Search results1 – 10 of over 17000
The availability of an adequate pool of suitable labour is a key location factor for the labour‐intensive hotel and restaurant business. Yet, in spite of high unemployment…
The availability of an adequate pool of suitable labour is a key location factor for the labour‐intensive hotel and restaurant business. Yet, in spite of high unemployment (unemployment rate: 17,3%) and schemes to import foreign seasonal workers, the sector still encounters considerable difficulties in filling job vacancies. Of the many approaches towards elucidating the mystery of high levels of unemployment concurrent with a perceived scarcity of workers, key contributions are the high seasonal fluctuations in demand and the mismatch theory. The phenomenon of seasonal unemployment may be understood as a special aspect of demand scarcity. The seasonal dependence of tourism demand generates variations which in turn cause personnel to be fired at a grand scale at the end of a season. The mismatch theory goes a long way towards explaining a large part of the problems encountered in filling job openings while sectoral unemployment remains high. Key elements of the structural imbalance are qualifications and age, availability in terms of geography and time, and earnings expectations (including working conditions and career options). Further facts are also that the inflow of foreign workers keeps wages and working conditions down and drives austrian workers into unemployment or in other sectors. Overall, it appears that the future supply of an adequate number of qualified labour is a growing problem, because the need for operations to position themselves in the quality segment will raise the labour and qualification threshold.
Despite important differences in labour flexibility patterns in different countries and despite clear indications of the important role of institutional factors with…
Despite important differences in labour flexibility patterns in different countries and despite clear indications of the important role of institutional factors with respect to HRM, to date there has been little research on the interaction between the institutional context and the HRM of companies. This paper seeks to address this issue with regard to labour flexibility strategies and reveals a promising approach to learning how the development of a topic, such as labour flexibility, takes place in practice. The case of The Netherlands clearly shows the interaction between the institutional context and company flexibility strategies. The institutional context was found to influence company strategies but, in return, these strategies were later seen to impact the institutional setting. In The Netherlands the system of labour relations has been adapted in response to calls from companies for more flexible labour relations. This has led to changes in labour laws and regulations, which, in turn, have stimulated new company strategies.
It is some years since I submitted a thesis on The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover, which was subsequently published in abbreviated form. I am obliged to M E Orton…
It is some years since I submitted a thesis on The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover, which was subsequently published in abbreviated form. I am obliged to M E Orton, therefore, whose writing in the Summer Journal encourages me to return to this old stamping ground and to clear up a long‐standing confusion — especially as his article in this Review so usefully reviews concepts and does not rehash old figures.
The purpose of this paper is explore an organizational design that allows firms to invest in transferable strategic human capital. Strategic human capital requires…
The purpose of this paper is explore an organizational design that allows firms to invest in transferable strategic human capital. Strategic human capital requires considerable investment in training costs, effective compensation, opportunities for professional development and expectancy of long employment relationship within a firm. A firm can undertake investment in strategic knowledge and workers can engage in learning only in these circumstances. However, there are a number of risks that are associated with investment in strategic human capital within a firm. In this paper, the author argues that providing strategic human capital to other firms within alliances could be a strategy for leveraging resource. Strategic knowledge facilitates transactions between firms possessing co-specialized human capital and tangible resources. Organizational design of an alliance based on co-specialization allows to balance costs and returns for the human capital supplier, as well as for beneficiary and workers. Within an alliance, the human capital supplier provides workers to a beneficiary firm and coordinates their activities. Supplier specialized in human capital investment ensures improved performance, productivity and efficiency of workers. Possibility to form a greater pool of labor force and to centralize training allows optimizing cost and sharing risks associated with investment activity among alliance participants. Human resource practices in an alliance system foster long-term employment relationship. Entering an alliance increases number of job positions, professional development opportunities through horizontal mobility, promotion and learning opportunities for workers. Finally, alliances allow leveraging investment in human capital beyond a single organization.
This paper conceptualizes the use of alliance based on co-specialization as a strategy to optimize investment in strategic human capital resource. It draws upon the resource-based view (Barney, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1995) and transaction cost theory (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1981) to examine an alliance as a strategy for leveraging the human capital resources for accessing new markets, building reputation and sharing the risks across more than one organization.
First, the paper reviews the theoretical literature on human capital as a strategic resource (Becker, 1962; Coff, 1997), its sourcing on internal and external labor markets and respective employment systems (Delery and Doty, 1996; Doeringer and Piore, 1971). Second, it focuses on the features of human capital resource (Barney, 1986; Chi, 1994; Doz and Hamel, 1998). Third, it conceptualizes the use of alliances based on co-specialization as organizational structures for investment in human capital across organizations and examines respective employment system and HR practices (Delery and Doty, 1996; Doeringer and Piore, 1971). As result, the author argues that an alliance can be an alternative mean to optimize returns on investment in human capital with strategic transferable knowledge. By consequence, the author describes an alliance employment system and illustrates the arguments with a case of human capital trading in a co-specialization alliance under a long-term management contract in the luxury hotel industry.
This paper discusses collaborative ventures as a sourcing strategy of the human capital. An alliance strategy is relevant for sourcing the strategic human capital resources. Human capital resource can be accessed by firms through transfer of skills and organizational routines within collaborative agreements, such as alliances based on co-specialization. In this case, alliance is an organizational architecture between organizations that improves the efficiency and productivity, reduces marginal cost on training due to larger scale of operations and reduces risk by splitting investment in human capital and by offering more career and development opportunities for strategic knowledge workers.
Location decisions are among the most costly decisions that organizations make. This research aims to examine location decisions from a macro perspective and to utilize…
Location decisions are among the most costly decisions that organizations make. This research aims to examine location decisions from a macro perspective and to utilize findings for the development of a typology.
County level source information from the US Census Bureau, the United States (US) Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), National Association of Counties (NACO), and Fedstats is used in this analysis. Discriminant analysis as a profile analysis is utilized as an objective assessment of differences between the cluster concentrations.
The resulting typology of clusters concentrations is based on four constructs identified in the literature: innovation, specialization, complementariness and transfer of knowledge. This typology can serve as an aid in making these critical location decisions for practitioners as well as identifying future research topics for academia.
The research is an exploratory study and limited by its nature; therefore cause and effect cannot be definitively stated. Variables such as politics, environment, geography and cultural differences could have confounding effects on the study. The generalizability of the study could be affected because of the geographic location in relationship to national differences based on these and other variables.
This typology of cluster concentrations can be used as a tool for managers when making crucial location decisions.
The research is original in that it takes a more holistic approach to developing a typology of cluster concentrations. Rather than looking at specific industries and focusing on industry clusters, the research focuses on concentrations of industry clusters.
The main purpose of writing this paper is to try to suggest, in conceptual terms at least, a model for the labour turnover process. The model outlined in this paper is seen as a single part of the total supply and demand for labour in the macro‐economy.
Segments the US restaurant business as quick service and drive‐in, and goes on to discuss each of these components in more detail. Elaborates on employee costs, showing…
Segments the US restaurant business as quick service and drive‐in, and goes on to discuss each of these components in more detail. Elaborates on employee costs, showing these rise percent wise as the restaurant’s profile does also, but emphasizes that labour laws only allow full‐time employees to have entitlement to full medical benefits. Notes that the quick service restaurant chains include such as McDonalds, Burger King, etc., and the drive‐in area includes both public and speciality sectors. Concludes that only the tip of the iceberg has been touched here with regard to wages and time in the industry.
This paper examines the experiences of welfare clients on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Indian immigrant information technology (IT) workers on the…
This paper examines the experiences of welfare clients on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Indian immigrant information technology (IT) workers on the H-1B visa to analyze how public–private collaborations in the spirit and practice of outsourcing, i.e. systematic fragmentation and decentralization of both corporate and state activities, function as mechanisms for disciplining labor. Through an analysis of these groups’ parallel experiences with exploitative work and employers in the U.S., this paper identifies how outsourcing is not merely a business model for cross-border trade, but also a key principle, component, and outcome of policy-based neo-liberal economic restructuring.