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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Lixin Cai

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the labour supply at both the extensive and intensive margins.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic two-tiered Tobit model is applied to the first seven waves of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study. The model used accounts for observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity and serially correlated transitory shocks to labour supply to draw inferences on state dependence.

Findings

The results show that both observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity contributes to observed inter-temporal persistence of the labour supply of the UK workers, and the persistence remains after these factors are controlled for, suggesting true state dependence at both the extensive and intensive margins of the labour supply. The study also finds that at both the margins, the state dependence of labour supply is larger for females than for males and that for both genders the state dependence is larger for people with low education, mature aged workers and people with long-standing illness or impairment. The results also show that estimates from a conventional Tobit model may produce misleading inferences regarding labour supply at the extensive and intensive margins.

Originality/value

This study adds to the international literature on labour supply dynamics by providing empirical evidence for both the extensive and intensive margins of labour supply, while previous studies tend to focus on the extensive margin of labour force participation only. Also, unlike earlier studies that often focus on females, this study compares labour supply dynamics between males and females. The study also compares the estimates from the more flexible two-tiered Tobit model with that from the conventional Tobit model.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Soroush Abbaspour and Shahin Dabirian

The purpose of this paper is to assess different labor hiring policies for construction projects using system dynamics (SD) which have a considerable impact on project…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess different labor hiring policies for construction projects using system dynamics (SD) which have a considerable impact on project performance. Time intervals and work crew composition are two such policies. Through the implementation of a variety of policies, a managerial opportunity presents itself for the effective allocation of human resources and improvement in project performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study developed a dynamic model to assess different labor hiring policies using SD based on literature. To further distinguish between findings, the effects of the applied policies on performance were considered using earned value management. Based on a real case for validating the model, the paper discusses the potential benefits of the model, including: having a systematic and holistic view, considering dynamic the labor need and allocation, identifying alternative strategies for performance improvement and simulating the reality of the projects in a virtual model.

Findings

The achieved simulation results show how different hiring policies affect project performance. This research model can aid decision makers to assess labor hiring policies in various time intervals with different compositions and assist them in selecting the best policies for effective implementation of project.

Originality/value

The proposed model would be a major attempt using SD to model labor hiring policies more accurate in construction projects performance. In fact, an accurate estimate of labor needed, along with the proper planning and implementing of various labor hiring policies, presents a managerial opportunity whereby the effective allocation of workforces can be optimized leading to drastic improvement in project performance.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 1999

Erling Barth and Harald Dalc-OIsen

Abstract

Details

The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2013

Eugene Choo and Shannon Seitz

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise…

Abstract

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise endogenously as the transfers that clear the marriage market. The intra-household allocation can be recovered from observations on marriage decisions. Introducing the marriage market in the collective model allows us to independently estimate transfers from labor supplies and from marriage decisions. We estimate a semiparametric version of our model using 1980, 1990, and 2000 US Census data. Estimates of the model using marriage data are much more consistent with the theoretical predictions than estimates derived from labor supply.

Details

Structural Econometric Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-052-9

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Judith Liu

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on…

Abstract

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on medical residents as the source of exogenous variation. The results show that exposure to the regulations significantly decreases practicing physicians' labor supply by about 4 hours per week on average, with female physicians being more responsive to a given reduction in early career hours. Distributional results using a changes-in-changes model confirm that the regulations primarily affect the upper end of the work-hour distribution. To reveal potential mechanisms of these effects, this study finds that the reform increases the probabilities of marriage and having a child, as well as the total number of children, for female physicians. In contrast, it does not have a significant impact on marriage and fertility outcomes for male physicians. These findings provide a better understanding of physicians' hours of work in response to the reform over time and the role of gender with respect to labor supply behavior and family formation decisions.

Details

Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Siobhán Rachel McPhee

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of employers as “institutional” factors in the creation of segmentation in the labour market. Industrial structure defines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of employers as “institutional” factors in the creation of segmentation in the labour market. Industrial structure defines segments of the labour market (the employer) based on the nature of demand, and with the impact on the individual workers or groups based on their personal characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical work is within the Dublin labour market, which experienced the largest increase in availability of migrant workers under immigration policies of the Celtic Tiger state. Focused on the sectors of catering, cleaning and security as low‐skilled service sector providers, the analysis is based on 24 semi‐structured interviews with employers selected based on a database of a cross‐section of all employers in the selected sectors in Dublin.

Findings

Semi‐structured interviews reinforce state policies as key institutional factor underlying migrant labour trends and experiences, but perspectives of the employers in low‐end service industries reveal additional insights. In addition to using migrant labour as a means of cost cutting, the daily actions of employers reveal cultural stereotyping of workers, making them an elemental component “exploiting” the trends facilitated by state immigration policies.

Originality/value

Although a large body of research on migration into Ireland during the Celtic Tiger years is available, little of it has focused on labour market processes. More broadly, in attempting to understand labour market processes and the creation of segmentation there needs to be a triangulation of processes of supply, demand and state policies; and employers are key players in shaping demand and exploiting supply trends.

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

A dynamic model of the evolution of health for those over the age of 50 is embedded in a structural, econometric model of retirement and saving. Effects of smoking…

Abstract

A dynamic model of the evolution of health for those over the age of 50 is embedded in a structural, econometric model of retirement and saving. Effects of smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, depression, and other proclivities on medical conditions are analyzed, including hypertension, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, heart problems, stroke, psychiatric problems, and arthritis. Compared to a population in good health, the current health of the population reduces retirement age by about one year. Including detailed health dynamics in a retirement model does not influence estimates of the marginal effects of economic incentives on retirement.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

S.S. Gustafsson and M. Bruyn‐Hundt

Compares the way women are taxed in the Germany, Sweden and TheNetherlands by looking at both macro and micro data from the perspectiveof a wife′s contribution to family…

Abstract

Compares the way women are taxed in the Germany, Sweden and The Netherlands by looking at both macro and micro data from the perspective of a wife′s contribution to family income. The programs used for analysis are included in an appendix. Taxing husbands and wives by adding joint incomes and dividing by two (as in Germany) penalises dual‐earner couples and favours one‐earner couples. Completely separate taxation (as in Sweden) is a major incentive for couples to be dual‐earner. In The Netherlands the government reform of the tax system (1990) has reduced negative tax effects on secondary earnings without introducing the positive effects seen in Sweden. Tax incentives are not the only determinant of women′s participation in the labour market.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2011

Rafael E. De Hoyos

The objective of this chapter is to estimate the parameters defining female labor participation and occupation decisions in mexico. Based on a theoretical framework, we…

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to estimate the parameters defining female labor participation and occupation decisions in mexico. Based on a theoretical framework, we use micro data to estimate the wage-participation elasticity in urban Mexico. Consistency between the selectivity-adjusted wages and the multinomial participation equations is achieved via a two-step estimation procedure following Lee (1983). We use the results of our model to test and quantify three hypotheses explaining recent increases in female labor participation in urban mexico. Our results show that the observed 12 percent increase in female labor participation in mexico between 1994 and 2000 is explained by the combination of a negative income shock caused by the 1994–1995 participation; wage differentiaeso crisis, the increase in expected wages taking place in the manufacturing sector during the post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) period, and a reduction in female reservation wage.

Details

Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-333-0

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction…

Abstract

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction of retirement decisions by husbands and wives have led researchers to adopt a number of simplifications. Our analysis relaxes these restrictions. The model includes three labor market states, full-time work, partial retirement, and full retirement; reverse flows from states of lesser to greater work; an extended choice set created when spouses make independent retirement decisions; heterogeneity in time preference; varying taste parameters for full-time and part-time work; and the possibility of changes in preferences after retirement.

Details

Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

Keywords

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