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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Richard Bloss

Automated assembly is moving to smaller and more flexible systems and components, offering greater ability for redeployment and adaptability to device assembly as small as…

Abstract

Automated assembly is moving to smaller and more flexible systems and components, offering greater ability for redeployment and adaptability to device assembly as small as micro electromechanical systems.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Stephanie Monteiro Miller

In a wide variety of settings, individuals target round-numbered thresholds, relaxing effort when they are out of reach. This paper aims to investigate whether this…

Abstract

Purpose

In a wide variety of settings, individuals target round-numbered thresholds, relaxing effort when they are out of reach. This paper aims to investigate whether this phenomenon occurs in nonprofits as well.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper empirically examines nonprofits’ propensity to cut expenses relative to the attainability of the zero-profit threshold.

Findings

This paper finds nonprofit firms are more likely to cut expenses when faced with small expected losses than with larger losses, and this pattern varies predictably with incentives to reach the zero-profit threshold.

Research limitations/implications

This suggests managers are motivated by desire to reach the zero-profit threshold rather than to improve firms’ economic situations, as the propensity to cut expenses is lower when the threshold is out of reach.

Social implications

Additionally, the results suggest that even the lack of explicit profit motive may not quell earnings management behavior.

Originality/value

These results begin to close the gap in our understanding of expense management in nonprofit firms, showing how operating expenses can be used to manage earnings.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Asli Elgün

Introduction – Community media was created as an alternative to the ever-globalising and rapidly monopolised media industry. This media is a unity that does not seek…

Abstract

Introduction – Community media was created as an alternative to the ever-globalising and rapidly monopolised media industry. This media is a unity that does not seek profit, voices the demands and problems of the community it serves, seeks the benefit of the public, and its creators are members of the community. It is seen as a tool for the development of democracy and pluralism, and to increase social impact. The sustainability of this tool has emerged as a debated topic in recent years. Community media can both serve as a tool for sustainable development and can be defined as a part of sustainable communication. The sustainability of community media is all about making the presence of the communicative tools of the community permanent and sustainable, or to insure the continuation of the community’s channels of communication as a part of a specific strategy.

Purpose – In this chapter, the author will discuss the concepts of community media, sustainability and female-oriented non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and then attempt to explain the media usage habits and the factors that affect the sustainability of the preferred channels of the female-oriented NGOs in İzmir.

Methodology – The study has been designed using a case study design based on qualitative research methods. Data have been collected via document analysis and in-depth face-to-face interviews. The data acquired were analysed descriptively.

Findings – Findings from the study show that the financial, content production-related, technical, and legal factors affect the sustainability of community media.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Laura E. Grube, Stefanie Haeffele-Balch and ErikaGrace Davies

The American National Red Cross is in many ways the iconic symbol for disaster response and recovery. The organization, founded in 1881, has a long track record for coming…

Abstract

The American National Red Cross is in many ways the iconic symbol for disaster response and recovery. The organization, founded in 1881, has a long track record for coming to the aid of those in need in the wake of wars, natural disasters, and other crises. However, in the wake of recent disasters, the Red Cross has been criticized for underperforming. By combining the literature on bureaucracy in Austrian economics and the literature on monocentricity in the work of Vincent Ostrom and Elinor Ostrom, we provide an analysis of the Red Cross that helps explain the organization’s evolution over time and that also yields implications for disaster management more broadly. Specifically, the Red Cross is a bureaucracy that has become increasingly centralized and rigid as it has become further enmeshed with governmental responsibilities.

Details

The Austrian and Bloomington Schools of Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-843-7

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Peter Nderitu Githaiga

This paper aims to investigate whether revenue diversification affects the financial sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether revenue diversification affects the financial sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a worldwide panel data set of 443 MFIs in 108 countries for the period 2013–2018 and two-step system Generalized Method of Moments estimation model.

Findings

The study finds that revenue diversification has a significant and positive effect on the financial sustainability of MFIs.

Practical implications

The findings of this study actually offer important managerial and policy lessons on MFIs’ financial sustainability. Microfinance managers and policymakers should consider revenue diversification as a strategy through which MFIs can attain financial sustainability instead of overreliance on donations and government subsidies

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies that examined revenue diversification in the context of banking firms, this study contributes to literature by examining the impact of revenue diversification of the financial sustainability of MFIs.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Elena G. Popkova and Bruno S. Sergi

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the optimal path of development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries by performing a scenario…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the optimal path of development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries by performing a scenario analysis of the development of social entrepreneurship and analyzing the opinions of interested parties regarding the outcome of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian states. The authors’ recommendations for the practical implementation of the optimal path of social entrepreneurship development are described.

The scenario analysis of statistical data showed that the existing practice of standardization of social companies’ activities hinders their executing their functions on raising the quality of life. With the expansion of freedom of social entrepreneurship, the population’s quality of life grows; on the contrary, the increase of state regulation leads to its reduction. The findings show that social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries is interested in private investments and social companies’ employees. That is why the representatives of these categories of concerned parties support de-regulation. Consumers of social goods and services are interested in obtaining them freely and thus prefer standardization.

This chapter presents a new direction of social entrepreneurship analysis – by determining the correlation between economic freedom and quality of life. This opens an opportunity for thorough social entrepreneurship research based on authentic and objective quantitative (statistical) data. The obtained conclusions and offered recommendations allow using the mechanism of public–private entrepreneurship for turning social entrepreneurship into something more valuable and useful – a tool for increasing the quality of the population’s life.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Kristine Casno, Biruta Sloka and Daina Skiltere

Social enterprises are becoming more and more important for social inclusion and reduction of poverty. Many countries world-wide have accumulated valuable experience in…

Abstract

Social enterprises are becoming more and more important for social inclusion and reduction of poverty. Many countries world-wide have accumulated valuable experience in organization of social entrepreneurship and finding innovative approaches which are also analyzed by academic researchers and discussed on international level. Aim: To identify the specific value segments among consumers of Latvian social enterprise products and services in order to provide practical recommendations for implementation of consumer-focused marketing strategies and more effective communication patterns based on an in-depth understanding of the values within the target audience. Methods: The analysis of previous conducted research and scientific publications, analysis of social enterprise consumer survey results, for survey data analysis are applied analysis of descriptive statistics indicators of central tendency or location – arithmetic mean, mode, median, indicators of variability or dispersion – range, standard deviation, standard error of mean and cluster analysis. Results – The results of this study provided detailed descriptions of the respective segments from the demographic point of view, outlined their shopping behavior, preferences for information channels, which altogether form a comprehensive set of practical recommendations for Latvian social enterprises for more effective communication with consumers as well as for public authorities looking to increase the awareness about social entrepreneurship within Latvian society. Implications: The possible applications of research results for organization of work of social enterprises including application of digital marketing. Originality of This Chapter: Since the academic research has only relatively recently started paying attention to the specific marketing aspects of social entrepreneurship, this innovative study contributes to a persistently growing and valuable body of literature which will serve as a guideline for both social enterprises as well as public authorities seeking to find more effective communication strategies.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Elena G. Popkova and Bruno S. Sergi

The purpose of this article is to determine the future proportion and variants of usage of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI) in entrepreneurship of industry…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to determine the future proportion and variants of usage of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI) in entrepreneurship of industry 4.0 that fits social entrepreneurship the most. It could be convergence (simultaneous utilization during the same entrepreneurial processes with the emphasis on unique features by the terms of the competition) or divergence (usage during different business processes by the terms of labor division).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors determine the influence of usage of human capital and AI on the efficiency of social entrepreneurship. The authors identify the perspective directions of usage of AI in social entrepreneurship and evaluate the readiness and interest in the implementation of these directions of concerned parties. The authors also model the optimal proportions and the variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the conditions of Industry 4.0 in the future (until 2030).

Findings

It is found that social entrepreneurship will use the opportunities of Industry 4.0 for optimization of its activities until 2030, but will refuse from full automatization, using human intellect and AI at the same time.

Originality/value

The most perspective directions of application of AI at social companies are a collection of social goods and services, marketing studies and promotion of social goods and services. Neither convergence nor divergence of human and artificial intellectual capital does not fully conform to the interests of concerned parties. The most preferable (optimal) variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the Industry 4.0 is human intelligent decision support.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Aleksei V. Bogoviz

The purpose of the research is to determine the perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to determine the perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0 and to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for their implementation. For this, the directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are described, monitoring of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital by the example of modern Russia (2019) is performed and scientific and practical recommendations for state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are developed, with their approbation by the example of modern Russia (2019).

Design/methodology/approach

A method of expert evaluation is used for collection of the information and empirical data. The method of comparative analysis is used for comparing the successfulness of implementing the distinguished directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital (4.1) according to the official statistics to their current evaluation according to the interested parties. Also, future evaluation (forecasts) according to the interested parties (until 2045) is determined.

Findings

It is substantiated that during evaluation of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0, one cannot use only the official statistics, as these data are fragmentary and indirect. Fuller and more precise data are provided by assessment according to the interested parties. They allow determining the current and the future state of affairs and, based on it, compiling a forecast and developing a long-term strategy of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0.

Originality/value

The perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0 are as follows: stimulation of competition in the market of intellectual capital, social risk management of the market of intellectual capital, managing international competition in the market of intellectual capital and ecological risk management of the intellectual capital market. As the experience of modern Russia shows, even at the initial stage of transition to Industry 4.0, the measures of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are not enough, but their deficit is moderate. In the course of development of Industry 4.0, the necessity for the measures of regulation will grow, and their deficit will increase. That's why there's a need for strategic approach to their implementation, which envisages their systemic reconsideration and supplementing. An author's algorithm is offered for this.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Stefanie Haeffele and Alexander Wade Craig

This paper argues that commercial entrepreneurial activities have social implications and can provide needed social spaces during the disaster recovery process, and that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper argues that commercial entrepreneurial activities have social implications and can provide needed social spaces during the disaster recovery process, and that viewing commercial enterprises as socially valuable has implications for post-disaster public policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses themes and concepts developed through in-depth interviews conducted in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Houston, Texas, after Hurricane Katrina. Particular case studies of the personal experiences of communities that recovered after Hurricane Katrina are utilized to highlight how commercial entrepreneurship creates and maintains social spaces where community members can share resources and connect during the recovery process.

Findings

Entrepreneurs need not have a specific social mission in order to make social contributions, and commercial entrepreneurship should create and maintain social spaces that are important for community recovery after disasters.

Practical implications

The social spaces that commercial entrepreneurs facilitate should be considered when designing and implementing public policy in the post-disaster context. Policies can often hinder recovery, and policymakers should instead establish clear regulatory regimes and allow for greater space for entrepreneurs to act.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the role entrepreneurs play in advancing social goals and purposes after disasters, specifically how commercial entrepreneurs can create and maintain social spaces where community members gather to discuss their challenges and strategies for disaster recovery. It highlights the extra-economic role of commercial entrepreneurs and discusses the implications for public policy based on this broadened conception of entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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