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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Martina Lo Cascio and Domenico Perrotta

This chapter deals with labour conditions and discrimination of migrant workers in Italy, with a particular focus on the agricultural sector in two Southern Italian areas…

Abstract

This chapter deals with labour conditions and discrimination of migrant workers in Italy, with a particular focus on the agricultural sector in two Southern Italian areas: Northern Basilicata and Western Sicily. The first part of the chapter describes the history of migration to Italy and the most relevant transformations occurred over the last years, as well as an overview of the relevant legislation on migration and racial discrimination at work. The second part, on the basis of two ethnographic studies realized by the two authors, analyses the complex intertwinement of structural and symbolic violence in determining the conditions of exploitation and discrimination of migrant seasonal labourers in the two areas. The study focuses on three topics: piecework payment; the ghettoization and segregation of seasonal labourers; the system of informal and illegal labour intermediation called caporalato. It is argued that that the main source of symbolic violence is represented by the brokers called caporali, who are usually of the same nationality of the labourers. If, on a certain extent, migrant workers perceive their ghettoization, discrimination and exploitation as ‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’, this is due to the communitarian relationships built and manipulated by the caporali. On the contrary, the State and the local administrations seem to act exclusively as a source of structural violence. The national legislation on migration, as well as the lack of public policies concerning labour intermediation, transport and accommodation for seasonal labourers, appears as the main reason of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the considered areas.

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Race Discrimination and Management of Ethnic Diversity and Migration at Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-594-8

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Book part
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Ofer Sharone

The rapid growth of online social networking sites (“SNS”) such as LinkedIn and Facebook has created new forms of online labor market intermediation that are reconfiguring…

Abstract

The rapid growth of online social networking sites (“SNS”) such as LinkedIn and Facebook has created new forms of online labor market intermediation that are reconfiguring the hiring process in profound ways; yet, little is understood about the implications of these new technologies for job seekers navigating the labor market, or more broadly, for the careers and lives of workers. The existing literature has focused on digital inequality – workers’ unequal access to or skilled use of digital technologies – but has left unanswered critical questions about the emerging and broad effects of SNS as a labor market intermediary. Drawing on in-depth interviews with unemployed workers this paper describes job seekers’ experiences using SNS to look for work. The findings suggest that SNS intermediation of the labor market has two kinds of effects. First, as an intermediary for hiring, SNS produces labor market winners and losers involving filtering processes that often have little to do with evaluations of merit. Second, SNS filtering processes exert new pressures on all workers, whether winners or losers as perceived though this new filter, to manage their careers, and to some extent their private lives, in particular ways that fit the logic of the SNS-mediated labor market.

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Emerging Conceptions of Work, Management and the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-459-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Biswajit Mandal and Alaka Shree Prasad

This paper aims to strive to model virtual trade resulting from time zone differences in an otherwise Heckscher–Ohlin set up which is absent in the literature. So, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to strive to model virtual trade resulting from time zone differences in an otherwise Heckscher–Ohlin set up which is absent in the literature. So, the paper adds some value to the existing literature on time zones (TZ) and trade.

Design/methodology/approach

A competitive general equilibrium model is developed first to capture the effect of TZ differences on virtual trade. Then the authors examine, in brief, if distance can be accommodated in such framework. Finally, the authors extend the model to incorporate informality.

Findings

It is seen that exploitation of time zone difference benefits skilled labor and hurts capital under reasonable assumption. In what follows, time zone difference exploiting sector expands, whereas the other sector contracts. Then, the model has been extended to examine how distance may also lead to similar outcomes. In addition, the model is further modified to explore the effect of virtual trade in an informality and associated extortion ridden economy. Interestingly, virtual trade turns out to be beneficial to unskilled workers as well, and leads to a fall in the number of extortionists, though informal production is augmented.

Research limitations/implications

This model is a competitive model that may not clearly reflect the realistic world. However, interestingly this may form the basis of looking into some other appealing dimensions of the real world.

Originality/value

TZ and related communication-cost-driven trade arguments are relatively less explored theoretically. Therefore, the work adds some value to the theoretical understanding of outsourcing in service trade that uses day-night differences across the globe.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Abstract

Details

Platform Economics: Rhetoric and Reality in the ‘Sharing Economy’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-809-5

Abstract

Details

Legal Intermediation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-860-9

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Abstract

Details

Platform Economics: Rhetoric and Reality in the ‘Sharing Economy’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-809-5

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 March 2019

Miguel Blanco Canto, Lydia Bares López and Oksana Hrynevych

The economic crisis of 2008 has caused a significant increase in the number of unemployed in Spain and a decrease in investments in active training policies. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

The economic crisis of 2008 has caused a significant increase in the number of unemployed in Spain and a decrease in investments in active training policies. In this context, it is even more necessary to demand improvements in the degree of efficiency of the training programs aimed at unemployed people.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the opinions of a group of experts in labor intermediation on the need to include transversal competences in the training contents of employment courses aimed at the tourism sector to improve the degree of employment of the unemployed.

Findings

All the experts consulted have indicated the need to enrich the subjects of the training courses by incorporating workshops that favor the implementation of certain transversal competences such as team work, management in stress situations, problem-solving, willingness to learn, self-initiative, verbal communication and mastery of social networks.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations are given by the small number of experts in the field. However, their long career and participation in employment programs make their opinions valuable.

Practical implications

The main practical implication is in the fact that the proposed suggestions about modifications in the contents of the training courses for employment in the tourism sector are perfectly applicable, and according to the expert’s opinions, they would improve the degree of labor insertion of the participants.

Social implications

The improvement of the degree of employability of the unemployed who participate in the training actions and a greater adaptation to the specific characteristics of the jobs offered by the entrepreneurs of the sector.

Originality/value

The adaptation of the formative contents of the courses focused on the unemployed can make possible two desirable effects. On the one hand, the improvement of the quality of the tourist resources and on the other hand, increase the degree of employability of the unemployed, and in this way improve the efficiency of training programs.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Patricia Suárez, Begoña Cueto and Matías Mayor

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of public employment services (PES) on transitions from unemployment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of public employment services (PES) on transitions from unemployment.

Design/methodology/approach

The likelihood of exit from unemployment is explained by a multinomial logit model which takes into account the target state of the transition (unemployment, employment or inactivity). In order to analyze the unobserved heterogeneity, the model has been estimated using a Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models.

Findings

The analysis suggests that the contribution of PES to improving labor market outcomes is low in the case of transitions to employment. Nevertheless, PES play an important role in workforce dropout prevention.

Practical implications

The results suggest that redesign and modernization are needed to improve PES performance. More intensive job counselling should be provided so that PES get beyond workforce dropout prevention and start having clear positive effects on placement. Target groups should be defined more clearly so as to ensure sustainable transitions for individuals at risk of exclusion. PES should focus on the most disadvantaged jobseekers and those who need more help to get jobs.

Originality/value

First, the results highlight the role PES play in reducing inactivity rates. Second, this is the first study in Spain that uses Labor Force Survey (LFS) data to evaluate PES in a dynamic framework. The LFS is the only data source which allows us to relate people registered unemployed to people considered unemployed by international standards.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Cristiano Codagnone, Athina Karatzogianni and Jacob Matthews

Abstract

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Platform Economics: Rhetoric and Reality in the ‘Sharing Economy’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-809-5

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Vegard Iversen and Gaute Torsvik

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of social networks and intermediares in recruitment and as instruments to control the workforce in lower end urban labour

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of social networks and intermediares in recruitment and as instruments to control the workforce in lower end urban labour markets in developing countries. The existing literature favours explanations where networks and middlemen are vehicles to disburse information about vacant jobs or screening mechanisms that improve worker‐job matches. Intermediaries may also enable employers to evade labour regulations. This paper highlights instead their roles as incentive providers or mechanisms that alleviate behavioural risks in work relations. A novel aspect of this approach is that behavioural risks on both sides of the work relation are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing the literature, a simple agency model is introduced to suggest new ways to identify whether networks and middlemen alleviate incentive problems in labour relations.

Findings

Studies of disparities in labour market access and outcomes are usually anchored in ideas of discrimination. A key insight is that the access to and performance of urban labour markets depend critically on the specific “services” networks and intermediaries extend to workers and employers. This adds an important complication to the evaluation of opportunities for income diversification through rural‐urban migration. Under some circumstances, both “institutions” may give rise to strong and persistent exclusion that is likely to vary systematically across sectors of the urban economy. In other circumstances, access restrictions can be remedied through simple policy interventions.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new and important dimension to the study of urban labour markets as level playing fields.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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