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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2020

Somashekar V. and Immanuel Selwyn Raj A.

This paper aims to deal with the numerical investigation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) characteristics (length and height of the bubble) of SS007 airfoil at the chord…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the numerical investigation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) characteristics (length and height of the bubble) of SS007 airfoil at the chord Reynolds number of Rec = 0.68 × 105 to 10.28 × 105.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical simulations of the flow around SS007 airfoil were carried out by using the commercial fluid dynamics (CFD) software, ANalysis system (ANSYS) 15. To solve the governing equations of the flow, a cell-centred control volume space discretisation approach is used. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the chord-based Reynolds number of Rec = 1.6 × 105 to validate the aerodynamic characteristics over SS007 airfoil.

Findings

The numerical results revealed that the LSB characteristics of a SS007 airfoil, and the aerodynamic performances are validated with experimental results. The lift and drag coefficients for both numerical and experimental results show very good correlation at Reynolds number 1.6 × 105. The lift coefficient linearly increases with the increasing angle of attack (AOA) is relatively small. The corresponding drag coefficient was found to be very small. After the formation of LSB which leads to burst to cause airfoil stall, the lift coefficient decreases and increases the drag coefficient.

Practical implications

Low Reynolds number and LSB characteristics concept in aerodynamics is predominant for both civilian and military applications. These include high altitude devices, wind turbines, human powered vehicles, remotely piloted vehicles, sailplanes, unmanned aerial vehicle and micro aerial vehicle. In this paper, the micro aerial vehicle flight conditions considered and investigated the LSB characteristics for different Reynolds number. To have better aerodynamic performances, it is strongly recommended to micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design engineers that the MAV is to fly at 12 m/s (cruise speed).

Social implications

MAVs and unmanned aerial vehicles seem to give some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement a versatile, reliable and inexpensive solution.

Originality/value

The SS007 airfoil delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency by increasing the lift and decreasing the drag. The maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency is 12.5% at stall angle of attack compared to the reference airfoil at Re = 2 × 105. The results are encouraging and this airfoil could have better aerodynamic performance for the development of MAV.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Massoud Tatar, Mojtaba Tahani and Mehran Masdari

In this paper, the applicability of shear stress transport k-ω model along with the intermittency concept has been investigated over pitching airfoils to capture the…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the applicability of shear stress transport k-ω model along with the intermittency concept has been investigated over pitching airfoils to capture the laminar separation bubble (LSB) position and the boundary layer transition movement. The effect of reduced frequency of oscillations on boundary layer response is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic code was developed to compute the effects of unsteadiness on LSB formation, transition point movement, pressure distribution and lift force over an oscillating airfoil using transport equation of intermittency accompanied by the k-ω model.

Findings

The results indicate that increasing the angle of attack over the stationary airfoil causes the LSB size to shorten, leading to a rise in wall shear stress and pressure suction peak. In unsteady cases, both three- and four-equation models are capable of capturing the experimentally measured transition point well. The transition is delayed for an unsteady boundary layer in comparison with that for a static airfoil at the same angle of attack. Increasing the unsteadiness of flow, i.e. reduced frequency, moves the transition point toward the trailing edge of the airfoil. This increment also results in lower static pressure suction peak and hence lower lift produced by the airfoil. It was also found that the fully turbulent k-ω shear–stress transport (SST) model cannot capture the so-called figure-of-eight region in lift coefficient and the employment of intermittency transport equation is essential.

Practical implications

Boundary layer transition and unsteady flow characteristics owing to airfoil motion are both important for many engineering applications including micro air vehicles as well as helicopter blade, wind turbine and aircraft maneuvers. In this paper, the accuracy of transition modeling based on intermittency transport concept and the response of boundary layer to unsteadiness are investigated.

Originality/value

As a conclusion, the contribution of this paper is to assess the ability of intermittency transport models to predict LSB and transition point movements, static pressure distribution and aerodynamic lift variations and boundary layer flow pattern over dynamic pitching airfoils with regard to oscillation frequency effects for engineering problems.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Aslesha Bodavula, Rajesh Yadav and Ugur Guven

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface protrusions on the flow unsteadiness of NACA 0012 at a Reynolds number of 100,000.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface protrusions on the flow unsteadiness of NACA 0012 at a Reynolds number of 100,000.

Design/methodology/approach

Effect of protrusions is investigated through numerical simulation of two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations using a finite volume solver. Turbulent stresses are resolved through the transition Shear stress transport (four-equation) turbulence model.

Findings

The small protrusion located at 0.05c and 0.1c significantly improve the lift coefficient by up to 36% in the post-stall regime. It also alleviates the leading edge stall. The larger protrusions increase the drag significantly along with significant degradation of lift characteristics in the pre-stall regime as well. The smaller protrusions also increase the frequency of the vortex shedding.

Originality/value

The effect of macroscopic protrusions or deposits in rarely investigated. The delay in stall shown by smaller protrusions can be beneficial to micro aerial vehicles. The smaller protrusions increase the frequency of the vortex shedding, and hence, can be used as a tool to enhance energy production for energy harvesters based on vortex-induced vibrations and oscillating wing philosophy.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Dhanush Vittal Shenoy, Mostafa Safdari Shadloo, Jorge Peixinho and Abdellah Hadjadj

Fluid flows in pipes whose cross-sectional area are increasing in the stream-wise direction are prone to separation of the recirculation region. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Fluid flows in pipes whose cross-sectional area are increasing in the stream-wise direction are prone to separation of the recirculation region. This paper aims to investigate such fluid flow in expansion pipe systems using direct numerical simulations. The flow in circular diverging pipes with different diverging half angles, namely, 45, 26, 14, 7.2 and 4.7 degrees, are considered. The flow is fed by a fully developed laminar parabolic velocity profile at its inlet and is connected to a long straight circular pipe at its downstream to characterise recirculation zone and skin friction coefficient in the laminar regime. The flow is considered linearly stable for Reynolds numbers sufficiently below natural transition. A perturbation is added to the inlet fully developed laminar velocity profile to test the flow response to finite amplitude disturbances and to characterise sub-critical transition.

Design/methodology/approach

Direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations have been solved using a spectral element method.

Findings

It is found that the onset of disordered motion and the dynamics of the localised turbulence patch are controlled by the Reynolds number, the perturbation amplitude and the half angle of the pipe.

Originality/value

The authors clarify different stages of flow behaviour under the finite amplitude perturbations and shed more light to flow physics such as existence of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities as well as mechanism of turbulent puff shedding in diverging pipe flows.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1956

T. Nonweiler

IS there anything magic about the shape of a wing section? Asked to sketch the profile of a wing on the back of an envelope, one would have no difficulty in representing a…

Abstract

IS there anything magic about the shape of a wing section? Asked to sketch the profile of a wing on the back of an envelope, one would have no difficulty in representing a shape which would probably, for most purposes, be adequate. Assuming this generalization to be true—perhaps it is a rather rash one—one might equally well question the need for an article on aerofoil design, or indeed the need for the long and painstaking research which, over the years, has been conducted on this particular subject. But it is this same research which, in the long run, has resulted in the recognition of certain general rules relating to aerofoil geometry, which are now taken so much for granted that they would probably be embodied in one's preconceived notion of what a wing section should look like. Recently, also, rather complicated theoretical techniques have made possible the design of profiles which, if manufactured faithfully and carefully in each detail, can provide a performance which is considerably better than any more arbitrary shaping to general rules would produce. Finally, of course, one must recognize that there are exceptional conditions where the application of conventional ideas is inadvisable, and where theoretical and experimental research is needed to suggest what is more appropriate. This article will be concerned for the most part with amplifying these remarks; but, by and large, it must be admitted at the outset that we cannot point to any revolutionary discontinuities in the progress of aerofoil design such as have characterized advances in the means of aircraft propulsion, or structural design.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Massimo Miozzi, Alessandro Capone, Christian Klein and Marco Costantini

The purpose of this study is the characterization of the dramatic variation in the flow scenario occurring at incipient stall conditions on a NACA0015 hydrofoil at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the characterization of the dramatic variation in the flow scenario occurring at incipient stall conditions on a NACA0015 hydrofoil at moderate Reynolds numbers via the experimental analysis of time- and space-resolved skin-friction maps. The examined flow conditions are relevant for a variety of applications, including renewable energy production and unmanned and micro-aerial vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounding on the global temperature data acquired via temperature-sensitive paint, the proposed methodology adopts two approaches: one to obtain time-resolved, relative skin-friction vector fields by means of an optical-flow-based algorithm and the other one to extract quantitative, time-averaged skin-friction maps after minimization of the dissimilarity between the observed passive transport of temperature fluctuations and that suggested by the Taylor hypothesis.

Findings

Through the synergistic application of the proposed methods, the time-dependent evolution of the incipient stall over the hydrofoil suction side is globally described by firstly identifying the trailing edge separation at an angle of attack (AoA) AoA = 11.5°, and then by capturing the onset of upstream oriented, mushroom-like structures at AoA = 13°. The concomitant occurrence of both scenarios is found at the intermediate incidence AoA = 12.2°.

Originality/value

The qualitative, time-resolved skin-friction topology, combined with the quantitative, time-averaged distribution of the streamwise friction velocity, enables to establish a portrait of the complex, three-dimensional, unsteady scenario occurring at the examined flow conditions, thus providing new, fundamental information for a deeper understanding of the incipient stall development and for its control.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Rajesh Yadav and Ugur Guven

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4 and 6 series airfoil. In addition, to find the optimised leading edge nose design for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils for flow separation control.

Design/methodology/approach

Different bio-inspired noses that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils. Bio-inspired nose with different nose length, nose depth and nose circle diameter have been analysed on airfoils with different thicknesses, camber and camber locations to understand the aerodynamic flow properties such as vortex formation, flow separation, aerodynamic efficiency and moment.

Findings

The porpoise nose design that has a leading edge with depth = 2.25% of chord, length = 0.75% of chord and nose diameter = 2% of chord, delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency. Average increments of 5.5% to 6° in the lift values and decrements in parasitic drag (without affecting the pitching moment) for all the NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils were observed irrespective of airfoil geometry such as different thicknesses, camber and camber location.

Research limitations/implications

The two-dimensional computational analysis is done for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves aerodynamic performance and increases the structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high lift devices and flow control devices. This universal leading edge flow control device can be adapted to aircraft wings incorporated with any NACA 4 and 6 series airfoil.

Social implications

The results would be of significant interest in the fields of aircraft design and wind turbine design, lowering the cost of energy and air travel for social benefits.

Originality/value

Different bio-inspired nose designs that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils and universal optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) is found for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils.

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Mustafa Serdar Genç, Hacımurat Demir, Mustafa Özden and Tuna Murat Bodur

The purpose of this exhaustive experimental study is to investigate the fluid-structure interaction in the flexible membrane wings over a range of angles of attack for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exhaustive experimental study is to investigate the fluid-structure interaction in the flexible membrane wings over a range of angles of attack for various Reynolds numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an experimental study on fluid-structure interaction of flexible membrane wings was presented at Reynolds numbers of 2.5 × 104, 5 × 104 and 7.5 × 104. In the experimental studies, flow visualization, velocity and deformation measurements for flexible membrane wings were performed by the smoke-wire technique, multichannel constant temperature anemometer and digital image correlation system, respectively. All experimental results were combined and fluid-structure interaction was discussed.

Findings

In the flexible wings with the higher aspect ratio, higher vibration modes were noticed because the leading-edge separation was dominant at lower angles of attack. As both Reynolds number and the aspect ratio increased, the maximum membrane deformations increased and the vibrations became visible, secondary vibration modes were observed with growing the leading-edge vortices at moderate angles of attack. Moreover, in the graphs of the spectral analysis of the membrane displacement and the velocity; the dominant frequencies coincided because of the interaction of the flow over the wings and the membrane deformations.

Originality/value

Unlike available literature, obtained results were presented comparatively using the sketches of the smoke-wire photographs with deformation measurement or turbulence statistics from the velocity measurements. In this study, fluid-structure interaction and leading-edge vortices of membrane wings were investigated in detail with increasing both Reynolds number and the aspect ratio.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

Nikhil Kalkote, Ashutosh Kumar, Ashwani Assam and Vinayak Eswaran

The purpose of this paper is to study the predictability of the recently proposed length scale-based two-equation k-kL model for external aerodynamic flows such as those…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the predictability of the recently proposed length scale-based two-equation k-kL model for external aerodynamic flows such as those also encountered in the high-lift devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The two-equation k-kL model solves the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and the product of TKE and the integral length scale to obtain the effect of turbulence on the mean flow field. In theory, the use of governing equation for length scale (kL) along with the TKE promises applicability in a wide range of applications in both free-shear and wall-bounded flows with eddy-resolving capability.

Findings

The model is implemented in the in-house unstructured grid computational fluid dynamics solver to investigate its performance for airfoils in difficult-to-predict situations, including stalling and separation. The numerical findings show the good capability of the model in handling the complex flow physics in the external aerodynamic computations.

Originality/value

The model performance is studied for stationary turbulent external aerodynamic flows, using five different airfoils, including two multi-element airfoils in high-lift configurations which, in the knowledge of the authors, have not been simulated with k-kL model until now.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Esmaeel Eslami, Mehran Tadjfar and Saman Najafi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the flow around Parastoo UAV's wing, with the aim of improving its aerodynamic performance. A major source of concern is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the flow around Parastoo UAV's wing, with the aim of improving its aerodynamic performance. A major source of concern is the use of relatively large flaps in the original design. This unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operates at low Reynolds numbers of below 500,000 and was designed for short‐range reconnaissance.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite volume solver is utilized to investigate the flow over different wing designs to find a replacement for the current one. To check the accuracy of this numerical modeling, the authors first duplicate the conditions of available relevant experiments. The numerical results are in good agreement with the wind tunnel experiments. Here, the aerodynamic performances of Parastoo's wing at different flight conditions with and without the proposed modification are studied and compared.

Findings

As the original design of Parastoo uses relatively large flaps, it is found that the aerodynamic performance of Parastoo is significantly hampered due to their existence. The use of a new wing cross‐section can improve the aerodynamics efficiency of Parastoo. It is recommended that FX‐63137 airfoil is a more suitable cross section instead of Parastoo's original NACA‐63215 airfoil. It is shown that this change improves the aerodynamic performance of the UAV and with the use of smaller flaps (changing the flaperons to only ailerons), the existing payload weight can be increased by 90 per cent.

Originality/value

The issues discussed for this UAV may be of use for other small unmanned plane designers. The numerical data generated for this study are useful for other design teams, both as in direct uses of the data in their own designs and/or for the validation of their numerical methods before investigating other wing designs.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 85 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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