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Donna L. Van Raaphorst provides a detailed statistical analysis of a large sample of Alcatraz Prison inmates using the Social Science Statistical Package. The data, drawn directly from the inmate files, is compared whenever possible with similar data provided by the Bureau of Prisons in order to determine if Alcatraz, often regarded as America's Devil's Island, really incarcerated the so-called “Worst of the Worst” in its time. The results would seem to indicate that Alcatraz inmates were, in fact, not remarkably different from those in any other Federal prison in the system.
In spite of the extensive literature on the regulation of air transport services, until the development of the Quantitative Air Services Agreements Review (QUASAR…
In spite of the extensive literature on the regulation of air transport services, until the development of the Quantitative Air Services Agreements Review (QUASAR) methodology no systematic review existed of the degree of liberalization granted through air services agreements. The chapter lays out QUASARs key features, and presents the main results its application has generated. It then elaborates on how the methodology could be further refined and extended to other segments of the air transport industry yet uncovered. Based on QUASAR, the chapter critically evaluates some commonly held beliefs about the liberalization of international passenger transport and then moves on to explore the technical feasibility of creating a liberal multilateral regime for air transport services. QUASAR has demonstrated that, although the air transport sector has experienced some liberalization over the past few years, this has been, overall, rather marginal. The skies are not truly open.
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of…
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of airport services and the traditional approaches used for economic regulation of airport charges are summarized. The evolution of international practice of light-handed regulation is outlined, including the experience with minimal regulation across monopoly industries in New Zealand and the acceptance of “negotiated settlements” in utility industries in North America. General reasons for moving to light-handed regulation of airports include the disadvantages of the price cap approach in practice and the benefits of facilitating greater negotiation between airports and users. Comparisons are made between alternative approaches to light-handed regulation of airport services, including price and quality of service monitoring, information disclosure regulation and negotiate-arbitrate regulation, approaches that have been applied to airport services in Australia and New Zealand. The role and nature of the incentives under each approach are discussed. The chapter concludes that whether light-handed regulation provides a suitable alternative approach to direct regulation depends on the market circumstances and the design characteristics of the light-handed approach.
This chapter reviews the effects of air transport liberalization, and investigates the roles played by airport-airline vertical arrangements in liberalizing markets. Our…
This chapter reviews the effects of air transport liberalization, and investigates the roles played by airport-airline vertical arrangements in liberalizing markets. Our investigation concludes that liberalization has led to substantial economic and traffic growth. Such positive outcomes are mainly due to increased competition and efficiency gains in the airline industry, and positive externalities to the overall economy. Liberalization allows airlines to optimize their networks, and thus may introduce substantial demand and financial uncertainty to airports. Vertical arrangements between airlines and airports may offer a wide range of benefits to the parties involved, yet such arrangements could also lead to airline entry barriers which reduce the effects of liberalization. Three approaches have been developed to model the effects of liberalization in complex market conditions, which include the analytical, econometric and computational network methods. These approaches should be selectively utilized in policy studies on liberalization.
This paper aims to develop and test a new way of modeling airline operations and apply it to measure and compare the efficiency of international airlines, with a special…
This paper aims to develop and test a new way of modeling airline operations and apply it to measure and compare the efficiency of international airlines, with a special focus on deregulation effects. The paper elaborates on the choice of variables, following the early work of Schefczyk (1993) and Scheraga (2004). The value chain of the airlines determines the variables included in three different models. Using data envelopment analysis, the efficiency scores show that North American airlines are more efficient in producing services offered to customers. Few differences are found between regions in allocating service output to match demand. One plausible explanation for this difference is that airlines operate within competitive environments. In a highly competitive market, management decisions focus on productive actions and cost reduction. In a less competitive environment, there is a higher degree of adjustments of the services produced. Using the Malmquist productivity index, measurements reveal that there is a catch-up effect for the European and Asian/South American airlines service production during the studied time period, which was from 1990 to 2003.
This chapter examines the impact of recent airline consolidations in the United States on the technical efficiencies of the airlines involved. Data envelopment analysis…
This chapter examines the impact of recent airline consolidations in the United States on the technical efficiencies of the airlines involved. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to assess the efficiencies, and the consolidations examined are those that occurred among major network carriers between 2005 and 2013. The airline production process is conceptualized as the transformation of labor, fuel, and fleet-wide seating capacity into available seat-miles, or, under an alternative model specification, into user value, as measured by the airline’s operating revenue. Efficiency is conceptualized in terms of minimizing the airline’s usage of the three inputs, given its output level. The analysis seeks to determine whether the airlines that consolidated were more efficient, post-consolidation, than they were prior to consolidation, compared to airlines that did not enter into consolidations. Although there are limitations owing to the small number of airlines in the dataset, the chapter finds no evidence that the consolidations enhanced the efficiencies of the airlines involved, relative to the efficiencies of the airlines that did not enter into consolidations.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of switching costs (SwCs) on established firm cost behaviour towards a competitive entry in the Spanish domestic airline…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of switching costs (SwCs) on established firm cost behaviour towards a competitive entry in the Spanish domestic airline market, taking into account the entrant profile and airport capacity restrictions.
The dynamic model is based on information of 193 Spanish domestic routes in which incumbents react to entrants (quarterly data during 10 years, 620 reactions are analysed). The balanced panel used is constructed by setting up a multiple-source database based on accounting and industrial engineering procedures.
Results show that both entrant profile and regulatory constraints conditions incumbent cost reaction (CR) to entry at the route-level. Regression models show that the relationship between SwCs and incumbent reaction is moderated by the entrant profile and the regulatory conditions of the market.
This study reveals the importance of policy measures aimed at reducing firm market power and increasing consumer protection in the airline industry, in which SwCs are artificially created at the company’s discretion and where operating costs at the route-level need to be evaluated together with the various service elements.
This study complements current literature related to incumbent CR to entry in the airline industry since it analyses the specific reaction performed by a carrier at the route-level. Moreover, it analyses the whole set of routes in the Spanish domestic market rather than a selection of it. It also explicitly includes three alternative measures of SwCs that can influence such incumbent reaction.
Esta investigación analiza el papel de los costes de cambio en el comportamiento en costes de las empresas establecidas ante las entradas competitivas en el mercado aéreo nacional español, teniendo en cuenta el perfil de los entrantes y las restricciones de capacidad de los aeropuertos.
El modelo dinámico propuesto se basa en la información de 193 rutas nacionales españolas en las que los implicados reaccionan ante los nuevos entrantes (datos trimestrales durante 10 años, se analizan 620 reacciones). El panel equilibrado utilizado se construye configurando una base de datos de múltiples fuentes basada en procedimientos de contabilidad de costes e ingeniería industrial.
Los resultados muestran que tanto el perfil del entrante como las restricciones a la entrada condicionan la reacción en costes del implicado ante la entrada a nivel de ruta. Los resultados de las regresiones muestran que la relación entre los costes de cambio y la reacción del implicado está moderada tanto por el perfil del entrante como por las condiciones regulatorias del mercado.
Este estudio revela la importancia de las medidas de política destinadas a reducir el poder de mercado de las empresa y a aumentar la protección del consumidor en el sector de las aerolíneas, en las que los costes de cambio se crean artificialmente a discreción de la compañía y donde los costes operativos a nivel de ruta deben evaluarse juntos con diversos elementos de servicio.
Este estudio complementa la literatura actual relacionada con la reacción del implicado ante la entrada en el sector de las aerolíneas, ya que analiza la reacción específica realizada por las compañías a nivel de ruta. Además, analiza de forma exhaustiva el conjunto de rutas en el mercado nacional español en lugar de una muestra de ellas. También, incluye explícitamente tres medidas alternativas de costes de cambio que pueden influir en dicha reacción predominante.
Data recorder. Now being marketed in this country is the improved Model SR recorder (Fig. 1) manufactured by E. H. Sargent & Co. of Chicago, U.S.A., which incorporates a number of interesting new features. It is an accurate automatic potentiometer to plot d.c. potential and voltage directly and continuously, or current, temperature, thermal conductivity, pH, light transmittance and a host of other quantities indirectly through transducing devices or instruments. Measurements are recorded with respect to time or any other quantity which may be sychronised in time by constant speed drive.
Presents, at some length, the story of the writer’s father, sharing the history and experiences of a generation who prospered in the Chinese laundry industry. Chronicles the introduction of the wholesale shirt laundry, presenting new innovations and ideas and branching out into new regulated businesses in other fields, showing how emerging problems were tackled and overcome. Cites that most of the information is from memory, observation, letters and manuals. Considers the development and changes in the industry from 1930 to 1970, looking also at the accompanying changes in standards of living.
The objective was to provide research‐based insights from two groups of respondents as to their perceptions, preferences and desire to purchase Chinese – influenced Western dress.
Ten images of models in designer clothing were selected that varied in degree of Chinese influence. College students from a US and a Chinese university, numbering 55 and 56 respectively, were asked to respond by ranking each image to discern their perceptions of ethnic influence and their preferences for and desire to purchase each of the ten images. Responses were compared and analyzed.
A conclusion based upon analysis of responses was that degree of Chinese influence was less critical than the aesthetic character of the form itself. Some disagreement occurred in respondent's highest ranked preferences. Regarding preference and desire to purchase, US respondents ranked them similarly, while Chinese students ranked them differently.
The sample was confined to College students with similar majors in the two countries. Limiting the sample in this way offered control in age and interest, but also limited application of results.
This study addressed the perceptions, preferences and purchasing desires for dress with Chinese influence in a cross cultural perspective. Respondents in this study preferred effective design of the whole image and not simply a borrowing of disparate ethnic attributes.
Results provide a managerial guide for ethnic fashion marketers.