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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Roos Kities Andadari, Yulius Pratomo, Petrus Usmanij and Vanessa Ratten

One of the factors that determines the success of marketing a product is a distribution strategy. Several factors affect distribution such as the number of products, the…

Abstract

One of the factors that determines the success of marketing a product is a distribution strategy. Several factors affect distribution such as the number of products, the nature of the products, the size of the area, transportation facilities, communication facilities, company factors, cost factors, and market conditions. The authors realized the absence of research on distribution management on a product such as the 3-kg liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) aimed at reaching the poor in Indonesia. The use of LPG as fuel is considered relatively cleaner because pollution is less when compared to kerosene fuel. This research was conducted in Salatiga, a small town in the province of Central Java, Indonesia. This research applied descriptive statistics in the form of the distribution frequency and crosstabs, as well as multiple regression. This research revealed that the 3-kg LPG distribution is very intensive, spread in almost all places including shops or stalls in both urban and rural areas. The choice of using 3-kg LPG tubes is not only because the price is low and is subsidized by the government but also because of the custom that has been instilled by the government when encouraging people to convert kerosene to LPG.

Details

A Guide to Planning and Managing Open Innovative Ecosystems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-409-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Peng Xue, Jie Zheng, Yue Xu, Haiyang Bao and Rui Zhang

This study aims to analyze the transmission characteristics of a long-period grating (LPG) fabricated on plastic optical fibers (POFs) and its refractive index (RI) sensing.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the transmission characteristics of a long-period grating (LPG) fabricated on plastic optical fibers (POFs) and its refractive index (RI) sensing.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometric optic method is used to analyze the factors affecting the transmission characteristics of an LPG on POFs. The RI sensing performances of unbent LPGs and U-bent LPGs fabricated on POFs with different diameters are evaluated experimentally.

Findings

This study shows that the transmission loss caused by LPG strongly depends on the structural parameters of LPG and the environmental RI. For the unbent LPG, the highest RI sensitivity of 1,015%/RI unit (RIU) was obtained in the RI range of 1.33–1.45. For the U-bent LPG without cladding, the highest RI sensitivities of 1,007 and 559%/RIU are obtained in the RI ranges of 1.33–1.40 and 1.40–1.45, respectively.

Originality/value

A geometric optic method is used to analyze the transmission characteristics for an LPG on POFs, and the RI sensing of the LPGs are studied experimentally. The results show the LPG has a good RI sensing performances and is with the features of low-cost, simple structure and easy fabrication.

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Neeraj Mittal, Renu Agarwal and Willem Selen

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the development of key supply chain capabilities in the Indian public sector-run liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the development of key supply chain capabilities in the Indian public sector-run liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) supply chain. This case study has relevance to emerging markets grappling with problems caused by monopolies and subsidies. Furthermore, this case study not only aims to improve operations of the LPG supply chain, but also re-designs its supply network to meet customers’ expectations. It illustrates value creation through growth in non-domestic sales, a reduction in consumption of subsidized LPG as a consequence of better understanding of customer needs and customer diversity, process re-engineering and deployment of ICT systems, and change management and capability building across various LPG stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive research methodology is applied, using an illustrative single case study of the Indian public sector-run LPG supply chain. The research methodology is iterative and exploratory in nature, consisting of a back and forth process between extant literature and the field, as well as in-depth discussions/interviews with senior management, distributors, and consumers.

Findings

Key supply chain capabilities of an integrated and seamless ICT system, detection and blocking of duplicate/ghost connections, the capping of entitlements, and coordination and collaboration across various stakeholders result in value creation for all stakeholders. When such collaboration across stakeholders’ spans both vertically and horizontally through the supply chain, change management and capability building drive value creation through policy interventions and initiatives.

Practical implications

This study provides an illustrative example of meeting customers’ expectations, increasing consumer convenience, and improving service levels, amidst the complex subsidy challenges in LPG distribution in India. The economic and environmental benefits, as well as increased customer satisfaction, from policy interventions regarding value creation in supply chains, have implications for similar public sector-run schemes.

Social implications

As a result of the various policy changes, the LPG subsidy was restricted to legitimate customers, reducing the fiscal burden on the Indian Government. Furthermore, seamless ICT-introduced efficiencies for government, distributers, and customers were attained.

Originality/value

This research articulates the capture, creation, and appropriation of value through the deployment of new supply chain initiatives in a large, complex environment, in particular the public sector-run LPG supply chain.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Courtenay Sprague and Stu Woolman

The purpose of this paper is to document the manner in which a pro‐poor company can deliver ongoing health benefits and improve environmental sustainability in a manner…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the manner in which a pro‐poor company can deliver ongoing health benefits and improve environmental sustainability in a manner that addresses child and maternal mortality (in line with millennium development goals 4, 5 and 7).

Design/methodology/approach

Field research in Mozambique including 12 in‐depth interviews with key personnel from December 2006 to January 2007.

Findings

First, clear threats to the success of VidaGás' pro‐poor business model encompass insufficient liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) supply and storage facilities; poor industrial and commercial infrastructure in Northern Mozambique; inadequate training of retailers in LPG use; and inadequate consumer knowledge of the benefits of LPG. Second, key innovations employed by VidaGás to overcome these obstacles consist of the introduction of a novel cold chain to safeguard medicines; a complex supply chain to ensure timely delivery; and the exploitation of local knowledge and expertise to expand the uptake of LPG by Mozambicans.

Practical implications

The case study focuses on a business problem with significant development implications. The challenge is to ensure a reliable supply of LPG in Northern Mozambique. To meet this challenge, VidaGás must achieve its stated goal of becoming a revenue‐generating entity within three years. In order to create a viable market for LPG, VidaGás must not only increase the uptake of LPG by poor consumers, it must expand LPG market access to commercial consumers, while raising additional capital.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on social entrepreneurship and demonstrates how to link for‐profit business imperatives with development goals.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

Jean Gaston Tamba

This paper aims to examine the causal relationship between liquefied petroleum gas consumption and economic growth in Cameroon over the period from 1975 to 2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the causal relationship between liquefied petroleum gas consumption and economic growth in Cameroon over the period from 1975 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of this study is based on the unit root, cointegration and causality tests. Cointegration is performed with both Johansen and autoregressive distributed lag bounds approach, while causality is done with the Granger test based on the error correction model (ECM) and Toda-Yamamoto procedure.

Findings

The cointegration methods confirm the existence of a level relationship, whereas the causal tests of the ECM reveal the existence of a short-run unidirectional causal relationship ranging from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption to economic growth and a bidirectional causal relationship between long-term and high-causality variables. With the Toda-Yamamoto procedure, unidirectional causality is found to run from economic growth to liquefied petroleum gas consumption.

Research limitations/implications

These findings imply that an increase in liquefied petroleum gas consumption leads to an increase in economic growth. As a result, supporting energy efficiency policies that aim to reduce liquefied petroleum gas consumption is not an option for Cameroon. Given that LPG consumption shares are still low in Cameroon, the government ought, thus, to increase LPG subsidization, vulgarize and favor policies aimed at encouraging LPG consumption to increase LPG deposits nationwide. This would help increase LPG consumption and consequently could increase economic growth in Cameroon.

Originality/value

LPG is a fossil fuel and is the less GHG emitter and it is considered as a modern source of energy for cooking in Cameroon households. It scarcity calls on energy policymakers to question the influence LPG consumption could have on economic growth in the short- and long-run. Thus, this paper could contribute to solving the issue of deforestation in Cameroon, especially in the Sahel zone; through the substitution of firewood consumption by LPG consumption in households.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2014

Gordhan K. Saini and Arvind Sahay

This study aims to examine the importance of credit and low price guarantee (LPG) on consumer purchase intention across types of retail store formats in an emerging market…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the importance of credit and low price guarantee (LPG) on consumer purchase intention across types of retail store formats in an emerging market context.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (kirana/modern retail)×2 (high/low LPG)×2 (credit/no credit) experimental design was used for this study. A sample of 200 respondents was asked about their purchase intention for a newly introduced hypothetical toothpaste brand and six hypotheses were tested.

Findings

Findings show that credit and level of LPG determine consumer's purchase intention across store formats. The presence of credit and high LPG increases the purchase intention; however, relatively importance of these two varies by type of store. The absence of credit at kirana store definitely reduces the buying intention, while same is not true for modern retail store, where level of LPG is more important than the credit. Interestingly, buyer is likely to discount high LPG for a month's credit offered by a kirana store.

Practical implications

The study can help practitioners and scholars to understand consumer responses to credit and LPG in buying decisions, and subsequently in designing a better product offer at a particular store format in emerging markets.

Originality/value

Important insights are provided about the consumer behavior resulting from the presence or absence of credit and high or low levels of LPG in an emerging market context. The study also has public policy implications in a country where FDI in retail is a hotly debated topic.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Samir Kumar Barua and Sobhesh Kumar Agarwalla

The case recounts a significant attempt at social transformation through a simple mechanism of providing cooking gas to the marginalised in society. Targeting about 100…

Abstract

The case recounts a significant attempt at social transformation through a simple mechanism of providing cooking gas to the marginalised in society. Targeting about 100 million households in India that still use dung cakes, firewood and coal as the primary fuel for cooking, the government conceived the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana1 (PMUY) to replace these traditional fuels with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a clean fuel. The government increased the initial target of providing 50 million below poverty line (BPL) families with LPG at the time of scheme launch on May 1, 2016, to 80 million by 2019–20. The scheme had already covered more than 30 million families by January 2018.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Asri Cahyaningrum and Togar M. Simatupang

– This paper aims to explore major causes of the failure of the existing subsidized liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) distribution system and recommends alternative strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore major causes of the failure of the existing subsidized liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) distribution system and recommends alternative strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of subsidized LPG with a closed distribution system was carried out based on preliminary study, secondary data collection, and in-depth interviews to identify the root causes of the failure in achieving the desired service levels. In this research, agent based modeling and simulation was used to explain the phenomena occurred in the closed distribution system represented by three types of agents, namely selling agents, sub-selling agents, and end-users.

Findings

Agent based modeling and simulation was successfully applied to describe the undesired symptoms in the closed distribution system. The simulation shows that the distribution system provides a service level of 81.61 percent by selling agents and 97.38 percent by sub-selling agents. The root cause analysis indicates that service and inventory levels in the LPG distribution system are strongly influenced by end-users demand variations, rationing system, and the occurrence of inventory leakage. To enhance the system quality, the Indonesian Government needs to implement the LPG with a closed distribution system using control card in real practice so that monitoring system can be significantly improved and ensure well-targeted subsidy.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to the discussion of inventory level and availability. It does not include the issue of pricing, speculation, and targeting accuracy, because of the limitation of the existing data.

Practical implications

This research will assist stakeholders involved in the distribution system such as selling agents and retailers to better understand the true potential of the LPG closed distribution system in preventing shortages.

Originality/value

This paper describes that agent based modeling and simulation is very useful, especially to gain insights for improving the LPG closed distribution system.

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Md. Zahid Hasan and Rubel Ahammed

The Purpose of this research is to initiate the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” by using the Internet of things (IoT), which can be applied to flammable gas condition…

Abstract

Purpose

The Purpose of this research is to initiate the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” by using the Internet of things (IoT), which can be applied to flammable gas condition monitoring and detection of gas leakage and activate fire extinguisher in case of fire accidents. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) leakage and explosions cause many injuries and death each year. By developing an automated and remote LPG ppm condition monitoring and fire extinguisher activation system with the help of a cyber-physical system, the rate of accidents and injuries can be reduced to a significant amount.

Design/methodology/approach

The IoT enabled the sensors to transmit LPG concentration value reading to a mobile app or cloud server and control actuators by connecting all in the same network. In case of a fire accident, the solenoid valve automatically or can be activated by an android application manually, which will be pre-installed in mobile phones. Another advantage of this system is that the gas cylinder or flammable particle source can be closed by closing the solenoid valves attached to their outlets. The first challenge of Industry 4.0 is to develop a cyber-physical system where all physical entities can be monitored and controlled over the internet or another way remotely or from a single point.

Findings

This fire extinguisher system can be used everywhere and in all types of firefighting because all types of fire extinguishers are commercially available in cylinders where solenoid valves can be used instead of conventional valves. This system will reduce human effort in the fire safety system and reduce the number of losses owing to fire accidents by taking all actions automatically and from a safe distance. The reliability analysis of this system indicated that the working condition for the best outcome is 20–35°C and the baud rate of the controller should be 11.5 kHz.

Originality/value

The study of pieces of the literature summarizes that this work is unique in terms of the application of Industry 4.0 in the fire safety system and reliability analysis of this system helped to determine the operating condition for the best performance of this system. Some LPG condition monitoring system was developed using IoT before but had many limitations such as working capability during load shading or emergency cases.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Mohamed Seddik Hellas, Chaib Rachid and Ion Verzea

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), known by its ecological qualities, making Algeria has since the 1980s carried out a policy of development of LPG fuel in substitution of…

Abstract

Purpose

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), known by its ecological qualities, making Algeria has since the 1980s carried out a policy of development of LPG fuel in substitution of traditional fuels and especially petrol. However, following a series of accidents (fires, explosions, etc). that occurred in 1999, 20 years after the introduction of the LPG in France these incidents led to the search for the strengthening of the safety of the installations by better or new technical and/or organizational measures. This strategy consists in establishing a balance between environmental protection and economic profitability while ensuring the safety aspect.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used is quantitative risk analysis authors have identified the potential accident scenarios that consist of leakage and rupture of tanks depend on bow tie. According to the latter using PHAST software, to model these scenarios (thermal, overpressure and dispersion) and their effects on human beings and goods.

Findings

In this paper, it was noted that there are scenarios such as (jet fire, dispersion), are affected by atmospheric conditions (wind speed humidity), the stronger the wind, the higher the LPG spread unlike instant scenarios (1.3 s for the fireball and millisecond for the explosion) that have not been related to climatic conditions because they have a short duration on the one hand, and on the other hand, a safe distance is given in each phenomenon. Finally, some instructions for drivers and installers have been identified by protective and preventive action.

Originality/value

Based on a quantitative risk analysis, this work involves modelling potential accident scenarios such as (fireball, jet fire, flash fire and explosion) in the event of a gas leak and rupture in the tank. It aims to sensitize drivers and LPG kit installers, even to get a clear view on these accidental phenomena and how to avoid them.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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