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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2003

Dirk Konietzka

The German institutional setting of skill formation is supposed to enable young people smooth and structured transitions into the labor market. For decades, the large…

Abstract

The German institutional setting of skill formation is supposed to enable young people smooth and structured transitions into the labor market. For decades, the large majority of graduates of the “dual system” of vocational education experienced good chances to immediately access appropriate job positions. However, labor market entry has become less stable in the last two decades. In this paper, we examine the changing transition from vocational training to the first job in Germany. We analyze the consequences of inter-firm mobility and unemployment after finishing vocational education for the transition to the first job. Our results show that leaving the training firm, and especially unemployment, strongly enhance occupational shifts at labor market entry. In addition, not keeping one’s trained occupation negatively affects the chances to enter skilled job positions.

Details

The Sociology of Job Training
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-886-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Milan Vodopivec

Based on consecutive labor force surveys, this study examines labor market dynamics during the first decade of the Estonian transition to market. The results show that…

Abstract

Based on consecutive labor force surveys, this study examines labor market dynamics during the first decade of the Estonian transition to market. The results show that, similar to other transition economies: Estonia’s employment and labor force was reduced; patterns of mobility profoundly changed – labor market flows intensified and previously nonexistent transitions emerged; and some groups of workers were disproportionally affected, chief among them the less educated and ethnic minorities. But Estonian fundamental free market reforms also produced labor market outcomes that differ significantly from those in other transition economies – above all, the intensity of worker and job flows in Estonia’s transition have surpassed those in most other transition economies. This was achieved by deliberate policies aimed at stimulating job creation and employment, above all by low employment protection and other policies geared toward increasing employability and strengthening the incentives of workers. Moreover, under the dynamic Estonian labor market adjustment, marginal groups have fared better than those in more protective labor markets of other transition economies.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Aysit Tansel and Elif Öznur Acar

This paper, the first one to use individual-level Turkish panel data, examines the labor market transitions in Turkey along the formal/informal employment divide. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, the first one to use individual-level Turkish panel data, examines the labor market transitions in Turkey along the formal/informal employment divide. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the limited body of empirical evidence available on mobility and informality in the Turkish labor market.

Design/methodology/approach

Toward this end, the authors use Turkish income and Living Conditions Survey panel data for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 to compute the Markov transition probabilities of individuals moving across six different labor market states: formal-salaried (FS), informal-salaried, formal self-employed, informal self-employed, unemployed and inactive. In order to examine the nature of mobility patterns in more detail, the authors then estimate six multinomial logit models individually for each transition adopting a number of individual and employment characteristics as explanatory variables.

Findings

The authors find evidence that mobility patterns are fairly similar across different time spans, the probability of remaining in initial state is higher than the probability of transition into another state for all the labor market states, except for unemployment, there is only very limited mobility into the FS state. Gender, education and sector of economic activity are observed to display significant effects on mobility patterns. The results reveal several relationships between the covariates and likelihood of variant transitions.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a comprehensive and detailed diagnosis of the Turkish labor market. The market is observed to display a rather static structure throughout the period considered. The results indicate that a well recognition of underlying dynamics may help policy makers to produce various effective tools for addressing informality.

Originality/value

First study to analyze labor market mobility across formal/informal sectors using newly available panel data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Amany Yashoa Gad

This paper aims to identify the level of contribution of different levels of education to remaining in unemployment as well as the transition from unemployment to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the level of contribution of different levels of education to remaining in unemployment as well as the transition from unemployment to employment in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, transition probabilities matrix differentiated by gender, age groups, educational levels, marital status and place of residence based on worker flows across employment, unemployment and out of labor force states during the period 2012–2018 using Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey of 2018. The results point to the highly static nature of the Egyptian labor market. Employment and the out of labor force states are the least mobile among labor market states. This is because employment state is very desirable and the out of labor force is the largest labor market states, especially for females. Also, this study examines the impact of different educational levels separately on remaining in unemployment and transition from unemployment to employment state using eight binary logistic regression models.

Findings

The main results of transitions from unemployment to employment are relatively large for males, elder-age, uneducated workers as well as workers who are not married and urban residents, and the results of the logistic regression models consistent with the transition probabilities matrix results, except for few cases. Based on the above findings, there is enough evidence to accept the null hypothesis that no education has a positive significant impact to transition unemployed individuals from unemployment to employment, while less than intermediate as well as higher education have a negative significant impact to transition unemployed individuals from unemployment to employment.

Originality/value

This paper proposes to address the problem of the unemployment among highly educated which is much higher compared with illiterates and try to understand the impact of different levels of education separately on the transition from unemployment to employment, to help the policymakers to eradicate the gap between education and the demand of the labor market in Egypt.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Asunción Soro‐Bonmatí

Compares labour market transitions of young people in Germany and Italy using panel data from the GSOEP and the SHIW. The aim is to investigate whether there are…

Abstract

Compares labour market transitions of young people in Germany and Italy using panel data from the GSOEP and the SHIW. The aim is to investigate whether there are significant cross‐country differences in the patterns of labour market entrance and whether explanatory factors can be identified. The analysis shows that Germans have a significantly higher probability of moving from school to work and from unemployment to employment. They are also more likely to move back to studies if already in the labour force. Further investigation suggests that cross‐country differences in the educational and labour market systems are responsible for the differences found.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 21 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Valentina Goglio and Roberto Rizza

The purpose of this paper is to achieve a greater understanding of the transitions young adults experience into and out of the labour market and the influence that gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to achieve a greater understanding of the transitions young adults experience into and out of the labour market and the influence that gender and married/cohabiting status have on employment careers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on young adults (25-34 years old) in four European countries – Italy, the Netherlands, the UK and Norway – that are representative of different youth transition regimes. Using longitudinal data from EU-SILC survey (for the years 2006-2012) and event history analysis, the authors investigate the effect of the particular set of institutional features of each country, the effect of the cohort of entry and the effect of gender differences in determining transitions across labour market status.

Findings

Findings show that the filter exercised by the national institutions has a selective impact on the careers of young adults, with some institutional contexts more protective than others. In this respect, the condition of inactivity emerges as an interesting finding: on one side, it mainly involves women in a partnership, on the other side it is more common in protective youth regimes, suggesting that it may be a chosen rather than suffered condition.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to existing literature by: focusing on a specific category, young adults from 25 to 34 years old, which is increasingly recognised as a critical stage in the life course though it receives less attention than its younger counterpart (15-24); integrating the importance of family dynamics on work careers by analysing the different effects played by married/cohabiting status for men and women.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Sílvia Monteiro, Leandro Almeida and Adela García-Aracil

This study addresses the specific topic of transition between higher education and the world of work, taking differences naturally inherent to the individual and to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study addresses the specific topic of transition between higher education and the world of work, taking differences naturally inherent to the individual and to the surrounding micro and macro contexts. With a holistic approach, this paper aimed to provide a deeper understanding about the university-to-work transition process in a period of turbulence and continuous changes in the labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

The three research questions that guide this qualitative study are as follows: (1) What are the factors that facilitate the transition to the labour market? (2) What are the factors that constrain the transition to the labour market? (3) What are graduates' perceptions of their employability? To answer these questions, eleven graduates were interviewed about facilitators and barriers of the transition process and perceptions of employability. Data collected from the interviews were then related to categories previously defined from the literature review. Version 12.0 of the NVivo software was used to support the process of data analysis.

Findings

Overall, participants' discourse refer to a multidimensional and dynamic perspective of factors related with work transition and employability. The obtained results indicate that the lack of career agency during graduation and professional experiences, together with late career exploration processes, represent possible barriers of transition, especially in study fields with targeted job offers. Likewise, experiences promoting the development of competencies through supportive practice from teachers, mentors and colleagues are referred as facilitators of transition.

Practical implications

One of the most consistent outcomes of the interviews conducted concerns the importance of a stronger focus on developing practical experiences during higher education studies. This empirical study demonstrated how this type of experience can mitigate the impact of the transition from university to the labour market.

Originality/value

This empirical study demonstrated how work being integrated into learning in curricula can mitigate the impact of the transition from university to the labour market. It offers important insights about possible strategies that could be adopted to promote graduates' employability from a perspective of shared responsibility.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Dimitris Pavlopoulos and Didier Fouarge

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and the human‐capital determinants of low‐wage mobility for labour market entrants in the UK and Germany.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and the human‐capital determinants of low‐wage mobility for labour market entrants in the UK and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data for the UK (BHPS) and Germany (GSOEP), a competing‐risks duration model is applied that allows the study of transitions from low pay to competing destination states: higher pay, self‐employment, unemployment and inactivity. Unobserved heterogeneity is tackled by a non‐parametric mass‐point approach.

Findings

It is found that low pay is only a temporary state for most young job starters. However, there is a small group of job starters that is caught in a trap of low pay, unemployment or inactivity. In the UK, job starters escape from low pay mainly by developing firm‐specific skills. In Germany, involvement in formal vocational training and the attainment of apprenticeship qualifications account for low pay exits.

Originality/value

Over the past decades, unemployment and low‐wage employment have emerged as major challenges facing young labour market entrants. While most empirical studies focus exclusively on the transition from low pay to high pay, the paper shows that a significant percentage of young entrants are caught in a low‐pay‐non‐employment trap. Moreover, it is shown that, depending on the institutional context, different types of human capital investments can account for a successful low‐pay exit.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Kenneth A. Couch, Robert Fairlie and Huanan Xu

Labor force transitions are empirically examined using Current Population Survey (CPS) data matched across months from 1996 to 2012 for Hispanics, African-Americans, and…

Abstract

Labor force transitions are empirically examined using Current Population Survey (CPS) data matched across months from 1996 to 2012 for Hispanics, African-Americans, and whites. Transition probabilities are contrasted prior to the Great Recession and afterward. Estimates indicate that minorities are more likely to be fired as business cycle conditions worsen. Estimates also show that minorities are usually more likely to be hired when business cycle conditions are weak. During the Great Recession, the odds of losing a job increased for minorities although cyclical sensitivity of the transition declined. Odds of becoming re-employed declined dramatically for blacks, by 2–4%, while the probability was unchanged for Hispanics.

Details

Transitions through the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-462-6

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Dirk Witteveen

Research on job precarity and job instability have largely neglected the labor market trajectories in which these employment and non-employment situations are experienced…

Abstract

Research on job precarity and job instability have largely neglected the labor market trajectories in which these employment and non-employment situations are experienced. This study addresses the mechanisms of volatility and precarity in observed work histories of labor market entrants using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997. Several ideal-typical post-education pathways are modeled for respondents entering the labor force between 1997 and 2010, with varying indicators and degrees of precarity. A series of predictive models indicate that women, racial-ethnic minorities, and lower social class labor market entrants are significantly more likely to be exposed to the most precarious early careers. Moreover, leaving the educational system with a completed associate’s, bachelor’s, or post-graduate degree is protective of experiencing the most unstable types of career pattern. While adjusting for these individual-level background and education variables, the findings also reveal a form of “scarring” as regional unemployment level is a significant macro-economic predictor of experiencing a more hostile and turbulent early career. These pathways lead to considerable earnings penalties 5 years after labor market entry.

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