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Article

Richard Earnshaw

The use of lactic acid bacteria in food production is perhaps one of the oldest examples of biotechnology. It is probable that fermented milk has been consumed since man…

Abstract

The use of lactic acid bacteria in food production is perhaps one of the oldest examples of biotechnology. It is probable that fermented milk has been consumed since man started milking animals, possibly as far back as 11,000 years ago. Over the years, numerous fermented foods have been developed, each with its own microbiological flora involved in production. These fermented foods have arisen without microbiological skills or knowledge; only relatively recently have we been able to understand the biological process underlying food fermentation by lactic acid and other bacteria.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 90 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

S. Sarkar

Probiotics are known to extend health benefits and therefore may be included during yoghurt manufacture to enhance its prophylactic properties. Different probiotic strains…

Abstract

Purpose

Probiotics are known to extend health benefits and therefore may be included during yoghurt manufacture to enhance its prophylactic properties. Different probiotic strains may exhibit diverse biotechnological behaviour in association with yoghurt cultures, therefore interactive behaviour amongst probiotic and yoghurt cultures must be evaluated prior to their commercial application. This paper aims to assess the effect of inclusion of different probiotic cultures on various biotechnological (technological, dietetic and prophylactic) characteristics of yoghurt cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Yoghurt was assessed for technological characteristics based on acidification and flavour production, dietetic characteristics based on proteolytic activity, vitamin synthesis and L (+) lactic acid production and prophylactic characteristics based on β‐galactosidase activity, antibacterial spectrum, viability in product as well as during gastro‐intestinal transit, intestinal colonization, immunomodulation, anti‐carcinogenicity and hypocholesterolemic effect.

Findings

Different probiotic cultures exhibited diverse technological, dietetic and prophylactic behaviour in association with yoghurt cultures. Functional properties of traditional yoghurt could be enhanced with the combined introduction of probiotic cultures such as Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and the resultant product may be recommended for consumption as a dietary adjunct.

Originality/value

The paper shows that combined introduction of probiotic cultures such as B. bifidum, B. infantis and L. acidophilus, as microbial additives during the manufacture of yoghurt would result in a product with enhanced functional properties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Joshita Lamba, Sangeeta Goomer and Lata Nain

The Indian diet is rich in all the essential nutrients required for the well-being of human life. Probiotics have always been part of our traditional diet but microbiota…

Abstract

Purpose

The Indian diet is rich in all the essential nutrients required for the well-being of human life. Probiotics have always been part of our traditional diet but microbiota of traditional fermented foods has not been explored. This study aims to analyse various traditional Indian fermented products for their probiotic nature.

Design/methodology/approach

Fermented indigenous products such as kanji, vegetable pickles and curd were prepared under controlled conditions and stored at ambient temperatures for shelf life studies. During the shelf life study, pH, titratable acidity and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count were estimated.

Findings

LAB counts ranged between 106 and 108 cfu/g in all the products, reflective of the probiotic nature of the products. Growth was observed even at low pH of 2.77 in product such as lemon chilli and ginger pickle. The 16S RNA-based sequencing technique was used for the identification of probiotic organisms present in the product. Enterococcus lactis, enterococcus durans, bacillus subtilis and lactobacillus plantarum were detected in the products.

Practical implications

These observations emphasise the need to undertake in-depth analysis of the viability of LAB in these fermented Indian foods for improving their nutritional properties. A need exists to explore and popularise more indigenous fermented products as probiotics.

Originality/value

India has a very rich and diverse food culture which differs from one region to other. This is because of difference in climatic conditions which has led to variety of food products. There are many products prepared locally and are not studied scientifically. This study aimed to explore these products for the presence of LAB which could have a probiotic potential.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Richard K. Robinson

Discusses the exploitation of the metabolic activities of thelactic acid bacteria in the manufacture of dairy products. Gives the twomain “starter culture” groups as: (1…

Abstract

Discusses the exploitation of the metabolic activities of the lactic acid bacteria in the manufacture of dairy products. Gives the two main “starter culture” groups as: (1) mesophiles; and (2) thermophiles; and considers the relevance to the consumer of the presence of species from these groups in food products. Concludes that the presence of viable mesophiles is of limited significance in nutritional terms; but that the presence of thermophiles in bio‐yogurts and similar items will benefit the consumer, if these items are consumed on a regular basis.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

A. Jagannath, Manoranjan Kumar and P S Raju

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met…

Abstract

Purpose

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met. However, GLVs also contain significant amounts of oxalate, nitrate and nitrites, whose role in the human diet is constantly changing. The current study explored the behavior of nitrate, nitrites and oxalate in lactic-fermented GLVs with an intention to develop functional foods based on them.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected strains of beneficial lactic acid bacteria were used for the controlled fermentation of GLV, while an identical portion was subjected to spontaneous fermentation. The nitrate and nitrites were monitored spectrophotometrically, while oxalate contents were quantified by both titrimetric and by high-performance liquid chromatography throughout the duration of fermentation.

Findings

More than 90 per cent of individual constituents studied remained intact in the GLVs paste after the six-day controlled fermentation period. However, there was significant difference between the controlled and spontaneously fermented samples in terms of oxalate, nitrate and nitrite contents.

Originality/value

Controlled lactic fermentation although superior in all other aspects may not be able to lower the anti-nutrients present. The advantages of spontaneous fermentation vis-à-vis controlled fermentation are discussed. The work will bring out the importance of the beneficial effects of GLVs and the effect of lactic fermentation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

S. Sarkar

The purpose of the paper is to show that traditionally, kefir was obtained by fermenting milk with kefir grains. Wide variation in microflora of kefir grains makes it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to show that traditionally, kefir was obtained by fermenting milk with kefir grains. Wide variation in microflora of kefir grains makes it difficult to obtain an optimal and uniform starter culture necessary for obtaining a quality kefir. Reviewed literature on microbiological and technological innovations in kefir production would enrich the scientific knowledge resulting in production of kefir with superior physical, chemical, nutritional, therapeutic and sanitary qualities.

Design/methodology/approach

An attempt is made to highlight the microbiological and technological aspects of kefir production with regard to the microflora of kefir grains, suitability of different types of milk, treatment of milk, starter inoculation and incubation, packaging, storage and post‐production treatment of kefir as well as methods of preservation of kefir grains.

Findings

Diverse microflora of kefir grains is the prime cause for the wide variation in kefir quality. Production of kefir is based on symbiotic relation between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and the type of milk, their heat‐treatment, size of inoculating starters and temperature of incubation influence their metabolic activities. Application of a suitable combination of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts would enable production of kefir with more uniform product with specific properties Packaging of kefir in a suitable container and storage at low temperature are suggested to retain its qualities.

Originality/value

Fermentation of milk with a suitable starter combination consisting of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts rather than application of kefir grains during the production of kefir would be more scientific to yield a product with enhanced nutritional and therapeutic qualities.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Parya Rahnama Vosough, Ali Mohamadi Sani, Masoumeh Mehraban and Reza Karazhyan

Since a sound detoxification method is needed for controlling aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Since a sound detoxification method is needed for controlling aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry, this study was performed. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted to examine the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG to remove AFB1 from liquid media. The binding of AFB1 to Lb. rhamnosus GG was studied for viable, heat-killed and acid-killed bacteria. AFB1 at concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg/l) was added to the bacterial culture (109 cfu/ml) in MRS broth medium and incubated at 25°C for 4, 12 and 24 h. The aflatoxin-binding capacity of the strain was quantified by the amount of unbound AFB1 using ELISA technique.

Findings

Results showed the AFB1-binding capacity of viable, heat-killed and acid-killed bacteria was about 43, 49 and 50 percent, respectively. The percentage of AFB1 removed was the highest amount in low (5 μg/l) and high (20 μg/l) concentrations, and there was no significant difference between them (p=0.05). These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria can be exploited as an approach to detoxification of aflatoxins from foods.

Practical implications

This method is safe because non-viable bacteria have more ability to remove toxin than viable bacteria, and also it is an effective method with 50 percent approximately toxin removal.

Originality/value

Since there has been no research on the ability of this strain on the removal of AFB1, the authors assessed the ability of the strain in high levels of AFB1.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article

Mpho Edward Mashau, Afam Israel Obiefuna Jideani and Lucy Lynn Maliwichi

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of adding Aloe vera powder (AVP) in the production of mahewu with the aim of determining its shelf-life and sensory qualities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of adding Aloe vera powder (AVP) in the production of mahewu with the aim of determining its shelf-life and sensory qualities.

Design/methodology/approach

Mahewu was produced at home (Sample B) and in the laboratory (Sample C) using a standard home-made procedure with the addition of AVP. A control mahewu (Sample A) was produced without AVP. Shelf-life was determined by following the chemical, microbiological, physical properties at 36 ± 2 °C for 60 days and the sensory properties of the products were also evaluated.

Findings

Physicochemical analysis revealed decreases in pH ranging between 3.3 and 2.4 from day 15–60 days of storage in all three samples. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in titratable acidity (0.2–1.8%) of all mahewu samples during storage. Total soluble solids were different amongst the samples from day 15 to day 60. The colour of the products was significantly different (p = 0.05) with respect to L*, a* and b* throughout the storage period. Microbiological results revealed an increase in coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast during storage. Sensory analysis showed that the control mahewu was more preferred than AVP added mahewu.

Practical implications

The study may help small-scale brewers to increase the shelf-life of mahewu.

Originality/value

Results of this study showed that the addition of AVP extended shelf-life of mahewu up to 15 days at 36 ± 2 °C.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Shahnawaz Umer Khan

There is need for exhaustive studies to be undertaken to identify various probiotic strains and to understand the actual mechanism of action by which these probiotics…

Abstract

Purpose

There is need for exhaustive studies to be undertaken to identify various probiotic strains and to understand the actual mechanism of action by which these probiotics exert their health benefits in order to exploit its fullest health benefits expressed by various kinds of the probiotic strains. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The health effects of the probiotics can be accessed by in vivo as well as the in vitro studies of live microorganisms and their biological active compounds on various disease-causing organisms and their harmful metabolites.

Findings

The paper is a brief review of recent findings about the health benefits of probiotic strains of microorganisms. The health effects of fermented food items were known since the time immemorial, but the actual cause of this was a mystery. Recent discoveries led to the author's knowledge about the mechanism through which they exert these curative effects which is either by competitive inhibition of harmful microbes in gut or by production of biological active compounds against disease-causing organisms and their harmful metabolites.

Originality/value

Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods which are produced with active live cultures, so various new types of these probiotic cultures can be introduced which can act as food as well as curative agents for treating and preventing various types of diseases at nominal costs.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

M. Mazaheri Assadi, F. Abdolmaleki and R.R. Mokarrame

Milk whey is a by‐product of the cheese‐making industry which presents about 85‐95 per cent of the milk volume. Whey fermentation by the isolated kefir starter culture…

Abstract

Purpose

Milk whey is a by‐product of the cheese‐making industry which presents about 85‐95 per cent of the milk volume. Whey fermentation by the isolated kefir starter culture could be a sensible solution for the use of this by‐product from the dairy industry. For the first time, in Iran the microbial flora of kefir grain was isolated and identified (Motaghi et al.). This paper aims to examine the various ratios of starter culture of kefir grain for production of fermented beverage using whey as the substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

Various ratios of lactic bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria were tested. The incubation time (24 h) temperature (25C), substrate (pasteurized whey), and inoculation rate (3‐5 per cent) and mixing rate (90 rpm) were the same for the all products. The products were analyzed for protein, fat, sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, acidity, density, dry material, ash, and riboflavin content.

Findings

The quality (smell and flavor) of the product was assessed. Samples produced with 3 per cent (v/v) lactic acid, acetic acid bacterial mixed cultures and 2 per cent (v/v) yeast culture were considered as best with respect to quality and organoleptic quality.

Originality/value

The ability of kefir starter cultures to ferment whey to formulate and mix cultures consisting of certain species of kefir grain micro‐organisms in‐order to develop a procedure where lactic acid fermentation is followed by yeast fermentation. The potential of local kefir starter culture in production of healthy beverage from whey is a new finding since this particular beverage has the taste of artificial butter milk and it is naturally carbonated.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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