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Article

Varun Potbhare, Matt Syal, Mohammed Arif, Malik M.A. Khalfan and Charles Egbu

The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics of green building guidelines in developed countries and to analyze their influence on the evolution and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics of green building guidelines in developed countries and to analyze their influence on the evolution and adoption of similar guidelines in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This research reviews the green building guidelines in the developed as well as the developing countries such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design guidelines for new construction (LEED® NC‐USA), Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)‐UK, Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE)‐Japan, and LEED®‐India and further performs a comparative analysis of these guidelines.

Findings

Based on the comparative analysis of LEED® NC‐USA, BREEAM‐UK, and CASBEE‐Japan, the characteristics that might have affected their current acceptance were identified. The catalysts and hindrances associated with the acceptance of LEED‐India in India were identified based on the comparative analysis of LEED® NC‐USA and LEED®‐India.

Originality/value

With an exponential growth of construction industry in the rapidly developing countries, there is a definite need to promote the adoption of green building guidelines. The methodology adopted in this research can be applied to understand the evolution as well as future adoption of green building guidelines in other countries that are facing similar circumstances.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Jie Zhao, Khee Poh Lam, Tajin Biswas and Haopeng Wang

This study aims to develop a web-based tool – LEED Energy Performance Online Submission Tool (LEPOST) to reduce the submission cost of the leadership in energy and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a web-based tool – LEED Energy Performance Online Submission Tool (LEPOST) to reduce the submission cost of the leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) application process and facilitate green building design. Lifecycle cost reduction is a major driver for designing green buildings. LEED rating system has been well recognised and widely used in the green building industry. However, certification cost incurred in time and money is often a deterrent for some projects.

Design/methodology/approach

LEPOST automatically maps EnergyPlus and eQUEST energy simulation results to the LEED energy performance requirement submission templates using an extensible markup language (XML) data structure. It incorporates the Energy Star Target Finder online engine and current utility data to calculate points required to assess LEED Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite 2 and Credit 1 automatically.

Findings

A comparative case study is conducted using an office building project. The study results show that the tool can reduce the amount of time for the LEED energy performance evaluation and submission process from more than 6 hours to 2 minutes. The total number of manual data entries is reduced from 442 to 20.

Research limitations/implications

Future work includes the update to support LEED V4, the development of a parametric design function that can help design teams perform design alternatives to evaluate energy performance with minimum effort, and the integration with the LEED Online system.

Practical implications

The use of the tool by the building industry may decrease the cost of LEED certification for building owners, developers and design teams by simplifying the submission process.

Originality/value

The overall development framework of LEPOST contributes to the knowledge of the data interoperability in the building sector by demonstrating a viable solution to extract and map digital model information for achieving code and standard compliance purposes.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article

Jonghoon Kim, Jin-Young Hyun, Wai K. Chong and Samuel Ariaratnam

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between environmental factors and building energy consumption of three Leadership in Energy and Environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between environmental factors and building energy consumption of three Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings at the Arizona State University, by establishing the relationships of the outside atmospheric temperature and the energy consumed in the building using real-time data generated from different sources.

Design/methodology/approach

K-means clustering analysis is used to calibrate and eliminate unwanted influences or factors from a set of building consumption real-time data. For further statistical analysis, the chi-square is used to verify if the results are ample to prove the findings.

Findings

Few studies have addressed building energy consumption real-time data versus LEED Energy and Atmosphere (EA) credits with the data mining technique (k-means clustering) on most of building performance analyses. This study highlighted that the calibrating energy data are a better approach to analyze energy use in buildings and that there is a relationship between LEED credits’ (EA) Optimize Energy Performance scores and building energy efficiency. However, the energy consumption data alone do not yield useful results to establish the cause and effect relationships.

Originality/value

Although there are several previous research studies regarding LEED building energy performance, this research study focused on the LEED building energy performance versus LEED EA credits versus environmental factors using real-time building energy data and various statistical methods (e.g. K-means clustering and chi-square). The findings provide researchers, engineers and architects with valuable references for building energy analysis methods and supplements in LEED standards.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 15 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Gulbin Ozcan Deniz

The purpose of this paper is to create and present a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design New Construction (LEED NC) building performance assessment model that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create and present a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design New Construction (LEED NC) building performance assessment model that will identify and prioritize external parameters affecting a LEED-certified building’s operational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The uncertainty associated with external parameters affecting a LEED-certified building’s operational performance is examined through the use of analytic network process (ANP). An ANP model is created based on the extensive literature research and experiences of professionals in the green building industry. Eight case studies are analyzed, and data collected through interviews with experts are utilized in prioritizing external parameters affecting buildings’ operational performance.

Findings

The findings show that the most important external parameters affecting a LEED-certified building’s operational performance are lack of enhanced commissioning, lack of life cycle assessment/life cycle costing analysis, lack of energy modeling, and lack of knowledge in green technology. The results demonstrate that both asset value and profit, as well as the economic life of the facility, are mostly affected by the energy efficiency of the building, and consequently LEED NC energy and atmosphere category.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the body of knowledge on green architecture by defining and prioritizing external parameters and their relationships to operational building performance in LEED NC projects. The proposed model can be used by construction managers and facility managers to operate LEED-certified buildings better and reduce environmental impacts throughout the functional life cycle of the building.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article

Andrea Ofori‐Boadu, De‐Graft Owusu‐Manu, David Edwards and Gary Holt

Traditional management systems sometimes struggle to meet the unique demands of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) projects. Consequently, contractors…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional management systems sometimes struggle to meet the unique demands of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) projects. Consequently, contractors have to modify their management practices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the management practices necessary to achieve successful implementation of LEED projects.

Design/methodology/approach

LEED project management practices implemented by six US contractors from the Top 100 Green Contractors list published by the Engineering News and Record, were analysed using structured case study interviews. An additional case study probed management practices implemented on a LEED‐GOLD project.

Findings

Findings support the implementation of management practices classified using the six Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria of leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis and knowledge management, workforce focus and operation focus.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative study was based on a limited number of participant organizations. A subsequent quantitative study might provide generalizeable metrics for the green building industry. Further research on the cost effectiveness of the identified management practices is recommended.

Practical implications

This study provides an intuitive framework in the form of discourse on management practices to enhance the success of LEED projects. Contractors may consider the study's recommendations in order to increase their success on such projects.

Originality/value

The need to harmonize management practices with sustainable development has sparked the interest of researchers and practitioners. The study should be of utility to LEED contractors, environmental agencies, governments, educators, and other relevant stakeholders.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Sarel Lavy and Jose L. Fernández‐Solis

Literature review indicates that Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Accredited Professionals (LEED APs) practicing during the first ten years of LEED in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature review indicates that Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Accredited Professionals (LEED APs) practicing during the first ten years of LEED in the building industry hold perceptions that have influenced the adoption of LEED. These perceptions may include that some LEED credit points are more difficult to obtain than others, LEED projects have higher first costs, and LEED projects have higher levels of complexity. The literature also indicates that the relationship between these three topics merits research attention, in an effort to discover the magnitude of those perceptions. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Both self‐administered questionnaires and interviews are utilized to secure information directly from practitioners. Out of a pool of 8,000 possible interviewees, a total of 102 qualified respondents participated in the cross‐sectional survey. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software is used to analyze the data derived from the survey information and to arrive at conclusions.

Findings

The survey identify which LEED credit points are perceived by LEED APs as more difficult, as contributing to higher initial costs and as increasing project complexity. The conclusions indicate a trend toward a higher adoption rate of points that are perceived as having lower initial costs and a lower level of complexity. These findings are primarily due to two reasons: increased cost in managing project documentation; and increased cost in project complexity.

Originality/value

The results of this study can be used by designers, construction professionals, and facility managers who are involved in new construction projects. The trends in credit point adoption, and the professionals' perceptions of their initial cost and level of complexity, may encourage others to consider using systems that introduce sustainability concepts into their design and construction process.

Details

Facilities, vol. 27 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

James DeLisle, Terry Grissom and Lovisa Högberg

The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of sustainability and research reporting price premiums for LEED‐certified buildings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of sustainability and research reporting price premiums for LEED‐certified buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the notion of sustainability and research reporting price premiums for LEED‐certified buildings. The durability of certification levels is explored by converting projects developed under the initial NC2‐series system to a new vintage rating adopted in 2009. This conversion is made by applying Lagrangian multipliers to model stochastic impacts.

Findings

The study reveals that 18 percent of 591 projects developed under the NC2‐Series were “misclassified” in terms of certification levels when converted to new NCv2009 standards. To the extent the market has pursued LEED certification levels, the unanticipated changes may have led to the adoption short‐term solutions that are inappropriate due to the long‐term nature of real estate assets.

Research limitations/implications

Given the complexity of the LEED rating system, it is unknown how the market will react to the lack of durability and approach pricing over the long‐term.

Practical implications

The results indicate market participants should adopt a proactive approach to LEED certification.

Originality/value

The study identifies significant dynamics in the LEED certification system for new construction and behavioural responses that have not been reported in the literature.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article

Eddie Chi-man Hui, Eric Wing-fai Chan and Ka-hung Yu

– This study aims to examine whether Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification yields additional premiums for Shanghai’s office rental sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification yields additional premiums for Shanghai’s office rental sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The hedonic model is utilized to evaluate the impact of LEED, as well as of other factors, on the rental values of 59 Grade A office buildings in Shanghai, including 23 LEED-certified buildings and 36 non-LEED-certified buildings.

Findings

It is found that rental values of buildings with LEED are about 12.8 per cent than those of buildings without the same certification. Other factors, for instance accessibility to facilities such as subway station and 4-star hotels, the availability of catering services in surrounding areas as well as the building’s location (i.e. inside the CBD) also are significantly positively correlated with office rents in the sample commercial buildings.

Originality/value

Besides being one of the earlier contributions to the literature with regard to the study of the impact of green certifications in China’s office market, the findings in this study also provide some empirical evidence for stakeholders, such as developers, investors, property managers and market practitioners, to evaluate the introduction of green features (and/or green certifications such as LEED) as an investment decision.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article

Sepani Senaratne and Prasanna Rajitha Hewamanage

Leadership of the project team is vital for green building projects in achieving LEED certification. Literature findings confirm the need for managing green building…

Abstract

Purpose

Leadership of the project team is vital for green building projects in achieving LEED certification. Literature findings confirm the need for managing green building projects differently from ordinary projects. The team leader should be able to work with the project team to manage the general project activities while following the LEED certification procedure to finally achieve LEED certification. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a research project which was aimed to explore the role of team leadership in achieving LEED certification in a green building project through a case study research approach.

Findings

The research findings revealed the importance of utilizing the appropriate leadership roles of project team members in addition to the project leader’s role to achieve LEED certification for green building projects successfully. The research proposed four team leadership processes required to meet the LEED challenges; namely, proactive planning and visualization; collective implementation; teamwork for win-win; and, continuous learning and knowledge sharing.

Originality/value

Based on these findings, the research suggests a new project team environment enabled by effective team leadership to meet the LEED challenges. It is argued that the team leadership role of every team member is unique and best suited when used synergistically to achieve LEED certification for the project. The research is original in applying team leadership concepts to green building projects in a real-life setting.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Case study

Andrea Larson, Mark Meier and Jeff York

Environmentally preferable or “green” building uses optimal and innovative design to provide economic, health, environmental, and social benefits. In 1993 the U.S. Green…

Abstract

Environmentally preferable or “green” building uses optimal and innovative design to provide economic, health, environmental, and social benefits. In 1993 the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) was formed by a broad range of building industry stakeholders from the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. It is a committee-based, member-driven, and consensus-focused nonprofit coalition leading a national effort to promote high-performance buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work. In 2000, USGBC created the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. That voluntary standard was intended to transform the building market by providing guidelines, certification, and education for green building. LEED is a comprehensive, transparent, and market-driven framework for assessing buildings' environmental performance. Compared to standard practice, “green” buildings can provide greater economic and social benefits over the life of the structures, reduce or eliminate adverse human health effects, and even contribute to improved air and water quality. Opportunities for reducing both costs and environmental impact include low-disturbance land use techniques, improved lighting design, high performance water fixtures, careful materials selection, energy efficient appliances and heating and cooling systems, and on-site water treatment and recycling. Less familiar innovations include natural ventilation and cooling without fans and air conditioners, vegetative roofing systems that provide wildlife habitat and reduce storm water runoff, and constructed wetlands that help preserve water quality while reducing water treatment costs.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

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