Search results

1 – 10 of over 17000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Richard Cebula, James E. Payne, Donnie Horner and Robert Boylan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after allowing for the impacts of economic and quality of life factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses two-stage least squares estimation controlling for factors contributing to cost of living differences across states.

Findings

The results reveal that an increase in labor market freedom reduces the overall cost of living.

Research limitations/implications

The study can be extended using panel data and alternative measures of labor market freedom.

Practical implications

In general, the finding that less intrusive government and greater labor freedom are associated with a reduced cost of living should not be surprising. This is because less government intrusion and greater labor freedom both inherently allow markets to be more efficient in the rationalization of and interplay with forces of supply and demand.

Social implications

The findings of this and future related studies could prove very useful to policy makers and entrepreneurs, as well as small business owners and public corporations of all sizes – particularly those considering either location in, relocation to, or expansion into other markets within the USA. Furthermore, the potential benefits of the National Right-to-Work Law currently under consideration in Congress could add cost of living reductions to the debate.

Originality/value

The authors extend the literature on cost of living differentials by investigating whether higher amounts of state-level labor market freedom act to reduce the states’ cost of living using the most recent annual data available (2016). That labor freedom has a systemic efficiency impact on the state-level cost of living is a significant finding. In our opinion, it is likely that labor market freedom is increasing the efficiency of labor market transactions in the production and distribution of goods and services, and acts to reduce the cost of living in states. In addition, unlike previous related studies, the authors investigate the impact of not only overall labor market freedom on the state-level cost of living, but also how the three sub-indices of labor market freedom, as identified and measured by Stansel et al. (2014, 2015), impact the cost of living state by state.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Richard J. Cebula, Christopher M. Duquette and G. Jason Jolley

Influences on the pattern of internal migration in the US, including economic factors, quality-of-life factors and public policy variables have been extensively studied by…

Abstract

Purpose

Influences on the pattern of internal migration in the US, including economic factors, quality-of-life factors and public policy variables have been extensively studied by regional scientists since the early 1970s. Interestingly, a small number of studies also address the effects of economic freedom on migration. The purpose of this paper is to add to the migration literature by examining the impact of labor market freedom on both gross and net state in-migration over the study period 2008–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses dynamic panel data analysis to investigate the impact of labor market freedom on both gross and net state in-migration over the study period 2008–2016.

Findings

The panel generalized method of moments analysis reveals that overall labor market freedom exercised a positive and statistically significant impact on both measures of state in-migration over the study period. The study finds a 1 percentage point increase in the overall labor market freedom index results in a 2.8 percent increase in the gross in-migration rate.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply states interested in attracting migrants and stimulating economic growth should pursue policies consistent with increased labor freedom.

Originality/value

The emphasis in the present study is on the impact of labor market freedom on state-level in-migration patterns, both gross and net, over a contemporary time period that includes both the Great Recession and subsequent recovering.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Lauren R. Heller and E. Frank Stephenson

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile research finding that labor market outcomes are related to economic freedom for entrepreneurs and separate research finding that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile research finding that labor market outcomes are related to economic freedom for entrepreneurs and separate research finding that higher homeownership rates are associated with more unemployment.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data covering the 50 states over 1981-2009, this paper analyzes the relationship between labor market conditions, economic freedom, and homeownership rates.

Findings

The results indicate that economic freedom is associated with favorable labor market conditions but that the relationship between homeownership and poor labor market outcomes is small and insignificant in most specifications once economic freedom is accounted for.

Originality/value

This paper is the first paper to examine the relationship between labor market outcomes and both homeownership and economic freedom. The results suggest that the economic environment for entrepreneurs is more important than any rigidities created by homeownership.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Morris Altman

The paper aims to examine the reality of, and, conditions for economic growth for former Soviet and Soviet Block economies with special attention to Ukraine and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the reality of, and, conditions for economic growth for former Soviet and Soviet Block economies with special attention to Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Many of these economies' transition from “Communism” remain plagued by problems of institutional design and outcomes characterized by high levels of corruption and low levels of accountability and transparency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze aspects of these socio‐economic realities in the context of contemporary economic theory and ongoing revisions to it.

Design/methodology/approach

The type of economic theory used to assess issues of transition has significant implications for public policy. Conventional economic theory has traditionally focused on secure private property rights, competitive markets, inclusive of “flexible” labor markets, as the necessary if not the sufficient conditions to successfully and quickly transition from command style to market economies. Little attention is paid to the details of institutional design. The paper applies a behavioral‐institutional analytical framework to analyze important aspects of failures and successes in transition economies using both economic and governance data sets.

Findings

The paper finds that traditional measures of economic freedom are far from sufficient to generate economic growth. Accountability and transparency in governance structures is also required. Economic failure and success are closely connected with overall performance in socio‐economic governance. Also an unnecessary emphasis on low wages, highly constrained social safety nets and labor market policy impedes successful growth and development.

Practical implications

Transition economies' economic performance can be significantly enhanced through improvements in institutional design that facilitates the evolution of high‐wage market economies. The market in and of itself does not suffice to generate successful transitions from command to vibrant market economies.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original exposé and analysis of transition economies from a behavioral‐institutionalist perspective, with important public policy implications.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 November 2013

Rana Hasan, Devashish Mitra and Asha Sundaram

This study aims to focus on the role of labor regulation and credit market imperfections, in addition to that of factor endowments, in determining capital intensities in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the role of labor regulation and credit market imperfections, in addition to that of factor endowments, in determining capital intensities in Indian manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers an alternative approach to identifying the effects of India ' s labor regulations on industrial performance. In particular, the paper uses a measure of the stringency of labor regulations across countries – one that is completely independent of the India-specific measures used by earlier studies – and examines its relationship with capital intensities across manufacturing industries. Additionally, since labor regulations are unlikely to be the only reason for imperfections in factor markets, the paper also examines whether and to what extent capital market imperfections affect capital intensities across manufacturing industries. The paper then presents a case study that seeks to ascertain whether actual capital intensities prevailing in Indian manufacturing in major industry groups from 1989 to 1996 were larger than predicted capital intensities for these industry groups based on relative factor demand functions estimated for the USA (a country with relatively less restrictive labor laws and a more developed financial system) evaluated at Indian wages. Finally, the paper uses a recently available dataset to compare capital intensities in Indian and Chinese manufacturing to investigate the behavior of these two emerging Asian economies since 1980, when they started out with relatively similar socio-economic conditions.

Findings

The paper finds that India uses more capital-intensive techniques of production in manufacturing than countries at similar levels of development (and similar factor endowments), including China. For a majority of manufacturing industries, labor freedom and capital market development are, in addition to factor endowments, important determinants of capital intensity of production techniques used. Results reveal that, controlling for factor prices, India specializes in more capital-intensive varieties within broad industry groups relative to the USA, a more capital-abundant economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors ' knowledge, such a study has not been done for any other country. The paper sheds light on the important issue regarding the use of capital-intensive techniques in manufacturing in India, which is a labor-abundant country. The role of labor regulation has been extensively debated and the paper also investigates its role along with the role played by credit market imperfections.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Sriparna Ghosh and Bryan C. McCannon

We explore how economic freedom measurements can be used to guide policy.

Abstract

Purpose

We explore how economic freedom measurements can be used to guide policy.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose a method for creating a growth-enhancing economic freedom index, which allows for nonlinearities and interaction effects between the components to economic freedom. We use this method to illustrate that US states differ in which policy area generates the greatest gains.

Findings

To validate the method presented, we apply our index to state bond markets. Financial market participants have the incentive to properly evaluate states’ policies. If our measurement is useful, then it should correlate with bond ratings. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present evidence that state bond ratings are strongly correlated with our growth-enhancing economic freedom index.

Originality/value

It has been well-established that economic freedom is associated with good economic outcomes. Economic freedom is comprised of numerous dimensions. Thus, the marginal benefit of improving policy in one area can be expected to depend on the amount of freedom in the other dimensions. Which policy improvement is most impactful depends on the entire menu of current policies and, therefore, differs between states. Our new method can then be used as a guide to determining for a particular state which policies can be expected to impact economic well-being the most.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 9 no. 02
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Belay Seyoum and Juan Ramirez

Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every person in a free society to control his/her own labor and property without government intervention beyond what is…

Abstract

Purpose

Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every person in a free society to control his/her own labor and property without government intervention beyond what is necessary to protect and maintain freedom itself. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between economic freedom, inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test a moderated mediation model of the effects of economic freedom on trade flows with the objective of exploring the mediation effects of FDI and the moderating effects of government stability.

Findings

Based on a sample of 155 countries from different geographical areas, the study shows that economic freedom is associated with inward FDI, which, in turn, predicted trade flows. Furthermore, government stability moderated the relationship between economic freedom and FDI.

Originality/value

This study goes beyond the traditional focus on the macro determinants of trade flows and explores the link between economic freedom and trade flows, and the roles of inward FDI and political stability in the context of this relationship. It also provides a novel methodological approach to examine this relationship.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Hongshik Lee and Minseok Park

The existing literature on aid for trade (AfT) tends to support the effectiveness of AfT in improving trade capacities and enhancing the export performance of recipient…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing literature on aid for trade (AfT) tends to support the effectiveness of AfT in improving trade capacities and enhancing the export performance of recipient countries. While aid directed at trade-related infrastructure (e.g. ports and roads) is reported to drive the overall effect of AfT, the increasing importance of labor market flexibility and informal labor in export environment has been largely overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to test two hypotheses regarding the relationship between labor market flexibility, exports and AfT. First, flexible labor regulation promotes exports by reducing adjustment costs related to the export process. Second, for informal labor-intensive export sectors, AfT effectiveness may be compromised by the contraction of the informal sector due to labor deregulation as it deteriorates comparative advantage that supports recipients’ export competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Since first introduced by Tinbergen (1962), the gravity model has been widely used to analyze bilateral trade, and its usefulness has been verified in several prominent empirical studies (e.g. Anderson and van Wincoop, 2003; Helpman et al., 2008). However, despite the empirically successful framework of the gravity model, the standard gravity equation may not be appropriate for estimating the effect of AfT in the paper. The main interest lies in whether aggregate AfT flows enhance the export “performance” of individual recipients, that is, whether they improve the recipients’ total exports rather than their bilateral exports. For this purpose, the authors took aggregated approach to the gravity model from Anderson and van Wincoop (2003).

Findings

The findings suggest that while both AfT and labor market flexibility are positively associated with higher export levels, the export-promoting effect of AfT is marginally reduced by the contraction of informal workforce. These findings, however, only hold for export sectors that heavily rely on informal labor force, that is, primary commodities and resource/labor-intensive goods. The authors also find that these effects are stronger in low-income countries, indicating that the AfT initiative has been effective where it is needed the most.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to analyze the relationship between AfT and exports with consideration of labor market flexibility. Using the data for 85 recipient countries, the authors test the following hypotheses. First, labor market flexibility promotes exports by reducing adjustment costs related to the exporting process. Second, the contraction of the informal sector due to labor deregulation deteriorates developing countries’ comparative advantage in certain export sectors. Hence, while both AfT and labor market flexibility are expected to enhance the export volume of developing countries, the loss from weaker comparative advantage in a form of smaller informal labor force can exceed the gains from AfT in certain sectors.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Elena Bárcena-Martín, Samuel Medina-Claros and Salvador Pérez-Moreno

Institutional environment plays a crucial role in determining the nature of entrepreneurship that prevails in an economy. In this paper, the authors address how business…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutional environment plays a crucial role in determining the nature of entrepreneurship that prevails in an economy. In this paper, the authors address how business, labour and credit regulations contribute differently to both the overall prevalence of opportunity-driven entrepreneurship (ODE) and its gender gap in high-income and emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of an unbalanced panel of 41 countries over the period 2005–2016, the authors estimate system generalised method of moment models. The authors also perform an ordinary least square analysis to address gender differences in ODE.

Findings

The authors find that higher credit market liberalisation is especially associated with more entrepreneurship by opportunity. Nevertheless, while credit market regulation stands out as a key element to promote opportunity-based entrepreneurship in both high-income and emerging countries, in the emerging world business regulation is also largely related to the prevalence of opportunity entrepreneurship. In terms of gender gap, business and labour market freedom seem to exert an equalising effect on the divide in entrepreneurship by opportunity, specifically in emerging economies.

Originality/value

Findings allow the identification of regulatory policy reform priorities to enhance the prevalence of ODE depending on the level of a country's development. They also identify which specific areas of economic regulation would speed up closing the gender gap in opportunity entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Dmitriy Krichevskiy and Thomas Snyder

– The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of government policies on entrepreneurial activity within the 50 US states.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of government policies on entrepreneurial activity within the 50 US states.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data and a fixed-effects model, the authors examine the determinants of the nominal establishment entry rate, the nominal establishment exit rate, and the net establishment entry rate. To measure government policy, the authors use the Economic Freedom of North America (EFNA) index published by the Fraser Institute. The authors use both the overall index and its components. The authors also use the state and local tax burden published by the Tax Foundation.

Findings

The authors find that a smaller government is associated with a net increase in business establishments. A freer labor market is also associated with a net increase in business establishments. However, the relationship between the tax burden and entrepreneurship is more complex. Using a measurement of the tax burden from the Fraser Institute, the authors find that an increase in taxes is associated with a net decrease in businesses, but the measurement from the Tax Foundation suggests that an increase in taxes is associated with a net increase in businesses.

Research limitations/implications

The results can help policy makers recognize the effects of expenditure and regulation on business formation.

Practical implications

However, the results do not send a clear message on the effects of taxes on entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The contribution to the literature is the examination of the effect of the components economic freedom on net business entry in the USA, along with comparing the effects of two measurements of tax burden on net business entry.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 17000