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) and the Maritime Silk Road (MSR) to promote a new model for international cooperation and development. In recent years, more and more countries from Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa have agreed to join the initiative and have established their regional plans for economic development and sustainability.

This chapter provides a critical review of China's ‘One Belt and One Road’ initiative for creating higher growth and economic development through infrastructure connectivity, increased trade and investment. It discusses the challenges of the ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative and reports on the risks associated with the development of this regional cooperation. It summarises arguments for a common approach to infrastructure development and regional cooperation by supranational institutions.

It concludes that the growing positive support for China's ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative and its development as one of the largest infrastructure and investment projects in history would bring significant benefits to the global economy.

Details

Governance and Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-151-5

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2011

Abstract

Details

Governance in the Business Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-877-0

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

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542

Abstract

Purpose

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Common sense and good business practice tell us to retain our customers, so why do marketing campaigns designed to attract new business often give a “We don't care about you” message to existing customers?

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to digest format.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Ahmet Bulent Ozturk

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361

Abstract

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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