Search results

1 – 10 of over 25000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Beth Vanfossen and Frances Rothstein

The post‐World War ? period has been one of intense development activity throughout the world. Lesser developed countries have showed significant economic growth…

Abstract

The post‐World War ? period has been one of intense development activity throughout the world. Lesser developed countries have showed significant economic growth throughout this time‐span. Among the many consequences which are attributed to development, changes in gender relations are often mentioned. However, prior research has been unable to establish conclusively how economic development is related to gender inequality, particularly as this is referenced by women's participation in important economic activities. For example, some researchers have found that as development increases, women's participation in and return from the economy declines, others that it increases, and several have suggested it first declines then increases. Similar uncertainties exist about how an increasing emphasis on producing goods for export, and the often‐accompanying reliance on foreign investment, affects women's work. Recent research also suggests that the consequences of development are more diverse than previously thought. Recognition of the diversity requires greater specification of the links between developmental diversity and women's labor force participation.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

A Bheemeshwar Reddy

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the labour force participation of older persons (aged 60 and above) in India from 1983 to 2011-2012. The paper also briefly reviews…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the labour force participation of older persons (aged 60 and above) in India from 1983 to 2011-2012. The paper also briefly reviews the conditions of work for the elderly and examines different socio-economic and demographic factors that are associated with labour force participation of elderly in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses data from repeated cross-sectional rounds of Employment and Unemployment Surveys of National Sample Survey Office from 1983 to 2011-2012. The author uses probit regression model to identify the socio-economic and demographic variables that are associated with the labour participation of the elderly in India.

Findings

The results show that labour force participation rate of older persons in rural India remained almost stable between 1983 and 2011-2012, despite the rapid economic growth that India experienced during the same period. Further, the results show that among the elderly, those who belong to relatively poor socio-economic status are more likely to participate in the labour force. It is observed that large percentage of the elderly workforce are engaged in poorly paid jobs in the informal sector, either as casual workers or as self-employed in low-skilled or unskilled occupations.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is mostly descriptive in its analysis and it only points to the possible socio-economic and demographic determinants of elderly labour force participation in India.

Originality/value

Given that the studies on employment of elderly in India are scanty, this paper provides new evidence on changes in labour force participation of elderly over last three decades. Further, this study makes an attempts to understand who among the elderly most likely to participation in labour force in India.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Ambreen Fatima and Humera Sultana

Several studies have provided empirical evidence that female labor force participation rate exhibits a U‐shape during the process of economic development. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Several studies have provided empirical evidence that female labor force participation rate exhibits a U‐shape during the process of economic development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the existence of U‐shape relationship in the case of Pakistan and if it does exist, what factors determine this U‐shape relationship?

Design/methodology/approach

For the estimation purpose data according to provinces and regions are pooled for three years. The model is estimated using a simple fixed effect test.

Findings

The results affirm the existence of U‐shaped relationship. Estimation of the pooled data attributed this U‐shape relationship with female education attainment, sectoral employment share, unemployment rate, wages and marital status. Results confirm that high rate of economic development is encouraging the female participation in the labor force by increasing the work opportunities for females. The females are taking full advantage of these increased opportunities by increasing their level of education attainment. Research limitations/implications – In testing the U‐shape hypothesis, household expenditure on fuel consumption representing level of economic development in the country is used as the data on GDP are not available at the provincial level.

Practical implications

This paper recommends that skill‐based education programmes should be promoted so that females could be absorbed in the formal labor market. It also recommends measures to decrease unemployment rates and improve labor market conditions.

Originality/value

The paper is first of its kind as it applied pooled data technique for the estimation of U‐shape relationship.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Lixin Cai

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of labour force participation behaviour of married Australian women, with a focus on identifying the sources of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of labour force participation behaviour of married Australian women, with a focus on identifying the sources of observed inter-temporal labour force participation persistence.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic Probit model is applied to the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, a national representative panel survey of Australian households. The model used accounts for observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity and serially correlated transitory shocks to labour supply.

Findings

The results show that both observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity contributes to observed inter-temporal persistence of labour force participation of married Australian women, but the persistence remains even after controlling for these factors. It is also found that failing to control for serially correlated unobserved transitory shocks would lead to underestimation of genuine state dependence of labour force participation; and that state dependence of labour force participation varies with age, education, health, immigration status and the number of children under the school age.

Originality/value

This study adds to the international literature on labour force dynamics of women by providing Australian empirical evidence and through a flexible modelling framework. The result that there exists genuine positive state dependence in married Australian women’s labour force participation suggests that policy intervention that increases married women’s labour supply would have a long-lasting effect.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Margaret Maurer‐Fazio, James W. Hughes and Dandan Zhang

The purpose of the paper is to examine observed differences in China's ethnic majority and minority patterns of labor force participation and to decompose these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine observed differences in China's ethnic majority and minority patterns of labor force participation and to decompose these differences into treatment and endowment effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the three most recent population censuses of China are employed to explore differences in the labor force participation rates of a number of China's important ethnic groups. Gender‐separated urban labor force participation rates are estimated using logit regressions, controlling for educational attainment, marital status, pre‐school and school‐age children, household size, age, and measures of local economic conditions. The focus is on the experience of six minority groups (Hui, Koreans, Manchu, Mongolians, Uygurs, and Zhuang) in comparison to the majority Han. The technique developed by Borooah and Iyer is adopted to decompose the differences in labor force participation rates between pairs of ethnic groups into treatment and endowment effects.

Findings

Sizeable differences are found between the labor force participation rates of prime‐age urban women of particular ethnic groups and the majority Han. Men's participation rates are very high (above 95 percent) and exhibit little difference between Han and ethnic minorities. For almost all pairwise comparisons between Han and ethnic women, it is found that differences in coefficients account for more than 100 percent of the Han‐ethnic difference in labor force participation. Differences in endowments often have substantial effects in reducing this positive Han margin in labor force participation. Roughly speaking, treatment of women's characteristics, whether in the market or socially, tend to increase the Han advantage in labor force participation. The levels of these characteristics on average tend to reduce this Han advantage.

Research limitations/implications

The paper analyses only one aspect of the economic status of China's ethnic minorities – labor force participation. It would be useful also to examine income, educational attainment, occupational attainment, and unemployment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to and expands the scant literature on ethnicity in China's economic transition.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Toseef Azid, Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Adnan M.S. Alamasi

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that influence the decision of married women (in the age group of 16‐60 years) to participate in labor force activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that influence the decision of married women (in the age group of 16‐60 years) to participate in labor force activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study employing the non‐linear maximum likelihood probability (probit) function on primary data (3,911 observations).

Findings

Besides other variables it has been observed that poverty remains an important determinant of female labor participation.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of this paper, a socio‐economic policy can be formulated for a developing country like Pakistan.

Practical implications

A development policy (especially considering the gender aspects) can be formulated on the basis of this research for the enhancement of human resource development for a developing and an orthodox economy like Pakistan.

Originality/value

This paper is beneficial to researchers, policy makers, and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare and equity through its findings.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Durmuş Çağrı Yıldırım and Hilal Akinci

In this study, the relationship between female labour force participation rate and economic growth is investigated in middle-income countries. The study covers the period…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the relationship between female labour force participation rate and economic growth is investigated in middle-income countries. The study covers the period of 2001–2016 by employing a dynamic panel approach. Pooled Ordinary Least Square and Fixed Effects model estimations are calculated as a decision criterion to select proper GMM Method. The outcomes indicate that the proper estimation technique, which is a System-GMM model, evidences the U Feminisation Theory for the middle-income countries while controlling all other factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The novelty of this study is that the research not only employs both difference and system generalised method of moments (GMM) estimators but also includes main explanatory variables such as education, fertility, and total labour force rate. The study provides an opportunity to review the U-shape nexus between the female labour force and economic growth while controlling education, fertility and total labour participation rate.

Findings

The estimation implies that middle-income countries support a U-shaped relationship. The fertility rate does not impact on the female labour force, and education and total labour force level have a positive influence on women's participation in the labour market.

Research limitations/implications

This study used data that include the period of 2001–2016 for middle-income countries. So, further studies can use different periods of data or different countries.

Practical implications

The authors emphasise the importance of economic growth for female labour force for middle-income countries. Thus, a country intending to increase female labour force should also focus on its economic growth. As the study points out, middle-income countries staying under the minimum threshold, $4698.15 (per capita), should priorities their economic improvement policies to reach their female labour force participation goal. Those countries also should be prepared for a female labour force participation declining phase until they reach the turning point income level.

Social implications

Furthermore, education is one of the critical determinants that have an impact on FLFPR. The equal opportunity for both genders to engage in education should be considered as a policy. If females do not have an equal chance to enrolment in education, it may influence the policy of increasing female labour force adversely. Fertility rate appears no more statistically significant in our study. Moreover, today, there are some countries they practise equality between genders by providing equally extended parental leave, which may be a promising policy for gender equality in the labour force and may worth a try.

Originality/value

Some previous studies may suffer model mistakes due to lack of consideration the endogeneity problem and bias issue of the results as suggested by Tam (2011). Moreover, previous studies tend to choose either studying U-feminisation as excluding other variables or studying determinants of female labour force participation rate as excluding U-feminisation theory. There is not any panel data study acknowledging both concepts by using recent data to the best knowledge of the authors. Thus, the novelty of this study is that the research not only employs both difference and system generalised method of moments (GMM) estimators but also includes main explanatory variables such as education, fertility, and total labour force rate. The study provides an opportunity to review the U-shape nexus between the female labour force and economic growth while controlling education, fertility and total labour participation rate.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Abena Yeboah Abraham, Fidelia Nana Akom Ohemeng and Williams Ohemeng

The purpose of this paper is to examine female labour force participation (FLFP) and their employment choice between the formal and informal sectors after several…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine female labour force participation (FLFP) and their employment choice between the formal and informal sectors after several institutional and social reforms such as Millennium Development Goal 3 aimed at promoting gender equality and empowerment of women by 2015, using data from Ghana’s 2010 Population and Housing Census.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, logit regression and multinomial logit techniques were employed.

Findings

The results show that FLFP has declined marginally from the 2005 figures; education remains the important factor in determining women’s participation in the formal sector. Strikingly 91 per cent of the FLFP is engaged in the informal sector of the Ghanaian economy, a sector with a very low contribution per head.

Practical implications

Interventions such as encouraging female education and retraining of self-employed females to improve upon their efficiency ought to be pursued vigorously; whiles developing rural areas for females to get equal labour opportunities and many others aimed at enhancing the efficiency and by inference earning per head of the informal sector is highly recommended.

Originality/value

The literature on the FLFP is thin in Ghana. The current study uses a census data unlike the previous studies and as such employed a huge sample size that reflects the reality in Ghana. The study contributed immensely to policy having established that 91 per cent of the female labour force is engaged in the informal sectors of the economy, and therefore any intervention targeting at reducing poverty and meeting the MDG 3 should be targeted at the informal sector of the Ghanaian economy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

John Ermisch

Antecedents The development of labour supply over the next fifteen years has its roots firmly implanted in the past. This dynamic characteristic of labour supply changes…

Abstract

Antecedents The development of labour supply over the next fifteen years has its roots firmly implanted in the past. This dynamic characteristic of labour supply changes extends to labour force participation rates as well as to changes in labour supply attributable to purely demographic changes, so we shall initially examine both of these components of labour force change over the post‐war period. Changes in the size of the labour force which would occur as a result of changes in the age/sex structure of the population and the propensity of women to many if age/sex/marital status‐specific labour force participation rates were constant is denoted as demographic, and Table I shows its contribution to labour force growth in the post‐war period. The primary force behind the demographically‐induced change in the male labour supply is earlier movements in fertility, but both past fertility and contemporary marriage behaviour affect the magnitude of the demographically‐induced change in the female labour supply. In particular, up to the early 1970s the increase in the proportion of women under the age of 70 who are married restrained labour force growth because of the generally higher labour force participation rates of unmarried women; the size of this negative impact did, however, decline over time.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2004

Elizabeth Becker and Cotton M. Lindsay

Three empirical regularities characterize markets for married workers: (1) productivity and leadership potential are predicted by intelligence; (2) assortative mating…

Abstract

Three empirical regularities characterize markets for married workers: (1) productivity and leadership potential are predicted by intelligence; (2) assortative mating based on intelligence characterizes marriages; and (3) labor force participation declines with spouse income more rapidly for married women than for married men. Taken together these characteristics imply that labor force participation will decline for women relative to their husbands as intelligence rises. These three observations suggest a nondiscriminatory explanation for the alleged under-representation of females among corporate leaders. They imply that the women who might be predicted to win the tournament for these positions often do not enter this competition. Instead they choose employment in full time household production. Both the three regularities and the implication concerning labor force participation are empirically examined. The findings of these tests are supportive on all counts.

Details

Accounting for Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-273-3

1 – 10 of over 25000